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Selection: with tag water-resources [at least 200 articles] 


Rethinking wildfires and forest watersheds

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.2-1002,


[Excerpt] [...] The secondary threats of wildfires to water supply are particularly concerning, as almost two-thirds of municipalities in North America receive their drinking water from forested areas [...]. Key threats include increased potential for erosion, landslides, debris flows, floods, and introduction of contaminants to streams, with potentially catastrophic implications for community infrastructure, drinking water treatment, public health, and aquatic ecosystem health [...]. [\n] Given the rising threats and costs associated with the current wildfire trend, we must change the way we manage ...


Humidity determines snowpack ablation under a warming climate

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 6. (06 January 2018), pp. 1215-1220,


[Significance] Changes in the amount and timing of snowmelt have large effects on water for society and ecosystems. Using long-term records from across the western United States, we demonstrate that atmospheric humidity is a major control on how seasonal snow responds to warming temperatures. Specifically, we observe an increase in the frequency and magnitude of episodic winter melt events under higher humidity that may alter the timing of water availability. In lower-humidity regions, however, warming is associated with increased sublimation and/or evaporation ...


Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (22 January 2018), 201704665,


[Significance] We increasingly rely on global models to project impacts of humans and climate on water resources. How reliable are these models? While past model intercomparison projects focused on water fluxes, we provide here the first comprehensive comparison of land total water storage trends from seven global models to trends from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which have been likened to giant weighing scales in the sky. The models underestimate the large decadal (2002–2014) trends in water storage relative to ...


Seventh national communication and third biennial report from the European Union under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Required under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

(December 2017)


[Executive summary] [::Introduction] The European Union (EU) and its Member States, both jointly and individually, have engaged in domestic and international action on climate change for a number of years and this has resulted in significant emission reductions. The staff working documents accompanying this report constitute the EU’s seventh national communication as required under Article 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, and its third biennial report as required under Decision 2/CP.17 of the ...


Regulation of lake primary productivity by food web structure

Ecology, Vol. 68, No. 6. (December 1987), pp. 1863-1876,


We performed whole—lake manipulations of fish populations to test the hypothesis that higher trophic levels regulate zooplankton and phytoplankton community structure, biomass, and primary productivity. The study involved three lakes and spanned 2 yr. Results demonstrated hierarchical control of primary production by abiotic factors and a trophic cascade involving fish predation. In Paul Lake, the reference lake, productivity varied from year to year, illustrating the effects of climatic factors and the natural dynamics of unmanipulated food web interactions. In Tuesday Lake, ...


US natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation

Environmental Management, Vol. 44, No. 6. (2009), pp. 1001-1021,


Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; ...


Effects of slope angle and aspect on plant cover and species richness in a humid Mediterranean badland

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, No. 13. (October 2014), pp. 1705-1716,


Soil erosion is one of the most severe land degradation processes in the Mediterranean region. Although badlands occupy a relatively small fraction of the Mediterranean area, their erosion rates are very high. Many studies have investigated to what extent vegetation controls soil erosion rates. This study, however, deals with the impact of erosion on vegetation establishment. In semi-arid badlands of the Mediterranean, soil water availability constitutes the main limiting factor for vegetation development. As a consequence, south-facing slopes are typically less ...


Sand in demand: trapped behind dams

Science, Vol. 358, No. 6360. (12 October 2017), pp. 180-180,


[Excerpt] [...] Estimates of total sediment entrapment behind large dams over the past half-century may be on the order of 100 billion metric tons, or 30% of the total potential global flux [...] United Nations estimates project that 66% of the world's population will be urban by 2050, an increase of 2.5 billion people [...]. If this urbanization is the primary driver of accelerated sand appropriation, demand will markedly increase. It is possible that reservoirs and impoundments will therefore be both ...


Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10572-10577,


[Significance] Knowledge of plant rooting depth is critical to understanding plant-mediated global change. Earth system models are highly sensitive to this particular parameter with large consequences for modeled plant productivity, water–energy–carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and silicate weathering regulating multimillion-year-timescale carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Accidental discoveries of >70-m-deep roots in wells and >20-m-deep roots in caves offer glimpses of the enormous plasticity of root response to its environment, but the ...


Influence of landscape structure on patterns of forest fires in boreal forest landscapes in Sweden

Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1 February 2004), pp. 332-338,


To analyze the effect of landscape structure (viz. amount of wetlands) on the past forest fire regime in boreal Sweden, we reconstructed detailed fire histories by cross-dating fire scars in living and dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in two different landscape types: mire-free landscapes with a low proportion (1%?2%) of mires and mire-rich landscapes with a high proportion (21%?33%) of mires. Two localities were selected and at each one, adjacent mire-free and mire-rich areas of 256?601 ha were sampled. Over ...


