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Selection: with tag wildfires [at least 200 articles] 


Assessing the influence of roads on fire ignition: does land cover matter?

Fire, Vol. 1, No. 2. (09 July 2018), 24,


In human-affected fire environments, assessing the influence of human activities on the spatial distribution of wildfire ignitions is of paramount importance for fire management planning. Previous studies have shown that roads have significant effects on fire ignition. However, since different land cover classes are subject to different levels of ignition risk, roads in different land cover classes may differently affect fire ignition. The aim of this paper is thus to assess the influence of roads on fire ignition in selected land ...


Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Warning and Advisory System (VFSP-WAS): concept note and expert recommendations

Vol. 235 (2018)


This concept note contains the expert recommendations resulting from discussions at the international workshop on Forecasting Emissions from Vegetation Fires and their Impacts on Human Health and Security in South-East Asia, which was hosted by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta, from 29 August to 1 September 2016. The workshop was organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction/International Wildfire Preparedness ...


Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: spatial distribution characterization

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 624 (May 2018), pp. 424-437,


[Highlights] [::] Average fire size is much higher for intentional than for negligent fires. [::] Incidence of negligent and intentional fires has different distribution patterns. [::] Higher drivers' influence for intentional fires, burnt area and in the south region. [::] Human's drivers and altitude are the most important for fire ignitions. [::] Negligent (intentional) fires burn more forest and agricultural (human) areas. [Abstract] In the European context, Portugal is the country with the highest number of wildfires and the second with more burnt area. The vast majority of ...


Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 15, No. 3. (2006), 319,


Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous remote sensing products for fire management. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of current and potential remote sensing methods used to assess fire ...


Switching on the Big Burn of 2017

Fire, Vol. 1, No. 1. (05 June 2018), 17,


Fuel, aridity, and ignition switches were all on in 2017, making it one of the largest and costliest wildfire years in the United States (U.S.) since national reporting began. Anthropogenic climate change helped flip on some of these switches rapidly in 2017, and kept them on for longer than usual. Anthropogenic changes to the fire environment will increase the likelihood of such record wildfire years in the coming decades. The 2017 wildfires in the U.S. constitute part of a shifting baseline ...


Wildfire–vegetation dynamics affect predictions of climate change impact on bird communities

Ecography, Vol. 41, No. 6. (July 2018), pp. 982-995,


Community‐level climate change indicators have been proposed to appraise the impact of global warming on community composition. However, non‐climate factors may also critically influence species distribution and biological community assembly. The aim of this paper was to study how fire–vegetation dynamics can modify our ability to predict the impact of climate change on bird communities, as described through a widely‐used climate change indicator: the community thermal index (CTI). Potential changes in bird species assemblage were predicted using the spatially‐explicit species assemblage ...


Human-Related Ignitions Increase the Number of Large Wildfires across U.S. Ecoregions

Fire, Vol. 1, No. 1. (27 January 2018), 4,


Large fires account for the majority of burned area and are an important focus of fire management. However, ‘large’ is typically defined by a fire size threshold, minimizing the importance of proportionally large fires in less fire-prone ecoregions. Here, we defined ‘large fires’ as the largest 10% of wildfires by ecoregion (n = 175,222 wildfires from 1992 to 2015) across the United States (U.S.). Across ecoregions, we compared fire size, seasonality, and environmental conditions (e.g., wind speed, fuel moisture, biomass, vegetation ...


Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 109, No. 1-2. (November 2011), pp. 44-60,


[Abstract] Fire can affect soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. Aggregate stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil aggregation to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has affected other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency ...


Analysis of large fires in European Mediterranean landscapes: lessons learned and perspectives

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 294 (April 2013), pp. 11-22,


[Abstract] Extreme fire events, also referred to as “megafires,” are not uncommon events on a global scale; they tend to happen a steady frequency in different parts of the world, although, at a local or regional scale, they constitute unique and severe fire episodes. Even if there is not a complete agreement on the term, megafires often refers to those fire events that cause catastrophic damages in terms of human casualties, economic losses, or both. In this article we analyze some of ...


