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Selection: with tag vegetation [at least 200 articles] 


Many roads to convergence

Science, Vol. 361, No. 6398. (13 July 2018), pp. 125-126,


Many plants form specialized symbiotic root structures, called nodules, that harbor beneficial associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the genera Rhizobium or Frankia (see the photo). How this nitrogen-fixing root nodule (NFN) symbiosis arose repeatedly during plant evolution is an age-old mystery: It shows signatures of convergence (the repeated emergence of similarity during evolution) yet builds on similar gene sets in phylogenetically distant plants. On page 144 of this issue, Griesmann et al. (1) sequenced the genomes of 10 plant species to ...


Assessing the influence of roads on fire ignition: does land cover matter?

Fire, Vol. 1, No. 2. (09 July 2018), 24,


In human-affected fire environments, assessing the influence of human activities on the spatial distribution of wildfire ignitions is of paramount importance for fire management planning. Previous studies have shown that roads have significant effects on fire ignition. However, since different land cover classes are subject to different levels of ignition risk, roads in different land cover classes may differently affect fire ignition. The aim of this paper is thus to assess the influence of roads on fire ignition in selected land ...


Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Warning and Advisory System (VFSP-WAS): concept note and expert recommendations

Vol. 235 (2018)


This concept note contains the expert recommendations resulting from discussions at the international workshop on Forecasting Emissions from Vegetation Fires and their Impacts on Human Health and Security in South-East Asia, which was hosted by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta, from 29 August to 1 September 2016. The workshop was organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction/International Wildfire Preparedness ...


Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: spatial distribution characterization

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 624 (May 2018), pp. 424-437,


[Highlights] [::] Average fire size is much higher for intentional than for negligent fires. [::] Incidence of negligent and intentional fires has different distribution patterns. [::] Higher drivers' influence for intentional fires, burnt area and in the south region. [::] Human's drivers and altitude are the most important for fire ignitions. [::] Negligent (intentional) fires burn more forest and agricultural (human) areas. [Abstract] In the European context, Portugal is the country with the highest number of wildfires and the second with more burnt area. The vast majority of ...


Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 15, No. 3. (2006), 319,


Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous remote sensing products for fire management. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of current and potential remote sensing methods used to assess fire ...


Switching on the Big Burn of 2017

Fire, Vol. 1, No. 1. (05 June 2018), 17,


Fuel, aridity, and ignition switches were all on in 2017, making it one of the largest and costliest wildfire years in the United States (U.S.) since national reporting began. Anthropogenic climate change helped flip on some of these switches rapidly in 2017, and kept them on for longer than usual. Anthropogenic changes to the fire environment will increase the likelihood of such record wildfire years in the coming decades. The 2017 wildfires in the U.S. constitute part of a shifting baseline ...


Wildfire–vegetation dynamics affect predictions of climate change impact on bird communities

Ecography, Vol. 41, No. 6. (July 2018), pp. 982-995,


Community‐level climate change indicators have been proposed to appraise the impact of global warming on community composition. However, non‐climate factors may also critically influence species distribution and biological community assembly. The aim of this paper was to study how fire–vegetation dynamics can modify our ability to predict the impact of climate change on bird communities, as described through a widely‐used climate change indicator: the community thermal index (CTI). Potential changes in bird species assemblage were predicted using the spatially‐explicit species assemblage ...


The biomass distribution on Earth

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 25. (19 June 2018), pp. 6506-6511,


[Significance] The composition of the biosphere is a fundamental question in biology, yet a global quantitative account of the biomass of each taxon is still lacking. We assemble a census of the biomass of all kingdoms of life. This analysis provides a holistic view of the composition of the biosphere and allows us to observe broad patterns over taxonomic categories, geographic locations, and trophic modes. [Abstract] A census of the biomass on Earth is key for understanding the structure and dynamics of the biosphere. ...


Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 109, No. 1-2. (November 2011), pp. 44-60,


[Abstract] Fire can affect soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. Aggregate stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil aggregation to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has affected other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency ...


