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Selection: with tag urban-areas [26 articles] 


Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

Regional Environmental Change (2015), pp. 1-18,


Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as ...


Integrating social science research into wildland fire management

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4. (29 July 2014), pp. 381-394,


Purpose – Social science research is used to support the formulation of natural resource management decisions with accurate and timely information. Due to risk and potential impacts, this is important in wildland fire management. The purpose of this paper is to identify the respondent perceptions of a natural disturbance agent's impact on fire management in Colorado and Wyoming. Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology included a self-administered questionnaire completed by a random sample of respondents in three study locations adjacent to national forests. A quantitative ...


Global urban signatures of phenotypic change in animal and plant populations

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (03 January 2017), 201606034,


[Significance] Ecoevolutionary feedbacks on contemporary timescales were hypothesized over half a century ago, but only recently has evidence begun to emerge. The role that human activity plays in such dynamics is still unclear. Through a metaanalysis of >1,600 phenotypic changes in species across regions and ecosystem types, we examine the evidence that the rate of phenotypic change has an urban signature. Our findings indicate greater phenotypic change in urbanizing systems compared with natural and nonurban anthropogenic systems. By explicitly linking urban development ...


Involve social scientists in defining the Anthropocene

Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7632. (7 December 2016), pp. 192-193,


The causes of Earth's transition are human and social, write Erle Ellis and colleagues, so scholars from those disciplines must be included in its formalization. ...


The impact of charcoal production on forest degradation: a case study in Tete, Mozambique

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 9. (01 September 2016), 094020,


Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multitemporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical ...


Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world’s large cities

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 9117-9122,


[Significance] Urban water-treatment costs depend on the water quality at the city’s source, which in turn depends on the land use in the source watersheds. Here, we show that globally urban source watershed degradation is widespread, with 9 in 10 cities losing significant amounts of natural land cover in their source watersheds to agriculture and development. This watershed degradation has impacted the cost of water treatment for about one in three large cities globally, increasing those costs by about half. This increase ...


Understorey plant species richness and composition in metropolitan forest archipelagos: effects of forest size, adjacent land use and distance to the edge

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 15, No. 1. (January 2006), pp. 50-62,


[Aim] To address the relative role of adjacent land use, distance to forest edge, forest size and their interactions on understorey plant species richness and composition in perimetropolitan forests. [Location] The metropolitan area of Barcelona, north-eastern Spain. [Methods]  Twenty sampling sites were distributed in two forest size-categories: small forest patches (8–90 ha) and large forest areas (> 18,000 ha). For each forest-size category, five sites were placed adjacent to crops and five sites adjacent to urban areas. Vascular plant species were recorded and human ...


Diversity of street tree populations in larger Danish municipalities

Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 15 (2016), pp. 200-210,


[Highlights] [::] We report and analyze the current level of tree registration in large municipalities in Denmark. [::] The 6 most common species account for almost 50% of the total tree population. [::] We discuss species distribution structures for reduction of risks for urban tree. [Abstract] Healthy and sustainable tree populations require a high diversity of genera and species. This study examined the occurrence and contents of tree inventories in Denmark's 30 largest municipalities. 59% of the municipalities had a tree inventory for street trees, but ...


Above-ground carbon storage by urban trees in Leipzig, Germany: analysis of patterns in a European city

Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 104, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 95-104,


Many aspects of global change, including carbon dioxide emissions, have been attributed to urban areas. On the other hand, cities have been found to provide valuable ecosystem services such as carbon storage. The aim of this study is to estimate the above-ground carbon storage in trees in the central European city of Leipzig and produce spatially explicit carbon storage maps. We used stratified random sampling across 19 land cover classes using 190 sample plots to measure carbon storage. In addition, we ...


Ecological services of urban forest in Barcelona



[Excerpt: Summary] Forests and urban trees generally offer multiple services and environmental benefits to society. These trees are distributed into different land uses (in our case, land uses are defined from the third edition of Mapa Ecològic de Barcelona, 2006), ranging from forest environments and gardens, to densely built areas or polluted urban environments. The structure, and consequently the composition, of urban forest vary in these different land uses, whether public or private. Trees, and the functions and services that they offer, such as air quality improvement, carbon sequestration or temperature reduction, ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 37

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   tropics   trunk-sucker   tsuga-canadensis   tsuga-chinensis   tsuga-heterophylla   tsuga-mertensiana   tsuga-spp   tundra   turing-completeness   turkey   tuscany   tuta-absoluta   twig-dieback   two-dimensional-gas-chromatography   two-stage-peer-review   udig   ukraine   ulex-europaeus   ulmus   ulmus-americana   ulmus-carpinifolia   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor   ulmus-parvifolia   ulmus-procera   ulmus-pumila   ulmus-rubra   ulmus-spp   ulmus-thomasii   umbellularia-californica   umbrella-species   uncertainty   uncertainty-propagation   underfitting   understorey   understorey-species   undisturbed-habitat   uneven-aged-forest   unexpected-effect   ungulate   ungulate-browsing   united-kingdom   united-states   universal-approximation   unknown   unrealistic-expectations   unsupervised-training   upper-treeline   uprooting   urban-areas   urban-forest   urban-habitats   urban-trees   urgent-hpc   url-decay   urocerus-gigas   ursus-arctos   usda   ushahidi   usle   usped   utilization   vaccination   vaccinium-myrtillus   vaccinium-oxycoccos   vaccinium-spp   vaccinium-uliginosum   vaccinium-vitis-idaea   vaccinum-myrtillus   validation   valsa-melanodiscus   variability   variable-selection   variance-partitioning   variation   vascular-plants   vascular-system   vauable   vegetation   vegetation-buffer   vegetation-changes   vegetation-composition   vegetation-diversity   vegetation-dynamics   vegetation-types   vegetative-propagation   veneer   venice   verification-vs-corroboration   veronica-officinalis   vertebrate   verticillium-dahliae   vgi   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus   viburnum-opulus   viburnum-spp   vietnam  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Out of the blue and into the black - new views of the Earth at night

(December 2012)


[Excerpt] The night is nowhere near as dark as most of us think. In fact, the Earth is never really dark. And we don’t have to be in the dark about what is happening at night anymore either. —Steven Miller, atmospheric scientist, Colorado State University [\n] The night side of Earth twinkles with light. The first thing to stand out is the cities. “Nothing tells us more about the spread of humans across the Earth than city lights,” asserts Chris Elvidge, a ...


