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Selection: with tag vegetation [168 articles] 


A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22,


Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...


Remote sensing monitoring of land restoration interventions in semi-arid environments with a before–after control-impact statistical design

International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 59 (July 2017), pp. 42-52,


[Highlights] [::] A rapid, standardised and objective assessment of the biophysical impact of restoration interventions is proposed. [::] The intervention impact is evaluated by a before–after control-impact sampling design. [::] The method provides a statistical test of the no-change hypothesis and the estimation of the relative magnitude of the change. [::] The method is applicable to NDVI and other remote sensing-derived variables. [Abstract] Restoration interventions to combat land degradation are carried out in arid and semi-arid areas to improve vegetation cover and land productivity. Evaluating the success ...


Ancestral alliances: plant mutualistic symbioses with fungi and bacteria

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), eaad4501,


[Taking a look at plant-microbe relationships] Ever since plants colonized land, they have evolved a range of mutualistic associations with bacteria and fungi. Indeed, such associations were probably required for plants to grow on harsh, nutrient-poor surfaces. Martin et al. review the spectrum of plant-microbe symbioses and their evolution, including evidence from the Rhynie Chert of the Devonian period and modern associations. Surprisingly, diverse functional plant-microbial symbioses have several common conserved features, including signaling pathways, immune evasion, and root development. [Structured Abstract] [::Background] Among the ...


Linking plant strategies and plant traits derived by radiative transfer modelling

Journal of Vegetation Science (12 April 2017),


[Question] Do spatial gradients of plant strategies correspond to patterns of plant traits obtained from a physically based model and hyperspectral imagery? It has previously been shown that reflectance can be used to map plant strategies according to the established CSR scheme. So far, these approaches have been based on empirical links and lacked transferability. Therefore, we test if physically based derivations of plant traits may help in finding gradients in traits that are linked to strategies. [Location] A raised bog and minerotrophic fen ...


Hybrid incompatibility caused by an epiallele

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 14. (04 April 2017), pp. 3702-3707,


[Significance] Deleterious mutations in different copies of a duplicated gene pair have the potential to cause hybrid incompatibility between diverging subpopulations, contributing to reproductive isolation and speciation. This study demonstrates a case of epigenetic gene silencing rather than pseudogene creation by mutation, contributing to a lethal gene combination on hybridization of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings provide direct evidence that naturally occurring epigenetic variation can contribute to incompatible hybrid genotypes, reducing gene flow between subtypes of the same species. [Abstract] Hybrid incompatibility ...


What causes large fires in Southern France

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 294 (April 2013), pp. 76-85,


[Highlights] [::] 0.8% Of fires were larger than 100 ha but accounted for 71% of total burned area. [::] On the whole area, the main cause was arson. [::] Occurrence mainly linked to shrubland population, minor road, fall-spring drought. [::] Burned area linked to shrubland fall–winter rain, summer drought, unemployment. [::] The areas the most affected were located to the East on the Mediterranean coast. [Abstract] In Southern France, where most wildfires occur, the fire size has never exceeded 6744 ha since 1991, whereas ...


Evolutionary and plastic responses to climate change in terrestrial plant populations

Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 7, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 123-139,


As climate change progresses, we are observing widespread changes in phenotypes in many plant populations. Whether these phenotypic changes are directly caused by climate change, and whether they result from phenotypic plasticity or evolution, are active areas of investigation. Here, we review terrestrial plant studies addressing these questions. Plastic and evolutionary responses to climate change are clearly occurring. Of the 38 studies that met our criteria for inclusion, all found plastic or evolutionary responses, with 26 studies showing both. These responses, ...


Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes

BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 7. (2004), pp. 677-688,[0677:eoiapo];2


Plant invasions are widely recognized as significant threats to biodiversity conservation worldwide. One way invasions can affect native ecosystems is by changing fuel properties, which can in turn affect fire behavior and, ultimately, alter fire regime characteristics such as frequency, intensity, extent, type, and seasonality of fire. If the regime changes subsequently promote the dominance of the invaders, then an invasive plant–fire regime cycle can be established. As more ecosystem components and interactions are altered, restoration of preinvasion conditions becomes more ...