US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 16. (21 April 2015), pp. 5081-5086,


[Significance] The United States has one of the oldest and most sophisticated systems of protected areas in the world. Given the large amount of information on the country’s biodiversity, and the potential resources available, one might expect it to do well in protecting biodiversity. We find that it does not. The United States protected areas do not adequately cover the country’s unique species. To improve the coverage, we map priorities for multiple taxa and recommend specific areas for immediate conservation attention. These ...


A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index

Journal of Climate In Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, No. 7. (19 November 2009), pp. 1696-1718,


The authors propose a new climatic drought index: the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The SPEI is based on precipitation and temperature data, and it has the advantage of combining multiscalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. The procedure to calculate the index is detailed and involves a climatic water balance, the accumulation of deficit/surplus at different time scales, and adjustment to a log-logistic probability distribution. Mathematically, the SPEI is similar to the ...


How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. E5187-E5196,


[Significance] A dataset from one of the last protected tropical peat swamps in Southeast Asia reveals how fluctuations in rainfall on yearly and shorter timescales affect the growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands over thousands of years. The pattern of rainfall and the permeability of the peat together determine a particular curvature of the peat surface that defines the amount of naturally sequestered carbon stored in the peatland over time. This principle can be used to calculate the long-term carbon dioxide emissions ...


Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: a review

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 599-600 (December 2017), pp. 1740-1755,


[Highlights] [::] Forest catchment supply high quality water to a number of communities around the world. [::] Forest fire release sequestered metals from soil organic matter and vegetation. [::] Post-fire erosion rapidly transports these metals to downstream soil and water bodies. [::] Their deposition in the water bodies affects the water quality and aquatic biota. [::] This metal contamination may reach to human being as a consumer. [Abstract] One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of ...


At the nexus of fire, water and society

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172,


The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...


A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22,


Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...


Lexicographic optimisation for water resources planning: the case of Lake Verbano, Italy

In Proceedings of the iEMSs First Biennial Meeting: Integrated Assessment and Decision Support (2002), pp. 235-240


Lake Verbano is a natural lake used as multipurpose reservoir. The lake supplies water for irrigation and hydropower generation to downstream users, while flood controls are applied to protect the lake shores and the downstream populations on the Ticino river, and environmental preservation constraints must be respected. All these objectives are conflicting and they have different priorities, as stated by the Italian regulation on water use. This paper explores a methodology aimed at solving this conflict. The stakeholders involvement in the ...


Is robustness really robust? How different definitions of robustness impact decision-making under climate change

Climatic Change, Vol. 135, No. 3-4. (2016), pp. 409-424,


Robust decision-making is being increasingly used to support environmental resources decisions and policy analysis under changing climate and society. In this context, a robust decision is a decision that is as much as possible insensitive to a large degree of uncertainty and ensures certain performance across multiple plausible futures. Yet, the concept of robustness is neither unique nor static. Multiple robustness metrics, such as maximin, optimism-pessimism, max regret, have been proposed in the literature, reflecting diverse optimistic/pessimistic attitudes by the decision ...


Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606,


[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...


A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54,


[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...


Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...


  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,

Executive summary

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...


  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...


The global methane budget 2000–2012

Earth System Science Data, Vol. 8, No. 2. (12 December 2016), pp. 697-751,


The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety ...


Passing the point of no return

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1109-1109,


[Excerpt] In the field of ecology, regime shifts are massive changes in function and character that occur when an ecosystem passes a tipping point. Regime shifts sometimes have severe consequences for human well-being through losses of ecosystem services, including desertification in arid regions and marine fisheries collapses. These changes are difficult to predict and sometimes impossible to reverse. For these reasons, understanding how to anticipate and prevent regime shifts is one of the most important challenges faced by environmental scientists. [\n] Theoretical analyses ...


Dam-building threatens Mekong fisheries

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1084-1085,


[Excerpt] Every April, the pa nyawn catfish would make their way up the Mekong River to spawn, crowding through a narrow channel that skirts Khone Falls in southern Laos. Villagers netted the thumb-sized fish by the hundreds of thousands. Then, in 2014, work started on Don Sahong Dam, which straddles the channel. Although the dam won't be completed for another 2 years, construction has already cut off the migration and destroyed the fishing sites, says Zeb Hogan, a biologist with the ...


Hydrological impact of forest fires and climate change in a Mediterranean basin

Natural Hazards, Vol. 66, No. 2. (2013), pp. 609-628,


Forest fire can modify and accelerate the hydrological response of Mediterranean basins submitted to intense rainfall: during the years following a fire, the effects on the hydrological response may be similar to those produced by the growth of impervious areas. Moreover, climate change and global warming in Mediterranean areas can imply consequences on both flash flood and fire hazards, by amplifying these phenomena. Based on historical events and post-fire experience, a methodology to interpret the impacts of forest fire in terms ...