Modeling fire ignition patterns in Mediterranean urban interfaces

Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment (17 May 2018),


The rapid growth of built-up areas and infrastructure in the Mediterranean environment has resulted in the expansion of urban interfaces where fire can ignite and spread. Within this context, there is a need to understand spatial patterns of ignition distribution and the relative importance of influencing drivers. In response to this need we developed an analysis of fire ignition patterns using human and biophysical explanatory variables by firstly developing two different linear models to assess patterns of fire ignition points in ...


Scientists aim to smoke out wildfire impacts

Science, Vol. 360, No. 6392. (01 June 2018), pp. 948-949,


Scientists this summer are taking to the air in an ambitious effort to better understand the chemistry, behavior, and health impacts of wildfire smoke. The flights in an instrument-packed C-130 airplane belonging to the National Science Foundation will be followed in 2019 by flights on a NASA DC-8 research jet by scientists with NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The two planes will fly through plumes of wildfire smoke, with a focus on the western United States, where wildfires ...


Forest condition in Europe: 2017 technical report of ICP Forests - Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)



[Summary] The International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) is one of the most diverse programmes within the Working Group on Effects (WGE) under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). To provide a regular overview of the programme’s activities, the ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre (PCC) yearly publishes an ICP Forests Technical Report which summarises research highlights and provides an opportunity for all participating countries to report on their national ICP Forests activities. The PCC also invites ...


Assessment and validation of wildfire susceptibility and hazard in Portugal

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 10, No. 3. (16 March 2010), pp. 485-497,


A comprehensive methodology to assess forest fire susceptibility, that uses variables of strong spatial correlation, is presented and applied for the Portuguese mainland. Our study is based on a thirty-year chronological series of burnt areas. The first twenty years (1975–1994) are used for statistical modelling, and the last ten (1995–2004) are used for the independent validation of results. The wildfire affected areas are crossed with a set of independent layers that are assumed to be relevant wildfire conditioning factors: elevation, slope, ...


Global MODIS fraction of green vegetation cover for monitoring abrupt and gradual vegetation changes

Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 4. (23 April 2018), 653,


The presence and distribution of green vegetation cover in the biosphere are of paramount importance in investigating cause-effect phenomena at the land/atmosphere interface, estimating primary production rates as part of global carbon and water cycle assessments and evaluating soil protection and land use change over time. The fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) as estimated from satellite observations has already been demonstrated to be an extraordinarily useful product for understanding vegetation cover changes, for supporting ecosystem service assessments over areas with ...


Climate-vegetation-fire interactions and feedbacks: trivial detail or major barrier to projecting the future of the Earth system?

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (1 November 2016), pp. 910-931,


Fire is a complex process involving interactions and feedbacks between biological, socioeconomic, and physical drivers across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This complexity limits our ability to incorporate fire into Earth system models and project future fire activity under climate change. Conceptual, empirical, and process models have identified the mechanisms and processes driving fire regimes, and provide a useful basis to consider future fire activity. However, these models generally deal with only one component of fire regimes, fire frequency, and do ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 42