The effects of air pollutants on vegetation and the role of vegetation in reducing atmospheric pollution

In The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources (26 September 2011), pp. 241-280,
edited by Mohamed Khallaf


[Excerpt: Introduction] The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. [\n] gases forms are: oxidized and reduced forms of carbon (CO2, CO, CH4), of nitrogen (NO2, NO, N2O4, NH3, NH4+), SO2, O3, C6H6 vapours, Hg, volatile phenols, Cl2, etc. [\n] The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter, heavy metals with toxic effect (Pb, Ni, Cd, As), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs, etc. [\n] Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can ...


No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (15 February 2017), 14435,


Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970–2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of ...


Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606,


[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...


Spatial vegetation patterns and imminent desertification in Mediterranean arid ecosystems

Nature, Vol. 449, No. 7159. (13 September 2007), pp. 213-217,


Humans and climate affect ecosystems and their services1, which may involve continuous and discontinuous transitions from one stable state to another2. Discontinuous transitions are abrupt, irreversible and among the most catastrophic changes of ecosystems identified1. For terrestrial ecosystems, it has been hypothesized that vegetation patchiness could be used as a signature of imminent transitions3, 4. Here, we analyse how vegetation patchiness changes in arid ecosystems with different grazing pressures, using both field data and a modelling approach. In the modelling approach, ...


A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54,


[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...


Temperature extremes: effect on plant growth and development

Weather and Climate Extremes, Vol. 10, Part A (2015), pp. 4-10,


Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler ...


Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe

Ecography, Vol. 27, No. 3. (June 2004), pp. 366-380,


The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible consequences of climate change on a representative sample of forest herbs in Europe. A fuzzy climatic envelope was used to predict the location of suitable climatic conditions under two climatic change scenarios. Expected consequences in terms of lost and gained range size and shift in distribution for 26 forest herbs were estimated. These results were combined in an Index of Predicted Range Change for each species. Finally, the effects of habitat ...


Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 11, No. 6. (November 2002), pp. 453-462,


[Aim] Climate change has the potential to have significant impacts on the distribution of species and on the composition of habitats. This paper identifies the potential changes in the future distribution of species under the UKCIP98 climate change scenarios, in order that such changes can be taken into account in conservation management. [Location] The model was applied to Britain and Ireland. [Methods] A model based on an artificial neural network was used to predict the changing bioclimate envelopes of species in Britain and ...


Complex responses to global change at alpine treeline

Physical Geography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (1 July 2001), pp. 333-342,


A focus of geography is the study of complexity: we include many interacting processes when we study places. Another view of complexity in geography is that complex pattern, in particular spatial pattern, can arise from few or simple interactions, if they are nonlinear. Environmental responses to global change are likely to be nonlinear and thus complex. Shifts in ecotones–the boundaries of vegetation types or biomes–may be indicative of such complex response to global change. One reason for expecting nonlinearity is that ...


The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 38, No. 12. (2011), pp. 2223-2236,


Humans and their ancestors are unique in being a fire-making species, but ‘natural’ (i.e. independent of humans) fires have an ancient, geological history on Earth. Natural fires have influenced biological evolution and global biogeochemical cycles, making fire integral to the functioning of some biomes. Globally, debate rages about the impact on ecosystems of prehistoric human-set fires, with views ranging from catastrophic to negligible. Understanding of the diversity of human fire regimes on Earth in the past, present and future remains rudimentary. ...


Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography: a comparison of two fire-vegetation models

Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 120, No. 11. (1 November 2015), pp. 2256-2272,


Global environmental changes and human activity influence wildland fires worldwide, but the relative importance of the individual factors varies regionally and their interplay can be difficult to disentangle. Here we evaluate projected future changes in burned area at the European and sub-European scale, and we investigate uncertainties in the relative importance of the determining factors. We simulated future burned area with LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE, a patch-dynamic global vegetation model with a semi-empirical fire model, and LPJmL-SPITFIRE, a dynamic global vegetation model with a ...