Avaliação dos incêndios ocorridos entre 14 e 16 de outubro de 2017 em Portugal Continental - Relatório Final



[Excerpt] Os incêndios rurais que afetaram o território continental, nos dias 14, 15 e 16 de outubro de 2017, geraram um novo ambiente caracterizado simultaneamente de consternação, de impotência e de explicitação da fragilidade da nossa organização social. O ano de 2017 foi aliás pleno de episódios consumidores e destrutivos de áreas florestais, desde os incêndios de Pedrógão Grande até aos fogos que atingiram grandes áreas territoriais, afetando não só espaços florestais privados, como também áreas agrícolas, matas nacionais, infraestruturas empresariais, equipamentos municipais, instalações de turismo rural e ...


Defining the wildland-urban interface

Journal of Forestry, Vol. 105, No. 4. (2007), pp. 201-207,


Federal wildland fire policy in the United States has been substantially revised over the past 10 years and new emphasis has been given to the wildland–urban interface (WUI), which creates a need for information about the WUI's location and extent. We operationalized a policy definition published in the Federal Register (US Department of the Interior [.USDI.] and US Department of Agriculture [.USDA.]), 2001, Urban wildland interface communities within vicinity of federal lands that are at high risk from wildfire. Fed. Regist. ...


Mapping Canadian wildland fire interface areas

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 27, No. 1. (2018), 1,


Destruction of human-built structures occurs in the ‘wildland–urban interface’ (WUI) – where homes or other burnable community structures meet with or are interspersed within wildland fuels. To mitigate WUI fires, basic information such as the location of interface areas is required, but such information is not available in Canada. Therefore, in this study, we produced the first national map of WUI in Canada. We also extended the WUI concept to address potentially vulnerable industrial structures and infrastructure that are not traditionally ...


Modeling fire ignition patterns in Mediterranean urban interfaces

Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment (17 May 2018),


The rapid growth of built-up areas and infrastructure in the Mediterranean environment has resulted in the expansion of urban interfaces where fire can ignite and spread. Within this context, there is a need to understand spatial patterns of ignition distribution and the relative importance of influencing drivers. In response to this need we developed an analysis of fire ignition patterns using human and biophysical explanatory variables by firstly developing two different linear models to assess patterns of fire ignition points in ...


Scientists aim to smoke out wildfire impacts

Science, Vol. 360, No. 6392. (01 June 2018), pp. 948-949,


Scientists this summer are taking to the air in an ambitious effort to better understand the chemistry, behavior, and health impacts of wildfire smoke. The flights in an instrument-packed C-130 airplane belonging to the National Science Foundation will be followed in 2019 by flights on a NASA DC-8 research jet by scientists with NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The two planes will fly through plumes of wildfire smoke, with a focus on the western United States, where wildfires ...


Predicting conifer establishment post wildfire in mixed conifer forests of the North American Mediterranean-climate zone

Ecosphere, Vol. 7, No. 12. (December 2016), e01609,


Due to fire suppression policies, timber harvest, and other management practices over the last century, many low‐ to mid‐elevation forests in semiarid parts of the western United States have accumulated high fuel loads and dense, multi‐layered canopies that are dominated by shade‐tolerant and fire‐sensitive conifers. To a great extent, the future status of western US forests will depend on tree species’ responses to patterns and trends in fire activity and fire behavior and postfire management decisions. This is especially the case ...


Extreme wildfire events are linked to global-change-type droughts in the northern Mediterranean

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 3. (16 March 2018), pp. 847-856,


Increasing drought conditions under global warming are expected to alter the frequency and distribution of large and high-intensity wildfires. However, our understanding of the impact of increasing drought on extreme wildfires events remains incomplete. Here, we analyzed the weather conditions associated with the extreme wildfires events that occurred in Mediterranean France during the exceptionally dry summers of 2003 and 2016. We identified that these fires were related to two distinct shifts in the fire weather space towards fire weather conditions that ...


Portugal wildfire management in a new era assessing fire risks, resources and reforms

(February 2018)


[Executive summary] Portugal has one of the highest forest fire risk rankings in Europe. Fire researchers all point to the same combination of contributing factors: shifting demographics with population moving from rural to urban areas, changes in land use with more agricultural and forested areas left unattended and not being maintained, and fragmentation of land ownership patterns that discourage investment in forest management and fire planning. The trend of annual burned area for the last four decades confirms a new level in fire activity in Portugal, despite ...


