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(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 42

(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   tuscany   tuta-absoluta   twig-dieback   two-dimensional-gas-chromatography   two-stage-peer-review   udig   uganda   ukraine   ulex-europaeus   ulmus-americana   ulmus-carpinifolia   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor   ulmus-parvifolia   ulmus-procera   ulmus-pumila   ulmus-rubra   ulmus-spp   ulmus-thomasii   umbellularia-californica   umbrella-species   un-framework-convention-on-climate-change   uncertainty   uncertainty-propagation   underfitting   understorey   understorey-species   undisturbed-habitat   uneven-aged-forest   unexpected-effect   unfalsifiability   ungulate   ungulate-browsing   united-kingdom   united-nations   united-states   universal-approximation   unknown   unrealistic-expectations   unsupervised-training   upper-treeline   uprooting   urban-areas   urban-forest   urban-habitats   urban-trees   urgent-hpc   url-decay   urocerus-gigas   ursus-arctos   usda   ushahidi   usle   usle-m   usped   utilization   vaccination   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   vaccinium-myrtillus   vaccinium-oxycoccos   vaccinium-spp   vaccinium-uliginosum   vaccinium-vitis-idaea   vaccinum-myrtillus   validation   valsa-melanodiscus   values-at-stake   values-vs-scientific-evidence   vapour-pressure-deficit   variability   variable-selection   variance-partitioning   variation   vascular-plants   vascular-system   vauable   vegetation   vegetation-buffer   vegetation-changes   vegetation-composition   vegetation-condition   vegetation-diversity   vegetation-dynamics   vegetation-types   vegetative-propagation   vehicle-detection   veneer   venice   verification-vs-corroboration   veronica-micrantha   veronica-officinalis   vertebrate   verticillium-dahliae   vgi   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus   viburnum-opulus   viburnum-orientale  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Cross-validation strategies for data with temporal, spatial, hierarchical, or phylogenetic structure

Ecography, Vol. 40, No. 8. (1 August 2017), pp. 913-929,


Ecological data often show temporal, spatial, hierarchical (random effects), or phylogenetic structure. Modern statistical approaches are increasingly accounting for such dependencies. However, when performing cross-validation, these structures are regularly ignored, resulting in serious underestimation of predictive error. One cause for the poor performance of uncorrected (random) cross-validation, noted often by modellers, are dependence structures in the data that persist as dependence structures in model residuals, violating the assumption of independence. Even more concerning, because often overlooked, is that structured data also ...


An empirical comparison of model validation techniques for defect prediction models

IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 1. (1 January 2017), pp. 1-18,


Defect prediction models help software quality assurance teams to allocate their limited resources to the most defect-prone modules. Model validation techniques, such as k -fold cross-validation, use historical data to estimate how well a model will perform in the future. However, little is known about how accurate the estimates of model validation techniques tend to be. In this paper, we investigate the bias and variance of model validation techniques in the domain of defect prediction. Analysis of 101 public defect datasets ...


Resampling methods for meta-model validation with recommendations for evolutionary computation

Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 20, No. 2. (16 February 2012), pp. 249-275,


Meta-modeling has become a crucial tool in solving expensive optimization problems. Much of the work in the past has focused on finding a good regression method to model the fitness function. Examples include classical linear regression, splines, neural networks, Kriging and support vector regression. This paper specifically draws attention to the fact that assessing model accuracy is a crucial aspect in the meta-modeling framework. Resampling strategies such as cross-validation, subsampling, bootstrapping, and nested resampling are prominent methods for model validation and ...


Combining multiple classifiers: an application using spatial and remotely sensed information for land cover type mapping

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 74, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 545-556,


This article discusses two new methods for increasing the accuracy of classifiers used land cover mapping. The first method, called the product rule, is a simple and general method of combining two or more classification rules as a single rule. Stacked regression methods of combining classification rules are discussed and compared to the product rule. The second method of increasing classifier accuracy is a simple nonparametric classifier that uses spatial information for classification. Two data sets used for land cover mapping ...


Bagging ensemble selection for regression

In AI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7691 (2012), pp. 695-706,


Bagging ensemble selection (BES) is a relatively new ensemble learning strategy. The strategy can be seen as an ensemble of the ensemble selection from libraries of models (ES) strategy. Previous experimental results on binary classification problems have shown that using random trees as base classifiers, BES-OOB (the most successful variant of BES) is competitive with (and in many cases, superior to) other ensemble learning strategies, for instance, the original ES algorithm, stacking with linear regression, random forests or boosting. Motivated by ...