(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   tuscany   tuta-absoluta   twig-dieback   two-dimensional-gas-chromatography   two-stage-peer-review   udig   uganda   ukraine   ulex-europaeus   ulmus-americana   ulmus-carpinifolia   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor   ulmus-parvifolia   ulmus-procera   ulmus-pumila   ulmus-rubra   ulmus-spp   ulmus-thomasii   umbellularia-californica   umbrella-species   un-framework-convention-on-climate-change   uncertainty   uncertainty-propagation   underfitting   understorey   understorey-species   undisturbed-habitat   uneven-aged-forest   unexpected-effect   unfalsifiability   ungulate   ungulate-browsing   united-kingdom   united-nations   united-states   universal-approximation   unknown   unrealistic-expectations   unsupervised-training   upper-treeline   uprooting   urban-areas   urban-forest   urban-habitats   urban-trees   urgent-hpc   url-decay   urocerus-gigas   ursus-arctos   usda   ushahidi   usle   usle-m   usped   utilization   vaccination   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   vaccinium-myrtillus   vaccinium-oxycoccos   vaccinium-spp   vaccinium-uliginosum   vaccinium-vitis-idaea   vaccinum-myrtillus   validation   valsa-melanodiscus   values-at-stake   values-vs-scientific-evidence   vapour-pressure-deficit   variability   variable-selection   variance-partitioning   variation   vascular-plants   vascular-system   vauable   vegetation   vegetation-buffer   vegetation-changes   vegetation-composition   vegetation-condition   vegetation-diversity   vegetation-dynamics   vegetation-types   vegetative-propagation   vehicle-detection   veneer   venice   verification-vs-corroboration   veronica-micrantha   veronica-officinalis   vertebrate   verticillium-dahliae   vgi   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus   viburnum-opulus   viburnum-orientale  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

International Health, Vol. 7, No. 2. (March 2015), pp. 99-106,


[Background] Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. [Methods] In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West ...


Range dynamics of mountain plants decrease with elevation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 8. (20 February 2018), pp. 1848-1853,


[Significance] Shifts of upper range limits are a key response of mountain biota to climate change. However, assessing whether species profit or suffer from the changing climate requires the simultaneous evaluation of changes in species’ lower and upper range limits, optima, and abundances. Here, we provide an integrated assessment for 183 plant species of the European Alps. We demonstrate that, over recent decades, increases in abundance were more pronounced than range shifts, suggesting an in-filling process which decreases in intensity with increasing ...


Intentional fire-spreading by “firehawk” raptors in Northern Australia

Journal of Ethnobiology, Vol. 37, No. 4. (1 December 2017), pp. 700-718,


We document Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and non-Indigenous observations of intentional fire-spreading by the fire-foraging raptors Black Kite (Milvus migrans), Whistling Kite (Haliastur sphenurus), and Brown Falcon (Falco berigora) in tropical Australian savannas. Observers report both solo and cooperative attempts, often successful, to spread wildfires intentionally via single-occasion or repeated transport of burning sticks in talons or beaks. This behavior, often represented in sacred ceremonies, is widely known to local people in the Northern Territory, where we carried out ethno-ornithological research from ...


Effects of fish in river food webs

Science, Vol. 250, No. 4982. (09 November 1990), pp. 811-814,


Experimental manipulations of fish in a Northern California river during summer base flow reveal that they have large effects on predators, herbivores, and plants in river food webs. California roach and juvenile steelhead consume predatory insects and fish fry, which feed on algivorous chironomid larvae. In the presence of fish, filamentous green algae are reduced to low, prostrate webs, infested with chironomids. When the absence of large fish releases smaller predators that suppress chironomids, algal biomass is higher, and tall upright ...


Stay or go - How topographic complexity influences alpine plant population and community responses to climate change

Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (November 2017),


In the face of climate change, populations have two survival options − they can remain in situ and tolerate the new climatic conditions (“stay”), or they can move to track their climatic niches (“go”). For sessile and small-stature organisms like alpine plants, staying requires broad climatic tolerances, realized niche shifts due to changing biotic interactions, acclimation through plasticity, or rapid genetic adaptation. Going, in contrast, requires good dispersal and colonization capacities. Neither the magnitude of climate change experienced locally nor the ...


Early postfire vegetation recovery of Pinus brutia forests: effects offire severity, prefire stand age, and aspect

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 40 (2016), pp. 723-736,


Forests dominated by serotinous tree species are usually generalized to follow an autosuccessional model of postfire recovery. However, recent studies have suggested that prefire conditions, topography, and idiosyncrasies of the fire disturbance can have notable effects on how such forests respond to fire. We investigated the effects of fire severity, prefire stand age, and aspect (slope orientation) on the early postfire recovery of Pinus brutia forest. The study site was the area of 2008 Serik-Tasağıl Fire, one of the largest forest ...