Forecasting the outbreak of moorland wildfires in the English Peak District

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, No. 8. (25 June 2009), pp. 2642-2651,


Warmer, drier summers brought by climate change increase the potential risk of wildfires on the moorland of the Peak District of northern England. Fires are costly to fight, damage the ecosystem, harm water catchments, cause erosion scars and disrupt transport. Fires release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Accurate forecasts of the timing of fires help deployment of fire fighting resources. A probit model is used to assess the chance of fires at different times of the year, days of the week ...


The sensitivity of global wildfires to simulated past, present, and future lightning frequency

Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 119, No. 3. (March 2014), pp. 312-322,


In this study, components of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model were used to explore how changes in lightning induced by climate change alter wildfire activity. To investigate how climate change alters global flash frequency, simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6 were performed for the time periods preindustrial, present-day, and three future scenarios. The effect of changes in lightning activity on fire occurrence was derived from simulations with the land surface vegetation model JSBACH. Global cloud-to-ground lightning activity ...


Measuring moisture content in living chaparral: a field user's manual

Vol. PSW-036 (1979)


This manual standardizes procedures for determining the moisture content of living chaparral for use in a proposed statewide system of monitoring living fuel moisture. The manual includes a comprehensive examination of fuel moisture variations in California chaparral, and describes techniques for sampling these variations. Equipment needed to sample and determine living fuel moisture is discussed. Detailed procedures for collecting living fuel samples and processing the samples for moisture content are provided. [Excerpt: Procedures] Of the several methods available for determining the moisture con- tent ...


Estimating live fine fuels moisture content using meteorologically-based indices

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 10, No. 2. (2001), pp. 223-240,


Field measurements of moisture content of several fine fuels (shrub vegetation and live foliage) were performed in Central Portugal and in Catalunya (NE Spain) for 1–10 years. Seasonal and interannual variation of live fine fuels of several species in two regions of the Iberian Peninsula are analysed. The species were grouped in three sets according to their relatively high, intermediate or low seasonal variability. Meteorological data from nearby stations were collected in each study area and used in the evaluation of ...


Remotely sensed Live Fuel Moisture retrieval using Radiative Transfer Models



La presente tesis doctoral ha tenido como objetivo principal el estimar el contenido de humedad de la vegetación viva (LFMC) en el contexto de la evaluación del riesgo de incendio. El área de estudio ha sido la comprendida por la región Mediterránea y Eurosiberiana, ambas localizadas en el territorio peninsular español. La teledetección espacial es una herramienta útil y prometedora para estimar parámetros biofísicos. Por lo tanto, las imágenes de satélite procedentes del programa MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) a 500m ...


Comparison between energy balance and mass balance models for actual evapotranspiration assessment

In Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XI, Vol. 7472 (2009), 747212,


The assessment of the water needs for a specific crop has a fundamental importance in the management of water resources. The application of empirical models able to retrieve estimates of the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to assess the need for water could give a valid tool for the planning of water supply, avoiding unnecessary water losses. In this context, two independent models for estimating actual evapotranspiration were compared. The first model is based on an energy balance and uses remotely sensed data ...


Global fire size distribution is driven by human impact and climate

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 77-86,


[Aim] In order to understand fire's impacts on vegetation dynamics, it is crucial that the distribution of fire sizes be known. We approached this distribution using a power-law distribution, which derives from self-organized criticality theory (SOC). We compute the global spatial variation in the power-law exponent and determine the main factors that explain its spatial distribution. [Location] Global, at 2° grid resolution. [Methods] We use satellite-derived MODIS burned-area data (MCD45) to obtain global individual fire size data for 2002–2010, grouped together for each 2° grid. A ...


Recent advances and remaining uncertainties in resolving past and future climate effects on global fire activity

Current Climate Change Reports, Vol. 2, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-14,


Fire is an integral component of the Earth system that will critically affect how terrestrial carbon budgets and living systems respond to climate change. Paleo and observational records document robust positive relationships between fire activity and aridity in many parts of the world on interannual to millennial timescales. Observed increases in fire activity and aridity in many areas over the past several decades motivate curiosity as to the degree to which anthropogenic climate change will alter global fire regimes and subsequently ...


Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: will area burned increase in a warming western U.S.?

Ecological Applications (August 2016),


Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across ...


Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection

Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1 March 2007), pp. 415-432,


From an evolutionary perspective, social behaviours are those which have fitness consequences for both the individual that performs the behaviour, and another individual. Over the last 43 years, a huge theoretical and empirical literature has developed on this topic. However, progress is often hindered by poor communication between scientists, with different people using the same term to mean different things, or different terms to mean the same thing. This can obscure what is biologically important, and what is not. The potential for ...


Plant responses to increasing CO2 reduce estimates of climate impacts on drought severity

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 36. (06 September 2016), pp. 10019-10024,


[Significance] We show that the water savings that plants experience under high CO2 conditions compensate for much of the effect of warmer temperatures, keeping the amount of water on land, on average, higher than we would predict with common drought metrics, and with a different spatial pattern. The implications of plants needing less water under high CO2 reaches beyond drought prediction to the assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture, water resources, wildfire risk, and vegetation dynamics. [Abstract] Rising atmospheric CO2 will make Earth ...


Ecology: more is less

Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7618. (31 August 2016), pp. 42-42,


[Excerpt] Plants compete for the same resources, such as nutrients, light and water. Because these resources are often limited, the coexistence of plant species requires the creation of trade-offs in resource use. In this issue, Harpole et al. report that increasing a limited nutrient in grassland can eliminate these potential trade-offs, reducing overall species diversity (W. S. Harpole et al. Nature 537, 93–96; 2016). [\n] The authors considered 45 grassland sites across 6 continents, and measured species diversity in response to various ...


Size asymmetry of resource competition and the structure of plant communities

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 899-910,


Plant communities show two general responses to gradients of soil resources: a decrease in species richness at high levels of resource availability and an associated shift in species composition from small and slow-growing species to large and fast-growing species. Models attempting to explain these responses have usually focused on a single pattern and provided contradicting predictions concerning the underlying mechanisms. [\n] We use an extension of Tilman's resource competition model to investigate the hypothesis that both patterns may ...


Size asymmetry of resource competition and the structure of plant communities: commentary on DeMalach et al 2016

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 911-912,


[Excerpt] The hump-back relationship between diversity and productivity is one of the well-known patterns in ecology that have defied unequivocal explanation (Mittelbach et al. 2001; Šímová, Li & Storch 2013). While it has often been argued that the decline of species richness under high productivity is due to more intense competition, it has never been made fully clear why extinction under high productivity should be more likely compared to low productivity. DeMalach et al. (2016) present a simple and elegant explanation: it ...


Competition for light causes plant biodiversity loss after eutrophication

Science, Vol. 324, No. 5927. (30 April 2009), pp. 636-638,


Human activities have increased the availability of nutrients in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In grasslands, this eutrophication causes loss of plant species diversity, but the mechanism of this loss has been difficult to determine. Using experimental grassland plant communities, we found that addition of light to the grassland understory prevented the loss of biodiversity caused by eutrophication. There was no detectable role for competition for soil resources in diversity loss. Thus, competition for light is a major mechanism of plant diversity ...


The International Plant Sentinel Network: a tool for regional and national plant protection organizations

EPPO Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 1. (April 2016), pp. 156-162,


[Excerpt:Introduction] A 2011 global survey of botanic gardens and arboreta, which included 204 respondents from 146 institutes, revealed that the botanic garden community has the potential to play a significant role in safeguarding plant health. However, responding institutes cited a lack of available training, resources and coordination to support any such work (Kramer & Hird 2011). Since its launch in November 2013, the International Plant Sentinel Network (IPSN) has been working to provide this support and illustrate the usefulness of such a ...


Community genetics: resource addition has opposing effects on genetic and species diversity in a 150-year experiment

Ecology Letters, Vol. 12, No. 2. (February 2009), pp. 165-170,


We used the Park Grass Experiment, begun in 1856, to test alternative hypotheses about the relationship between genetic diversity and plant species diversity. The niche variation hypothesis predicts that populations with few interspecific competitors and hence broader niches are expected to contain greater genetic diversity. The coexistence hypothesis predicts that genetic diversity within species favours coexistence among species and therefore species and genetic diversity should be positively correlated. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to measure the genetic diversity ...