Bagging ensemble selection

In AI 2011: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7106 (2011), pp. 251-260,


Ensemble selection has recently appeared as a popular ensemble learning method, not only because its implementation is fairly straightforward, but also due to its excellent predictive performance on practical problems. The method has been highlighted in winning solutions of many data mining competitions, such as the Netflix competition, the KDD Cup 2009 and 2010, the UCSD FICO contest 2010, and a number of data mining competitions on the Kaggle platform. In this paper we present a novel variant: bagging ensemble selection. ...


Building confidence in climate model projections: an analysis of inferences from fit

WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 8, No. 3. (1 May 2017), n/a,


Climate model projections are used to inform policy decisions and constitute a major focus of climate research. Confidence in climate projections relies on the adequacy of climate models for those projections. The question of how to argue for the adequacy of models for climate projections has not gotten sufficient attention in the climate modeling community. The most common way to evaluate a climate model is to assess in a quantitative way degrees of ‘model fit’; that is, how well model results ...


Implementation and achievements of CLC2006

edited by Markus Erhard
Keywords: clc   corroboration   europe   land-cover   validation  


[Excerpt: Executive Summary] Strategic discussions among EEA member countries and the main EU institutions responsible for environmental policy, reporting and assessment have underlined an increasing need for quantitative information on the state of the environment based on timely, quality-assured data, concerning in particular land cover and land use. Based on these requirements EEA has been collaborating since 2006 with the European Commission and the European Space Agency on the implementation of a fast track service on land monitoring as part of the implementation of GMES. [\n] CORINE Land Cover ...


Comparing and selecting spatial predictors using local criteria

Vol. 2013 (2013), 21-13


Remote sensing technology for the study of Earth and its environment has led to “Big Data” that, paradoxically, have global extent but may be spatially sparse. Furthermore, the variability in the measurement error and the latent process error may not fit conveniently into the Gaussian linear paradigm. In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting a predictor from a finite collection of spatial predictors of a spatial random process defined on D, a subset of d-dimensional Euclidean space. Critically, we ...


Spatial downscaling of European climate data

Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 36, No. 3. (1 March 2016), pp. 1444-1458,


E-OBS(European Observations) is a gridded climate data set which contains maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation on a daily time step. The data can be as fine as 0.25° in resolution and extends over the entire European continent and parts of Africa and Asia. However, for studying regional or local climatic effects, a finer resolution would be more appropriate. A continental data set with resolution would allow research that is large in scale and still locally relevant. Until now, a climate ...


Accuracy assessment of a remote sensing-based, pan-European forest cover map using multi-country national forest inventory data

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 6, No. 1. (February 2013), pp. 54-65,


A pan-European forest cover map (FMAP2006) was produced using a novel automated classification approach using remotely sensed data from fine resolution satellite instruments. In contrast to previous classification accuracy assessments of such continental scale land cover products, the current study aimed for a reliable assessment at different geographical levels: pan-European, regional and local level. A unique data set consisting of detailed field inventory plots was provided via a collaboration with the national forest inventories (NFIs) in Europe. Close to 900,000 field ...


The statistical crisis in science

American Scientist, Vol. 102, No. 6. (2014), 460,


Data-dependent analysis—a “garden of forking paths”— explains why many statistically significant comparisons don't hold up. [Excerpt] There is a growing realization that reported “statistically significant” claims in scientific publications are routinely mistaken. Researchers typically express the confidence in their data in terms of p-value: the probability that a perceived result is actually the result of random variation. The value of p (for “probability”) is a way of measuring the extent to which a data set provides evidence against a so-called null hypothesis. ...


The reusable holdout: preserving validity in adaptive data analysis

Science, Vol. 349, No. 6248. (07 August 2015), pp. 636-638,


[Editor's summary: Testing hypotheses privately] Large data sets offer a vast scope for testing already-formulated ideas and exploring new ones. Unfortunately, researchers who attempt to do both on the same data set run the risk of making false discoveries, even when testing and exploration are carried out on distinct subsets of data. Based on ideas drawn from differential privacy, Dwork et al. now provide a theoretical solution. Ideas are tested against aggregate information, whereas individual data set components remain confidential. Preserving that ...


Validation of species–climate impact models under climate change

Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 9. (1 September 2005), pp. 1504-1513,


Increasing concern over the implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of species–climate envelope models to project species extinction risk under climate-change scenarios. However, recent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties. Model validation is problematic as predictions are made for events that have not yet occurred. Resubstituition and data partitioning of present-day data sets are, therefore, commonly used to test the predictive ...