  1. Almeida, J., Relvas, P., Silva, L., Catry, F., Rego, F., Santos, T. 2007. Portuguese lookout towers network optimization using automatic positioning algorithms. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference, 13-17 May, Seville, Spain. .
  2. Beighley, M., Hyde, A. C., 2009. Systemic risk and Portugal's forest fire defense strategy - An assessment of wildfire management and response capability.
  3. Beighley, M., Quesinberry, M., 2004. USA-Portugal wildland fire technical

Assessment and validation of wildfire susceptibility and hazard in Portugal

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 10, No. 3. (16 March 2010), pp. 485-497,


A comprehensive methodology to assess forest fire susceptibility, that uses variables of strong spatial correlation, is presented and applied for the Portuguese mainland. Our study is based on a thirty-year chronological series of burnt areas. The first twenty years (1975–1994) are used for statistical modelling, and the last ten (1995–2004) are used for the independent validation of results. The wildfire affected areas are crossed with a set of independent layers that are assumed to be relevant wildfire conditioning factors: elevation, slope, ...


Long-term changes of the wildland–urban interface in the Polish Carpathians

ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Vol. 7, No. 4. (01 April 2018), 137,


The Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, which causes many environmental problems. The current WUI is widespread in many regions, but it is unclear how the WUI evolved, especially in regions where both houses and forest cover have increased. Here we compared WUI change in the Polish Carpathians for 1860 and 2013 in two study areas with different land use history. Our western study area experienced gradual forest increase and housing growth over ...


Climate-vegetation-fire interactions and feedbacks: trivial detail or major barrier to projecting the future of the Earth system?

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (1 November 2016), pp. 910-931,


Fire is a complex process involving interactions and feedbacks between biological, socioeconomic, and physical drivers across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This complexity limits our ability to incorporate fire into Earth system models and project future fire activity under climate change. Conceptual, empirical, and process models have identified the mechanisms and processes driving fire regimes, and provide a useful basis to consider future fire activity. However, these models generally deal with only one component of fire regimes, fire frequency, and do ...


Predicting climate change effects on wildfires requires linking processes across scales

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 99-112,


Accurate process‐based prediction of climate change effects on wildfires requires coupling processes across orders of magnitude of time and space scales, because climate dynamic processes operate at relatively large scales (e.g., hemispherical and centennial), but fire behavior processes operate at relatively small scales (e.g., molecules and microseconds). In this review, we outline some of the current understanding of the processes by which climate/meteorology controls wildfire behavior by focusing on four critical stages of wildfire development: (1) fuel drying, (2) ignition, (3) ...


A data-driven approach to assess large fire size generation in Greece

Natural Hazards, Vol. 88, No. 3. (2017), pp. 1591-1607,


Identifying factors and drivers which control large fire size generation is critical for planning fire management activities. This study attempts to determine the role of fire suppression tactics and behavior, weather, topography and landscape features on two different datasets of large fire size (500–1000 ha) and very large fire size (>1000 ha) compared to two datasets of small fire size (<50 ha) which occurred in Greece, during the period 1984–2009. In this context, we used a logistic regression (LR) analysis and ...


How wildfire risk is related to urban planning and Fire Weather Index in SE France (1990–2013)

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 621 (April 2018), pp. 120-129,


[Highlights] [::] Land use planning in SE France led to increased housing density in 1990-2012 and maintained WUI wildfire risk constant. [::] The number of buildings increased by 30% but WUI area increased by less than 5% as housing density increased. [::] Fire frequency and burned area increase substantially as Fire Weather Index surpasses a threshold value of 90. [Abstract] Wildfires burn > 450,000 ha of forest every year in Euro-Mediterranean countries. Many fires originate in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) where housing density and weather ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 43

(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   viburnum-spp   vicia-faba   vietnam   vinca-spp   vineyards   violin   viral-disease   virgin-forest   virola-koschnyi   virus   viscum-album   visual-assessment   visual-interpretation   visual-notation   visualization   vitality   vitex-keniensis   vitis-spp   vochysia-divergens   vochysia-ferruginea   vochysia-guatemalensis   volatiles   volcanic-eruptions   volunteered-geographic-information   vulnerability   vulpes-vulpes   walnut   walnut-leaf   warming   washingtonia-filifera   washingtonia-robusta   water   water-balance   water-erosion   water-impoundment   water-pollution   water-potential   water-quality   water-reservoir-management   water-reservoir-network   water-resources   water-resources-management   water-scarcity   water-security   water-storage   water-stress   water-use-efficiency   waterlogging   waves-energy   weather-modification   web-and-information-technologies   web-coverage-services   web-map-services   web-processing-services   web-services   weibull-distribution   weighting   wepp   west-africa   west-antartica   western-alps   western-asia   western-europe   western-mediterranean   westringia-fruticosa   wetland-investigations   wetlands   wheat   wicked-problem   wide-scale   wide-scale-transdisciplinary-modelling-for-environment   wide-vs-large-scale   widespread-plant-species   wiesa   wiki-communication   wild-service-tree   wilderness   wildfires   wildland-urban-interface   wilt   wind   wind-damage   wind-energy   wind-machines   wind-model   windows   windstorm   windthrow   wine-barrel   winter-robustness   wisteria-sinensis   wollemia-nobilis   women   wood-instrument   wood-market   wood-pellet   wood-production   wood-properties   wood-shreds  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