Effects of resource additions on species richness and ANPP in an alpine meadow community

Journal of Plant Ecology, Vol. 3, No. 1. (01 March 2010), pp. 25-31,


[Aims] Theories based on resource additions indicate that plant species richness is mainly determined by the number of limiting resources. However, the individual effects of various limiting resources on species richness and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) are less well understood. Here, we analyzed potential linkages between additions of limiting resources, species loss and ANPP increase and further explored the underlying mechanisms. [Methods] Resources (N, P, K and water) were added in a completely randomized block design to alpine meadow plots in ...


The potential predictability of fire danger provided by numerical weather prediction

Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology (5 August 2016),


A global fire danger rating system driven by atmospheric model forcing has been developed with the aim of providing early warning information to civil protection authorities. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting ...


Glacial legacies on interglacial vegetation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in NE Asia

Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (24 June 2016), 11967,


Broad-scale climate control of vegetation is widely assumed. Vegetation-climate lags are generally thought to have lasted no more than a few centuries. Here our palaeoecological study challenges this concept over glacial–interglacial timescales. Through multivariate analyses of pollen assemblages from Lake El’gygytgyn, Russian Far East and other data we show that interglacial vegetation during the Plio-Pleistocene transition mainly reflects conditions of the preceding glacial instead of contemporary interglacial climate. Vegetation–climate disequilibrium may persist for several millennia, related to the combined effects of ...


Multiscale computation of solar radiation for predictive vegetation modelling

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 64, No. 8. (2007), pp. 899-909,


The recent development of large environmental databases allow the analysis of the ecological behaviour of species or communities over large territories. Solar radiation is a fundamental component of ecological processes, but is poorly used at this scale due to the lack of available data. Here we present a GIS program allowing to calculate solar radiation as well locally as at large scale, taking into account both topographical (slope, aspect, altitude, shadowing) and global (cloudiness and latitude) parameters. This model was applied ...


Site-based and remote sensing methods for monitoring indicators of vegetation condition: an Australian review

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 60 (January 2016), pp. 1273-1283,


We review attributes and methods of vegetation condition monitoring within Australia. Site-based and remote sensing approaches both offer important information about vegetation condition. Integration of the two approaches opens up new avenues for monitoring vegetation condition across a range of scales. Consequently we recommend a number of key areas for future research in order to improve vegetation condition assessment for the purposes of evidence-based decision making. Native vegetation around the world is under threat from historical and ongoing clearance, overgrazing, invasive ...


Multiscale performance of landscape metrics as indicators of species richness of plants, insects and vertebrates

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 31 (August 2013), pp. 41-48,


Landscape metrics are widely used to investigate the spatial structure of landscapes. Numerous metrics are currently available, yet only little empirical research has comparatively examined their indicator value for species richness for several taxa at several scales. Taking a Mediterranean forest landscape – Dadia National Park (Greece) – as a case study area, we explored the performance of 52 landscape level landscape metrics as indicators of species richness for six taxa (woody plants, orchids, orthopterans, amphibians, reptiles, and small terrestrial birds) ...


Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 23. (07 June 2016), pp. 6496-6501,


[Significance] Plant diversity often leads to an increase in ecosystem productivity, but the underpinning mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that faba bean/maize intercropping enhances productivity, nodulation, and N2 fixation of faba bean through interspecific root interactions. We provide a mechanism explaining how maize promotes N2 fixation of faba bean, where root exudates from maize increase root hair deformation and nodulation in faba bean, double exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia), and up-regulate the expression of a chalcone–flavanone isomerase gene involved ...


Above-ground carbon storage by urban trees in Leipzig, Germany: analysis of patterns in a European city

Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 104, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 95-104,


Many aspects of global change, including carbon dioxide emissions, have been attributed to urban areas. On the other hand, cities have been found to provide valuable ecosystem services such as carbon storage. The aim of this study is to estimate the above-ground carbon storage in trees in the central European city of Leipzig and produce spatially explicit carbon storage maps. We used stratified random sampling across 19 land cover classes using 190 sample plots to measure carbon storage. In addition, we ...