A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes

Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, Vol. 7, No. 6. (5 December 2014), pp. 8565-8647,


Since 70% of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchange with the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none of the land surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today's predictions of future climate, account for the interactions between climate and forest management. We addressed this gap in modelling capability by developing and parametrizing a version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE to ...


  1. Amiro, B., Barr, A., Black, T., Iwashita, H., Kljun, N., Mccaughey, J., Mogenstern, K., Murayama, S., Nesic, Z., Orchansky, A., 2006. Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and disturbed forest sites, Saskatchewan, Canada. Agr. Forest Meteorol., 136, 237–251, .
  2. Amiro, B., Orchansky, A., Barr, A., Black, T., Chambers, S., Chapin III, F., Goulden, M., Litvak, M., Liu, H., McCaughey, J., McMillan, A., Randerson, J., 2006. The effect of post-fire stand age on

Forest focus monitoring database system - Validation methodology

Vol. EUR 23020 EN (2007),


Forest Focus (Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003) is a Community scheme for harmonized, broad-based, comprehensive and long-term monitoring of European forest ecosystems. Under this scheme the monitoring of air pollution effects on forests is carried out by participating countries on the basis of the systematic network of observation points (Level I) and of the network of observation plots for intensive and continuous monitoring (Level II). According to Article 15(1) of the Forest Focus Regulation Member States shall annually, through the designated authorities ...


Validation of a 3-D enhancement of the Universal Soil Loss Equation for prediction of soil erosion and sediment deposition

CATENA, Vol. 64, No. 2-3. (December 2005), pp. 281-296,


A study was conducted on three U.S. military training areas to validate the Unit Stream Power Erosion and Deposition (USPED) model, a 3-dimensional enhancement to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The USPED model differs from other USLE-based models in the manner in which it handles the influence of topography on the erosion process. As a result, the USPED model predicts both erosion and deposition, while most other USLE-based models are limited to predictions of erosion only. Erosion and deposition from ...


Spatio-temporal interpolation of daily temperatures for global land areas at 1 km resolution

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, No. 5. (16 March 2014), pp. 2294-2313,


Combined Global Surface Summary of Day and European Climate Assessment and Dataset daily meteorological data sets (around 9000 stations) were used to build spatio-temporal geostatistical models and predict daily air temperature at ground resolution of 1 km for the global land mass. Predictions in space and time were made for the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures using spatio-temporal regression-kriging with a time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8 day images, topographic layers (digital elevation model and topographic wetness index), and ...


Visual validation of the e-RUSLE model applied at the pan-European scale

Scientific Topics Focus, Vol. 1 (2014), mri11a13,


Validating soil erosion estimates at regional or larger scale is still extremely challenging. The common procedures are not technically and financially applicable for large spatial extents, despite this some options are still applicable. For validating the European map of soil erosion by water calculated using the approach proposed in Bosco et al. [1] we applied alternative qualitative methods based on visual evaluation. The 1 km 2 map was validated through a visual and categorical comparison between modelled and observed soil erosion. A procedure ...


  1. Bosco, C., de Rigo, D., Poesen, J., Dewitte, O., Panagos, P., 2014. Modelling Soil Erosion at European Scale: Towards Harmonization and Reproducibility. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.
  2. Merritt, W.S., Letcher, R.A., Jakeman, A.J., 2003. A review of erosion and sediment transport models. Environmental Modelling and Software 18 (8), 761-799.
  3. Aksoy, H., Kavvas, M. L., 2005. A review of hillslope and watershed scale erosion and sediment transport models. Catena 64 (2),

Erodibility Indices Compared to Measured Values of Selected Trinidad Soils

Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 46, No. 2. (1982), 393,


The most suitable erodibility index for tropical soils has not been determined. This study was therefore carried out with 10 selected Trinidad soils to compare three erodibility indices previously used with soils in different parts of the world. The erodibility of the soils was determined by the USDA Erodibility Nomograph, the Australian Erodibility Index, and the Modified Raindrop Technique and their suitability evaluated by comparison with the erodibility measured directly on four of the 10 soil types in the field. The USDA ...


A review of assessing the accuracy of classifications of remotely sensed data

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 37, No. 1. (July 1991), pp. 35-46,


This paper reviews the necessary considerations and available techniques for assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data. Included in this review are the classification system, the sampling scheme, the sample size, spatial autocorrelation, and the assessment techniques. All analysis is based on the use of an error matrix or contingency table. Example matrices and results of the analysis are presented. Future trends including the need for assessment of other spatial data are also discussed. ...