Effects of slope angle and aspect on plant cover and species richness in a humid Mediterranean badland

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, No. 13. (October 2014), pp. 1705-1716,


Soil erosion is one of the most severe land degradation processes in the Mediterranean region. Although badlands occupy a relatively small fraction of the Mediterranean area, their erosion rates are very high. Many studies have investigated to what extent vegetation controls soil erosion rates. This study, however, deals with the impact of erosion on vegetation establishment. In semi-arid badlands of the Mediterranean, soil water availability constitutes the main limiting factor for vegetation development. As a consequence, south-facing slopes are typically less ...


How much does weather control fire size and intensity in the Mediterranean region?

Annales Geophysicae, Vol. 33, No. 7. (30 July 2015), pp. 931-939,


This study investigates the synoptic conditions favorable to wildfires in the Mediterranean region, in terms of fire intensity and burnt area. As reported in the literature, Mediterranean large wildfires are associated with a blocking situation. However, this study shows the existence of two types of wildfires controlled by the blocking high intensity: (1) fast build-up of a weak blocking produces intense wildfires associated with strong winds which allow propagation over long distances; (2) longer build-up of strong blocking situation produces less ...


Size of wildfires in the Euro-Mediterranean region: observations and theoretical analysis

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 6. (23 June 2015), pp. 1331-1341,


MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite observations of fire size and ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis are used to derive a relationship between burnt area and wind speed over the Mediterranean region and Eastern Europe. The largest wildfire size does not show a strong response with respect to wind speed in Eastern Europe. In the Mediterranean, as intuitively expected, the burnt area associated with the largest wildfires is an increasing function of wind speed for moderate temperature anomalies. In situations of severe heatwaves, ...


Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10572-10577,


[Significance] Knowledge of plant rooting depth is critical to understanding plant-mediated global change. Earth system models are highly sensitive to this particular parameter with large consequences for modeled plant productivity, water–energy–carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and silicate weathering regulating multimillion-year-timescale carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Accidental discoveries of >70-m-deep roots in wells and >20-m-deep roots in caves offer glimpses of the enormous plasticity of root response to its environment, but the ...


Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows: a case study in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22, No. 1. (1 February 2002), pp. 32-39,[0032:fetsdo];2


The spatial distribution of 961 debris flows in the Upper Aragón and Gállego valleys (Central Spanish Pyrenees) was analyzed. Most were located in the Flysch Sector (with a colluvium mantle derived from strongly tectonically modified materials), between 1000 and 1400 m above sea level, on 25?35° gradients with sunny exposure. These gradients were either hillslopes covered by frequently burned scrubland, abandoned fields, or reforested land, confirming the influence of land use and disturbed landscapes on the occurrence of debris flows. ...


The concept of potential natural vegetation: an epitaph?

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 21, No. 6. (December 2010), pp. 1172-1178,


We discuss the usefulness of the concept of Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV), which describes the expected state of mature vegetation in the absence of human intervention. We argue that it is impossible to model PNV because of (i) the methodological problems associated to its definition and (ii) the issues related to the ecosystems dynamics.We conclude that the approach to characterizing PNV is unrealistic and provides scenarios with limited predictive power. In places with a long-term human history, interpretations of PNV need ...


How do root and soil characteristics affect the erosion-reducing potential of plant species?

Ecological Engineering (August 2017),


[Highlights] [::] Fibrous roots are very effective in reducing flow erosion rates in sandy soils. [::] Soil texture and bulk density affects the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots. [::] Increasing soil bulk density hampers the erosion-reducing potential of fine roots. [::] Increasing sand content hampers the erosion-reducing potential of tap roots. [Abstract] Plant roots can be very effective in stabilizing the soil against concentrated flow erosion. So far, most research on the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots was conducted on loamy soils. However susceptible to incisive erosion ...


Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739,


Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...


Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire

New Phytologist, Vol. 197, No. 1. (January 2013), pp. 19-35,


[Summary] Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ...


Fire as an evolutionary pressure shaping plant traits

Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 406-411,


Traits, such as resprouting, serotiny and germination by heat and smoke, are adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, plants are not adapted to fire per se but to fire regimes. Species can be threatened when humans alter the regime, often by increasing or decreasing fire frequency. Fire-adaptive traits are potentially the result of different evolutionary pathways. Distinguishing between traits that are adaptations originating in response to fire or exaptations originating in response to other factors might not always be possible. However, fire ...


Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900–2010): its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 14, No. 1. (03 January 2014), pp. 21-32,


Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894–2010) were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered as the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values) or below (negative values) the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyse the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence with meteorological extremes, we ...


A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22,


Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...


Remote sensing monitoring of land restoration interventions in semi-arid environments with a before–after control-impact statistical design

International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 59 (July 2017), pp. 42-52,


[Highlights] [::] A rapid, standardised and objective assessment of the biophysical impact of restoration interventions is proposed. [::] The intervention impact is evaluated by a before–after control-impact sampling design. [::] The method provides a statistical test of the no-change hypothesis and the estimation of the relative magnitude of the change. [::] The method is applicable to NDVI and other remote sensing-derived variables. [Abstract] Restoration interventions to combat land degradation are carried out in arid and semi-arid areas to improve vegetation cover and land productivity. Evaluating the success ...


Ancestral alliances: plant mutualistic symbioses with fungi and bacteria

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), eaad4501,


[Taking a look at plant-microbe relationships] Ever since plants colonized land, they have evolved a range of mutualistic associations with bacteria and fungi. Indeed, such associations were probably required for plants to grow on harsh, nutrient-poor surfaces. Martin et al. review the spectrum of plant-microbe symbioses and their evolution, including evidence from the Rhynie Chert of the Devonian period and modern associations. Surprisingly, diverse functional plant-microbial symbioses have several common conserved features, including signaling pathways, immune evasion, and root development. [Structured Abstract] [::Background] Among the ...


Linking plant strategies and plant traits derived by radiative transfer modelling

Journal of Vegetation Science (12 April 2017),


[Question] Do spatial gradients of plant strategies correspond to patterns of plant traits obtained from a physically based model and hyperspectral imagery? It has previously been shown that reflectance can be used to map plant strategies according to the established CSR scheme. So far, these approaches have been based on empirical links and lacked transferability. Therefore, we test if physically based derivations of plant traits may help in finding gradients in traits that are linked to strategies. [Location] A raised bog and minerotrophic fen ...


Hybrid incompatibility caused by an epiallele

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 14. (04 April 2017), pp. 3702-3707,


[Significance] Deleterious mutations in different copies of a duplicated gene pair have the potential to cause hybrid incompatibility between diverging subpopulations, contributing to reproductive isolation and speciation. This study demonstrates a case of epigenetic gene silencing rather than pseudogene creation by mutation, contributing to a lethal gene combination on hybridization of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings provide direct evidence that naturally occurring epigenetic variation can contribute to incompatible hybrid genotypes, reducing gene flow between subtypes of the same species. [Abstract] Hybrid incompatibility ...


What causes large fires in Southern France

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 294 (April 2013), pp. 76-85,


[Highlights] [::] 0.8% Of fires were larger than 100 ha but accounted for 71% of total burned area. [::] On the whole area, the main cause was arson. [::] Occurrence mainly linked to shrubland population, minor road, fall-spring drought. [::] Burned area linked to shrubland fall–winter rain, summer drought, unemployment. [::] The areas the most affected were located to the East on the Mediterranean coast. [Abstract] In Southern France, where most wildfires occur, the fire size has never exceeded 6744 ha since 1991, whereas ...