A sensible climate solution for the boreal forest

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2 January 2018), pp. 11-12,


Climate change could increase fire risk across most of the managed boreal forest. Decreasing this risk by increasing the proportion of broad-leaved tree species is an overlooked mitigation–adaption strategy with multiple benefits. ...


Caliver: an R package for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2 January 2018), e0189419,


The name caliver stands for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs. This is a package developed for the R programming language and available under an APACHE-2 license from a public repository. In this paper we describe the functionalities of the package and give examples using publicly available datasets. Fire danger model outputs are taken from the modeling components of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) and observed burned areas from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). Complete ...


Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (19 January 2018), e0191027,


Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a ...


Rethinking wildfires and forest watersheds

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.2-1002,


[Excerpt] [...] The secondary threats of wildfires to water supply are particularly concerning, as almost two-thirds of municipalities in North America receive their drinking water from forested areas [...]. Key threats include increased potential for erosion, landslides, debris flows, floods, and introduction of contaminants to streams, with potentially catastrophic implications for community infrastructure, drinking water treatment, public health, and aquatic ecosystem health [...]. [\n] Given the rising threats and costs associated with the current wildfire trend, we must change the way we manage ...


Agricultural policy can reduce wildfires

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.1-1001,


[Excerpt] [...] Agriculture is an important driver of European wildfires. It is a major source of fire ignitions [...]. Additionally, farmland abandonment and policies promoting forestry increase fire hazard, as they lead to vegetation growth and fuel build-up in the landscape [...]. However, agriculture is also part of the solution. Agricultural areas, such as crops, orchards, and grasslands, are much less fire-prone, particularly if they include irrigated crops [...]. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a powerful financial instrument ...


Secondo rapporto sullo stato del capitale naturale in Italia



[:Executive summary (in Italian)] Il 2017 ha segnato un importante punto di svolta dell’articolato e lungo percorso di sostenibilità del nostro Paese. Nel quadro di riferimento dettato dall’Agenda 2030 dell’ONU sullo Sviluppo Sostenibile e dalla Strategia nazionale di Sviluppo Sostenibile (SNSvS), l’elaborazione del Primo Rapporto sullo Stato del Capitale Naturale in Italia ha consentito di mettere in luce, per la prima volta, al complesso sistema istituzionale il fondamentale ruolo ricoperto dal Capitale Naturale italiano rispetto al sistema socio-economico collettivo del Paese. [\n] “Dov’è ...


  1. Alberini, A., Rosato, P., Longo, A., Zanatta, V., 2004. Information and Willingness to Pay in a Contingent Valuation Study: the Value of S. Erasmo in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 19/2004.
  2. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., 2005. Combining Actual and Contingent Behaviour to Estimate the Value of Sports Fishing in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 44/2005.
  3. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., Rosato, P., 2007. Combining

Towards an understanding of the evolutionary role of fire in animals

Evolutionary Ecology (2018), pp. 1-13,


Wildfires underpin the dynamics and diversity of many ecosystems worldwide, and plants show a plethora of adaptive traits for persisting recurrent fires. Many fire-prone ecosystems also harbor a rich fauna; however, knowledge about adaptive traits to fire in animals remains poorly explored. We review existing literature and suggest that fire is an important evolutionary driver for animal diversity because (1) many animals are present in fire-prone landscapes and may have structural and phenotypic characters that contribute to adaptation to these open ...