Health impacts of wildfires



[Introduction] Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of ...


Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, No. 9. (23 May 2016), pp. 885-890,


Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios ...


Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337,


Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...


Regional climate hindcast simulations within EURO-CORDEX: evaluation of a WRF multi-physics ensemble

Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, No. 3. (16 March 2015), pp. 603-618,


In the current work we present six hindcast WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model) simulations for the EURO-CORDEX (European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) domain with different configurations in microphysics, convection and radiation for the time period 1990–2008. All regional model simulations are forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and have the same spatial resolution (0.44°). These simulations are evaluated for surface temperature, precipitation, short- and longwave downward radiation at the surface and total cloud cover. The analysis of the WRF ensemble ...


The economic possibilities of conservation

The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3. (01 May 1913), pp. 497-519,


[Excerpt] It is desirable to confine the idea of conservation to its original application to natural resources. Even in this sense the concept as developed in the conservation movement comprises several distinct purposes, which are not clearly separated in the popular mind. In the first place, it expresses a demand for a fair distribution of the natural resources not yet alienated. [\n] [...] The real heart of the conservation problem presents an issue which taxes the resources of economic theory to the utmost. ...


Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 41. (11 October 2016), pp. 11471-11476,


[Significance] Freshwater appropriation can have vast impacts, depending on management and scale of water use. Since 2000, foreign investors have contracted an area the size of the United Kingdom in Africa, leading to increased pressure on water resources. Here we couple site-specific water demand for the crops planted there to the efficiency of different irrigation systems, while relating these estimates to local water availability. This approach enables us to identify “hotspot” areas of freshwater use where crops demand more water from irrigation ...


Landscape genomics and a common garden trial reveal adaptive differentiation to temperature across Europe in the tree species Alnus glutinosa

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 19. (1 October 2014), pp. 4709-4721,


The adaptive potential of tree species to cope with climate change has important ecological and economic implications. Many temperate tree species experience a wide range of environmental conditions, suggesting high adaptability to new environmental conditions. We investigated adaptation to regional climate in the drought-sensitive tree species Alnus glutinosa (Black alder), using a complementary approach that integrates genomic, phenotypic and landscape data. A total of 24 European populations were studied in a common garden and through landscape genomic approaches. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used ...


A multi-criteria optimisation of scenarios for the protection of water resources in Europe: support to the EU blueprint to safeguard Europe's waters



A modelling environment has been developed to assess optimum combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. This modelling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the LUMP land use model, the LISFLOOD water quantity model, the EPIC water quality model, the LISQUAL combined water quantity, quality and hydro-economic model, and a multi-criteria optimisation routine. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient ...


Analysis of the energetic flows through the SEBAL application to the assessment of the actual evapotranspiration in a Napa Valley vineyard California (USA)

In Clima e agricoltura: strategie di adattamento e mitigazione, Vol. 12 (June 2009), 56


The use of water resources is constantly growing in agriculture industry and the reduction of the this resource is due by both anthropogenic and climate factors. Under this perspective it is necessary to develop monitoring systems able to forecast the consumption of water. The knowledge of the actual water demand of a crop is therefore strategic for the rational use of resources and to improve the quality of the crop production. Recent applications of remote sensing in agriculture provide a valuable contribution to release this purpose, besides the integration of remotely sensed ...


Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 122 (July 2013), pp. 10-37,


[Highlights] [::] Develop an organizational framework for post-wildfire response in different regions. [::] Soil properties are a critical link between infiltration, runoff, and erosion. [::] Need mathematical relations between burn severity metrics and soil properties. [::] Determine physical-based precipitation metrics that best predict runoff and erosion. [::] Incorporate basin morphology in runoff models for steep, rough channels. [Abstract] Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, ...


The charcoal vision: a win–win–win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality

Agronomy Journal, Vol. 100, No. 1. (2008), 178,


Processing biomass through a distributed network of fast pyrolyzers may be a sustainable platform for producing energy from biomass. Fast pyrolyzers thermally transform biomass into bio-oil, syngas, and charcoal. The syngas could provide the energy needs of the pyrolyzer. Bio-oil is an energy raw material (∼17 MJ kg−1) that can be burned to generate heat or shipped to a refinery for processing into transportation fuels. Charcoal could also be used to generate energy; however, application of the charcoal co-product to soils ...


Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici



[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...


  1. ARPA Lombardia. Servizio Idrografico. .
  2. ASR Lombardia (2014). Valori medi dei terreni agricoli in Provincia di Cremona - Regione agraria. .
  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). .
  5. Autorità di bacino del

Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension

Nature, Vol. 446, No. 7137. (25 March 2007), pp. 791-793,


Intact ecosystems contain large numbers of competing but coexisting species. Although numerous alternative theories have provided potential explanations for this high biodiversity, there have been few field experiments testing between these theories. In particular, theory predicts that higher diversity of coexisting competitors could result from greater niche dimensionality1, for example larger numbers of limiting resources or factors. Alternatively, diversity could be independent of niche dimensionality because large numbers of species can coexist when limited by just one or two factors if ...