GLOBCOVER 2009 - Products description and validation report

(February 2011)
Keywords: global-scale   land-cover   mapping   validation  


[Excerpt: Introduction] In 2008, the ESA-GlobCover 2005 project delivered to the international community the very first 300- m global land cover map for 2005 as well as bimonthly and annual MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument) Fine Resolution (FR) surface reflectance mosaics. The ESA- GlobCover 2005 project, carried out by an international consortium, started in April 2005 and relied on very rich feedback and comments from a large partnership including end-users belonging to international institutions (JRC, FAO, EEA, UNEP, GOFC-GOLD and IGBP) in addition to ESA internal assessment. ...


Assessing the accuracy of land cover change with imperfect ground reference data

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 114, No. 10. (19 October 2010), pp. 2271-2285,


The ground data used as a reference in the validation of land cover change products are often not an ideal gold standard but degraded by error. The effects of ground reference data error on the accuracy of land cover change detection and the accuracy of estimates of the extent of change were evaluated. Twelve data sets were simulated to allow the exploration of the impacts of a spectrum of ground data imperfections on the estimation of the producer's and user's accuracy ...


European Validation of Land Cover Changes in CLC2006 Project

In Remote Sensing and Geoinformation not only for Scientific Cooperation (2011)
edited by Lena Halounová


CORINE Land Cover 2006 is the third European Land Cover inventory (1990, 2000 and 2006). The number of participating countries is increasing, at present being nominally 39. New countries (CH, IS, NO, TR) not participating previous CLC inventories have joined the project. At the time of writing of this abstract (December 2010) 37 countries have finished CLC2006. CLC2006 project is co-financed by EEA and member countries, and covers 5.8 Mkm2 of the European continent. For production of CLC-Change2000-2006 database “change-mapping first” visual ...


A high-resolution soil erosion risk map of Switzerland as strategic policy support system

Land Use Policy, Vol. 32 (May 2013), pp. 281-291,


Soil erosion models and soil erosion risk maps are often used as indicators to assess potential soil erosion in order to assist policy decisions. This paper shows the scientific basis of the soil erosion risk map of Switzerland and its application in policy and practice. Linking a USLE/RUSLE-based model approach (AVErosion) founded on multiple flow algorithms and the unit contributing area concept with an extremely precise and high-resolution digital terrain model (2 m × 2 m grid) using GIS allows for a realistic assessment of ...


Altitudinal changes in composition and structure of mountain-temperate vegetation: a case study from the Western Carpathians

Plant Ecology In Plant Ecology, Vol. 158, No. 2. (2002), pp. 201-221,


Changes in composition and structure of plant communities in relation tothe soil and snow cover variation were analyzed along an altitudinal transect(1150–1750 m) from the mountain-temperate forests to a woodyshrub community and alpine meadows on Mt Velký Gápel', Slovakia.The soils below the treeline (∼1510 m) had a more developedorganic layer above the mineral substratum. Generally, soil depth decreased asthe altitude increased, although the maximum values were recognized at a middlealtitude in a beech stand. Snow was redistributed by westerly winds from ...


Net primary productivity of forest stands in New Hampshire estimated from Landsat and MODIS satellite data

Carbon balance and management, Vol. 2 (2007),


A simulation model that relies on satellite observations of vegetation cover from the Landsat 7 sensor and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate net primary productivity (NPP) of forest stands at the Bartlett Experiment Forest (BEF) in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Net primary production (NPP) predicted from the NASA-CASA model using 30-meter resolution Landsat inputs showed variations related to ...


Improved estimates of net primary productivity from modis satellite data at regional and local scales

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, Vol. 16, No. 1. (February 2006), pp. 125-132,


We compared estimates of net primary production (NPP) from the MODIS satellite with estimates from a forest ecosystem process model (PnET-CN) and forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data for forest types of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The regional means were similar for the three methods and for the dominant oak-hickory forests in the region. However, MODIS underestimated NPP for less-dominant northern hardwood forests and overestimated NPP for coniferous forests. Causes of inaccurate estimates of NPP by MODIS were ...


Reconciling satellite with ground data to estimate forest productivity at national scales

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 276 (July 2012), pp. 196-208,


Large scale forest productivity estimates are of increasing interest as more demands are made on forest resources. In principle three different methods are currently available: (i) forest growth data from forest research plots and/or forest inventory sampling points based on repeated tree observations, (ii) flux tower observations which record the gas exchange of the plant atmosphere interactions for a given vegetation type, and (iii) remotely sensed data for a continuous cover of net primary productivity estimates. In this paper we focus ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.