Droughts, floods, and wildfire

In Climate science special report: fourth national climate assessment, volume I (2017), pp. 231-253,


[Excerpt:Key findings] [::1] Recent droughts and associated heat waves have reached record intensity in some regions of the United States; however, by geographical scale and duration, the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s remains the benchmark drought and extreme heat event in the historical record (very high confidence). While by some measures drought has decreased over much of the continental United States in association with long-term increases in precipitation, neither the precipitation increases nor inferred drought decreases have been confidently attributed to ...


Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 18. (02 May 2017), pp. 4582-4590,


Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland–urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance ...


The interaction of fire, fuels, and climate across Rocky Mountain forests

BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 7. (2004), pp. 661-676,[0661:tioffa];2


Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across ...



In Present and future probability of meteorological and hydrological hazards in Europe (2016), pp. 112-118


[Excerpt: Introduction] Uncontrolled forest fires impact both natural and built-up environments as well as humans. The occurrence of a forest fire requires the same basic elements as any fire: heat, oxygen and fuel. Preceding and prevailing weather conditions are crucial for setting conditions susceptible to fire in a forest. Drought, high temperatures and pronounced evaporation dry off organic material in forests, i.e. the fuel. Strong wind during/after ignition substantially intensifies spreading of the fire and raises the likelihood of the surface ...


Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  


Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...


  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,

Unravelling the response of diurnal raptors to land use change in a highly dynamic landscape in northwestern Spain: an approach based on satellite earth observation data

European Journal of Wildlife Research, Vol. 63, No. 2. (2017), pp. 1-15,


Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is one of the main components of current anthropogenic global change. Unravelling the ecological response of biodiversity to the combined effect of land use change and other stressors is essential for effective conservation. For this purpose, we used co-inertia analysis to combine LULCC analysis of earth observation satellite data-derived maps and raptor data obtained from road censuses conducted in 2001 and 2014 at sampling unit level (10 km2 spatial resolution), in northwestern Spain (province ...


Intentional fire-spreading by “firehawk” raptors in Northern Australia

Journal of Ethnobiology, Vol. 37, No. 4. (1 December 2017), pp. 700-718,


We document Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and non-Indigenous observations of intentional fire-spreading by the fire-foraging raptors Black Kite (Milvus migrans), Whistling Kite (Haliastur sphenurus), and Brown Falcon (Falco berigora) in tropical Australian savannas. Observers report both solo and cooperative attempts, often successful, to spread wildfires intentionally via single-occasion or repeated transport of burning sticks in talons or beaks. This behavior, often represented in sacred ceremonies, is widely known to local people in the Northern Territory, where we carried out ethno-ornithological research from ...


Seventh national communication and third biennial report from the European Union under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Required under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

(December 2017)


[Executive summary] [::Introduction] The European Union (EU) and its Member States, both jointly and individually, have engaged in domestic and international action on climate change for a number of years and this has resulted in significant emission reductions. The staff working documents accompanying this report constitute the EU’s seventh national communication as required under Article 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, and its third biennial report as required under Decision 2/CP.17 of the ...


Empirical models of annual post-fire erosion on mulched and unmulched hillslopes

CATENA, Vol. 163 (April 2018), pp. 276-287,


[Highlights] [::] Measured hillslope erosion with and without mulch following the 2012 High Park Fire. [::] Mulched slopes had fourfold lower erosion rates during the first year after fire. [::] Bare soil was the strongest control on erosion rates. [::] Empirical models predict erosion using bare soil, precipitation, and flow length. [::] Empirical model performance ranged from poor to good for different fires. [Abstract] Erosion is one of the primary land management concerns following wildfire. This study examines controls on post-fire hillslope-scale erosion for the 2012 High Park ...


Anthropogenic forcings and associated changes in fire risk in Western North America and Australia during 2015-2016

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society In Explaining Extreme Events of 2016 from a Climate Perspective, Vol. 99, No. 1. (January 2018), pp. S60-S64,


Extreme vapor pressure deficits (VPD) have been associated with enhanced wildfire risk. Using one model, we found for 2015/16 that human influences quintupled the risk of extreme VPD for western North America and increased the risk for extratropical Australia. [Excerpt: Introduction] In 2016, about 3.6 million hectares of land burned in the United States and Canada (NIFC 2017; NFD 2017). In Canada, a wildfire southwest of Fort McMurray, Alberta, caused the largest wildfire evacuation in Alberta’s history and destroyed 2400 homes ...