Effects of flooding on the recruitment, damage and mortality of riparian tree species: a field and simulation study on the Rhine floodplain

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 11. (15 June 2008), pp. 3893-3903,


The extensive flooding by the river Rhine on May 12 1999 provided an opportunity to investigate the impact of such an extreme event in terms of damage and mortality of adult trees in floodplains. Such data is highly valuable for determining the potential impact of climate change on the zonation of tree species along rivers. We analysed an extensive dataset of the damage and mortality suffered by groups of adult trees of the following species as a consequence of this flood: ...


Effects of flooding duration, -frequency and -depth on the presence of saplings of six woody species in north-west Europe

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 236, No. 1. (November 2006), pp. 47-55,


Under natural conditions the zonation of woody species in floodplains is to a large extent determined by hydrological conditions. Flood survival varies even among closely related species of the same genus. Most studies that quantify flood survival of seedlings and saplings of European floodplain species focus on species of the genera Salix and Populus, while few studies on saplings of Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Crataegus monogyna have been carried out, and even less on comparing these species groups. We performed a ...


Assessing and managing the current and future pest risk from water hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an invasive aquatic plant threatening the environment and water security

PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 8. (11 August 2016), e0120054,


Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. ...


Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA

Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 28, No. 11-12. (June 2009), pp. 1131-1146,


The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented post-fire geomorphic response. Here, we describe field observations and topographic analyses for three sites in the central Oregon Coast Range that ...


Wildfire-related debris flow from a hazards perspective

In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 363-385,


[Excerpt: Introduction] Wildland fire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Consumption of the rainfall-intercepting canopy and of the soil-mantling litter and duff, intensive drying of the soil, combustion of soil-binding organic matter, and the enhancement or formation of water-repellent soils can change the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, leading to decreased rainfall infiltration, subsequent significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil (e.g., Swanson, 1981; Spittler, 1995; Doerr et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; ...


Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world’s large cities

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 9117-9122,


[Significance] Urban water-treatment costs depend on the water quality at the city’s source, which in turn depends on the land use in the source watersheds. Here, we show that globally urban source watershed degradation is widespread, with 9 in 10 cities losing significant amounts of natural land cover in their source watersheds to agriculture and development. This watershed degradation has impacted the cost of water treatment for about one in three large cities globally, increasing those costs by about half. This increase ...


From dwindling ice to headwater lakes: could dams replace glaciers in the European Alps?

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 5. (01 May 2016), 054022,


The potential exploitation of areas becoming ice-free in response to ongoing climate change has rarely been addressed, although it could be of interest from the water management perspective. Here we present an estimate for the potential of mitigating projected changes in seasonal water availability from melting glaciers by managing runoff through reservoirs. For the European Alps we estimate that by the end of the century, such a strategy could offset up to 65% of the expected summer-runoff changes from presently glacierized ...


Regional estimation of woodland moisture content by inverting Radiative Transfer Models

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 132 (May 2013), pp. 59-70,


[Abstract] We inverted the PROSPECT and GEOSAIL Radiative Transfer Models (RTM) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) in woodlands located in the peninsular territory of Spain. Ecological rules were used to parameterize the RTM. This approach reduces the probability of an ill-posed problem in the inversion of the selected RTMs, by rejecting unrealistic combinations of input parameters. Three species representatives of each region were used to derive the ecological rules: Quercus ilex L., Quercus ...


The SmartH2O project and the role of social computing in promoting efficient residential water use: a first analysis

In Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA (2014)


SmartH2O is an EU funded project which aims at creating a virtuous feedback cycle between water users and the utilities, providing users information on their consumption in quasi real time, and thus enabling water utilities to plan and implement strategies to reduce/reallocate water consumption. Traditional metering data, usually gathered twice a year, can be used to model consumers’ behaviour at an aggregate level, but the motivations and individual attitudes of consumers are hidden. The advent of smart water meters allows gathering high frequency consumption data that ...


Testing estimation of water surface in Italian rice district from MODIS satellite data

International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 52 (October 2016), pp. 284-295,


[Highlights] [::] Landsat 8 is a valid data set to recognise flooded rice parcels. [::] MODIS data can be used to estimate flooding fraction (FF) at 1 × 1 km resolution. [::] MODIS NDVI can be used to mask unreliable FF predictions. [::] Spatio-temporal dynamics of water management within Italian rice district are clearly depictable from FF maps. [Abstract] Recent changes in rice crop management within Northern Italy rice district led to a reduction of seeding in flooding condition, which may have an impact on reservoir water ...

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