Evolutionary and plastic responses to climate change in terrestrial plant populations

Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 7, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 123-139,


As climate change progresses, we are observing widespread changes in phenotypes in many plant populations. Whether these phenotypic changes are directly caused by climate change, and whether they result from phenotypic plasticity or evolution, are active areas of investigation. Here, we review terrestrial plant studies addressing these questions. Plastic and evolutionary responses to climate change are clearly occurring. Of the 38 studies that met our criteria for inclusion, all found plastic or evolutionary responses, with 26 studies showing both. These responses, ...


Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes

BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 7. (2004), pp. 677-688,[0677:eoiapo];2


Plant invasions are widely recognized as significant threats to biodiversity conservation worldwide. One way invasions can affect native ecosystems is by changing fuel properties, which can in turn affect fire behavior and, ultimately, alter fire regime characteristics such as frequency, intensity, extent, type, and seasonality of fire. If the regime changes subsequently promote the dominance of the invaders, then an invasive plant–fire regime cycle can be established. As more ecosystem components and interactions are altered, restoration of preinvasion conditions becomes more ...


The effects of air pollutants on vegetation and the role of vegetation in reducing atmospheric pollution

In The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources (26 September 2011), pp. 241-280,
edited by Mohamed Khallaf


[Excerpt: Introduction] The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. [\n] gases forms are: oxidized and reduced forms of carbon (CO2, CO, CH4), of nitrogen (NO2, NO, N2O4, NH3, NH4+), SO2, O3, C6H6 vapours, Hg, volatile phenols, Cl2, etc. [\n] The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter, heavy metals with toxic effect (Pb, Ni, Cd, As), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs, etc. [\n] Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can ...


No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (15 February 2017), 14435,


Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970–2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of ...


Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606,


[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...


Spatial vegetation patterns and imminent desertification in Mediterranean arid ecosystems

Nature, Vol. 449, No. 7159. (13 September 2007), pp. 213-217,


Humans and climate affect ecosystems and their services1, which may involve continuous and discontinuous transitions from one stable state to another2. Discontinuous transitions are abrupt, irreversible and among the most catastrophic changes of ecosystems identified1. For terrestrial ecosystems, it has been hypothesized that vegetation patchiness could be used as a signature of imminent transitions3, 4. Here, we analyse how vegetation patchiness changes in arid ecosystems with different grazing pressures, using both field data and a modelling approach. In the modelling approach, ...


A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54,


[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...


Temperature extremes: effect on plant growth and development

Weather and Climate Extremes, Vol. 10, Part A (2015), pp. 4-10,


Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler ...


Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe

Ecography, Vol. 27, No. 3. (June 2004), pp. 366-380,


The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible consequences of climate change on a representative sample of forest herbs in Europe. A fuzzy climatic envelope was used to predict the location of suitable climatic conditions under two climatic change scenarios. Expected consequences in terms of lost and gained range size and shift in distribution for 26 forest herbs were estimated. These results were combined in an Index of Predicted Range Change for each species. Finally, the effects of habitat ...


Integration of ecological and socio-economic factors to assess global vulnerability to wildfire

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 2. (2014), pp. 245-258,


[Aim] This paper presents a map of global fire vulnerability, estimating the potential damage of wildland fires to global ecosystems. [Location] Global scale at 0.5° grid resolution. [Methods] Three vulnerability factors were considered: ecological richness and fragility, provision of ecosystem services and value of houses in the wildland–urban interface. Each of these factors was estimated from existing global databases. Ecological values were estimated from biodiversity relevance, conservation status and fragmentation based on Olson's ecoregions. The ecological regeneration delay was estimated from adaptation to fires and soil ...


Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 11, No. 6. (November 2002), pp. 453-462,


[Aim] Climate change has the potential to have significant impacts on the distribution of species and on the composition of habitats. This paper identifies the potential changes in the future distribution of species under the UKCIP98 climate change scenarios, in order that such changes can be taken into account in conservation management. [Location] The model was applied to Britain and Ireland. [Methods] A model based on an artificial neural network was used to predict the changing bioclimate envelopes of species in Britain and ...

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