Ecological services of urban forest in Barcelona



[Excerpt: Summary] Forests and urban trees generally offer multiple services and environmental benefits to society. These trees are distributed into different land uses (in our case, land uses are defined from the third edition of Mapa Ecològic de Barcelona, 2006), ranging from forest environments and gardens, to densely built areas or polluted urban environments. The structure, and consequently the composition, of urban forest vary in these different land uses, whether public or private. Trees, and the functions and services that they offer, such as air quality improvement, carbon sequestration or temperature reduction, ...


Collapse of the world's largest herbivores

Science Advances, Vol. 1, No. 4. (01 May 2015), pp. e1400103-e1400103,


Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, ...


State of the world's plants - 2016



This report provides, for the first time, a baseline assessment of our current knowledge on the diversity of plants on earth, the global threats these plants currently face, and the policies in place and their effectiveness in dealing with these threats. [\n] On the diversity of plants, we can report that there are now an estimated ~391,000 vascular plants known to science of which 369,000 are flowering plants. Around 2000 new vascular plant species are described each year. In 2015 these included ...


Remaining natural vegetation in the global biodiversity hotspots

Biological Conservation, Vol. 177 (September 2014), pp. 12-24,


[Highlights] [::] We estimate the area of natural intact vegetation in the global biodiversity hotspots. [::] Natural intact vegetation spans 3,545,975 km2, or 14.9% of its original extent. [::] Hotspots previously considered most intact suffered greatest downward adjustments. [::] Natural intact vegetation area is critical (<10%) in 6 of 12 biomes in the hotspots. [::] Natural intact vegetation is marketed more fragmented when <10% of hotspot area. [Abstract] The biodiversity hotspots are 35 biogeographical regions that have both exceptional endemism and extreme threats to their vegetation integrity, and ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 37

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   tropics   trunk-sucker   tsuga-canadensis   tsuga-chinensis   tsuga-heterophylla   tsuga-mertensiana   tsuga-spp   tundra   turing-completeness   turkey   tuscany   tuta-absoluta   twig-dieback   two-dimensional-gas-chromatography   two-stage-peer-review   udig   ukraine   ulex-europaeus   ulmus   ulmus-americana   ulmus-carpinifolia   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor   ulmus-parvifolia   ulmus-procera   ulmus-pumila   ulmus-rubra   ulmus-spp   ulmus-thomasii   umbellularia-californica   umbrella-species   uncertainty   uncertainty-propagation   underfitting   understorey   understorey-species   undisturbed-habitat   uneven-aged-forest   unexpected-effect   ungulate   ungulate-browsing   united-kingdom   united-states   universal-approximation   unknown   unrealistic-expectations   unsupervised-training   upper-treeline   uprooting   urban-areas   urban-forest   urban-habitats   urban-trees   urgent-hpc   url-decay   urocerus-gigas   ursus-arctos   usda   ushahidi   usle   usped   utilization   vaccination   vaccinium-myrtillus   vaccinium-oxycoccos   vaccinium-spp   vaccinium-uliginosum   vaccinium-vitis-idaea   vaccinum-myrtillus   validation   valsa-melanodiscus   variability   variable-selection   variance-partitioning   variation   vascular-plants   vascular-system   vauable   vegetation   vegetation-buffer   vegetation-changes   vegetation-composition   vegetation-diversity   vegetation-dynamics   vegetation-types   vegetative-propagation   veneer   venice   verification-vs-corroboration   veronica-officinalis   vertebrate   verticillium-dahliae   vgi   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus   viburnum-opulus   viburnum-spp   vietnam  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Altered river morphology in South Africa related to the Permian-Triassic extinction

Science, Vol. 289, No. 5485. (2000), pp. 1740-1743,


The Permian-Triassic transition in the Karoo Basin of South Africa was characterized by a rapid and apparently basin-wide change from meandering to braided river systems, as evidenced by preserved sedimentary facies. This radical changeover in river morphology is consistent with geomorphic consequences stemming from a rapid and major die-off of rooted plant life in the basin. Evidence from correlative nonmarine strata elsewhere in the world containing fluvial Permian-Triassic boundary sections suggests that a catastrophic terrestrial die-off of vegetation was a global ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.