Evidence for declining forest resilience to wildfires under climate change

Ecology Letters (12 December 2017),


Forest resilience to climate change is a global concern given the potential effects of increased disturbance activity, warming temperatures and increased moisture stress on plants. We used a multi-regional dataset of 1485 sites across 52 wildfires from the US Rocky Mountains to ask if and how changing climate over the last several decades impacted post-fire tree regeneration, a key indicator of forest resilience. Results highlight significant decreases in tree regeneration in the 21st century. Annual moisture deficits were significantly greater from ...


Tamm Review - Shifting global fire regimes: lessons from reburns and research needs

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 396 (July 2017), pp. 217-233,


[Highlights] [::] We reviewed published studies on reburns in fire-adapted ecosystems of the world. [::] Fire regimes often have shifted from frequent to infrequent fire return intervals. [::] Legacies of past burns constrain the spread and severity of future fires. [::] Periodic fire generally favors fire-adapted vegetation and limits closed forests. [::] Better understanding of reburns informs climate change adaptation methods. [Abstract] Across the globe, rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns have caused persistent regional droughts, lengthened fire seasons, and increased the number of weather-driven extreme fire events. ...


Repeated wildfires alter forest recovery of mixed-conifer ecosystems

Ecological Applications, Vol. 26, No. 6. (September 2016), pp. 1842-1853,


Most models project warmer and drier climates that will contribute to larger and more frequent wildfires. However, it remains unknown how repeated wildfires alter post-fire successional patterns and forest structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that the number of wildfires, as well as the order and severity of wildfire events interact to alter forest structure and vegetation recovery and implications for vegetation management. In 2014, we examined forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration in stands that burned 1–18 yr before a ...


US natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation

Environmental Management, Vol. 44, No. 6. (2009), pp. 1001-1021,


Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; ...


A wildfire risk management concept based on a social-ecological approach in the European Union: Fire Smart Territory

International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 18 (September 2016), pp. 138-153,


The current wildfire policies in European Union countries have not solved the wildfire problem and probably will not be effective in the future, as all the initiatives focus on suppression and minimize the use of fire embedded in the Traditional Ecologic Knowledge of European communities. The traditional fire use as a tool for land management has been handled and almost criminalized by an urban-centric perspective and anti-fire bias. These policies are poorly adapted to, and cannot cope with, the complex nature ...


The role of community policies in defensible space compliance

Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 11, No. 8. (02 December 2009), pp. 570-578,


Recently enacted federal and state policies provide incentives, including financial assistance, for local jurisdictions to manage risks associated with wildland fire. This has led to an array of local-level policies designed to encourage homeowners to create fire-safe landscapes. This qualitative study collected data from focus group interviews with homeowners in three diverse communities and used the theory of reasoned action to interpret dimensions of local-level wildland fire policies that are associated with homeowner acceptance of or compliance with defensible space guidelines ...


Risk externalities and the problem of wildfire risk

Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 64, No. 2. (September 2008), pp. 488-495,


Homeowners living in the wildland–urban interface must decide whether or not to create a defensible space around their house in order to mitigate the risk of a wildfire destroying their home. Risk externalities complicate this decision; the risk that one homeowner faces depends on the risk mitigation decisions of neighboring homeowners. This paper models the problem as a game played between neighbors in a wildland–urban interface. The model explains why sub-optimal investment in defensible space is likely and provides insights into ...


Thinking of wildfire as a natural hazard

Society & Natural Resources, Vol. 17, No. 6. (1 July 2004), pp. 509-516,


Natural hazards theory with its emphasis on understanding the human–hazard interaction has much to offer in better understanding how individuals respond to the wildfire hazard. Ironically, very few natural hazards studies have actually looked at wildfires, despite the insights the field might offer. This report is structured around four interrelated questions that are often heard from individuals involved with wildfire management. Examining these four items through the natural hazards lens can demonstrate just a few of the ways the field can ...


2017 hurricanes and aerosols simulation

In Scientific Visualization Studio (November 2017), 12772


[Excerpt] Tracking aerosols over land and water from August 1 to November 1, 2017. Hurricanes and tropical storms are obvious from the large amounts of sea salt particles caught up in their swirling winds. The dust blowing off the Sahara, however, gets caught by water droplets and is rained out of the storm system. Smoke from the massive fires in the Pacific Northwest region of North America are blown across the Atlantic to the UK and Europe. This visualization is a ...

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