Travel time to major cities: a global map of accessibility



[Excerpt: Background] The world is shrinking. Cheap flights, large scale commercial shipping and expanding road networks all mean that we are better connected to everywhere else than ever before. But global travel and international trade and just two of the forces that have reshaped our world. A new map of Travel Time to Major Cities - developed by the European Commission and the World Bank - captures this connectivity and the concentration of economic activity and also highlights that there is little ...


Biotic homogenization at the community scale: disentangling the roles of urbanization and plant invasion

Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 19, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 738-748,


Aim Urbanization as a major global trend profoundly changes biodiversity patterns, and homogenization of urban biota due to expanding exotic species and declining native species is of increasing concern. Previous studies on this topic have mostly taken place at large scales that include high habitat heterogeneity. Here, we aimed at disentangling the effects of urbanization and plant invasion on species composition through the analysis of similarity patterns of urban plant assemblages at the community scale where species interact. Location Berlin, Germany. ...


The Climate-Species-Matrix to select tree species for urban habitats considering climate change

Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 8, No. 4. (17 January 2009), pp. 295-308,


Two hundred and fifty urban woody species are used in Central European parks and gardens. Based on reliable publications we attempt, for the first time, to extensively classify and assess them with regards to their usability after predicted climate changes. A new Climate-Species-Matrix has been developed for this purpose. In a two-dimensional assessment, four degrees of drought resistance and winter robustness are the decisive criteria. The woody species (divided into trees of more than 10 m in potential height and trees/shrubs of ...


Decay and canker caused by Inonotus rickii spreading on more urban tree species

Forest Pathology, Vol. 33, No. 6. (December 2003), pp. 405-412,


Inonotus rickii was detected for the first time causing cankers and decay in Acer negundo and Celtis australis in Italy. In a boxelder boulevard, declining trees showed sparse foliage, exudations and cracks in the bark; in some cases, chlamydospore masses were present. Five isolates were collected and compared by growth tests in vitro and electrophoretic analyses; three isolates from the same boulevard showed very similar physiological characters. The increasing importance of the pathogen in urban areas is underlined and discussed. ...


Plants and Habitats of European Cities



Plants and Habitats of European Cities contains details of sixteen cities in the European peninsula from Almeria to St. Petersburg and from Sofia to London. The chapters start with a description of the natural features and history of the cities and then consider how urbanization has affected the environment (for example, pollution, the heat island effect and climatic changes). The recorded botanical history of the city is followed by an account of the flora, which is mainly concerned with flowering plants ...


Pests and diseases threatening urban trees under a changing climate

Forestry, Vol. 83, No. 4. (2010), pp. 451-459,


The predicted change in our climate is likely to inflict particular stresses on the trees and other plants constituting urban and peri-urban greening schemes, and this may increase their susceptibility to certain pests and diseases. This review highlights the various ways in which climate change may affect the health of urban trees in Britain. In summary, climate change may alter patterns of disturbance from pathogens and herbivorous insects through physiological changes in the host plant. The expected changes in temperature and ...


Gall-inducing arthropods associated with ornamental woody plants in a city park of Nitra (SW Slovakia)

Acta entomologica serbica, Vol. 16, No. 1-2. (2011), pp. 115-126


The research was carried out in Nitra city park area in Slovakia in 2004 – 2008. The research was oriented on gall-forming insects and mites on ornamental woody plants in urban environment. In the terrain was made a visual control of woody plants, individual species was determinated mainly according to collected samples of symptoms. In total were recorded 122 species of gall-forming insect and mites species. From total number 91 insects (Insecta) and 31 mites (Arachnida, Eriophyidae, Phytoptidae) were identified. During ...


Evolution and entropy in the organization of urban street patterns

Annals of GIS, Vol. 19, No. 1. (8 February 2013), pp. 1-16,


The street patterns of cities are the result of long-term evolution and interaction between various internal, social and economic, and external, environmental and landscape, processes and factors. In this article, we use entropy as a measure of dispersion to study the effects of landscapes on the evolution and associated street patterns of two cities: Dundee in Eastern Scotland and Khorramabad in Western Iran, cities which have strong similarities in terms of the size of their street systems and populations but considerable ...


Fractal dimension of a transportation network and its relationship with urban growth: a study of the Dallas - Fort Worth area

Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 31, No. 6. (2004), pp. 895-911,


A city and its transportation network are both complicated systems. Fractal geometry provides an effective way to describe the complex property of geographical features. This paper uses a modified box-counting method to describe the fractal property of urban transportation networks. Assuming that human settlements of different sizes are all operated by the same growth procedure, this paper investigates the relationship between the mass size of cities and the complexity of their road systems. The results confirm that, as cities grow from ...


Development of a composite index of urban compactness for land use modelling applications

Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 103, No. 3-4. (December 2011), pp. 303-317,


This paper introduces a composite index to characterise urban expansion patterns based on four associated indices that describe the degree of compactness of urban land: nuclearity, ribbon development, leapfrogging and branching processes. Subsequently, principal component and cluster analysis are applied to build the composite index. Two baseline scenarios and three hypothetical policy alternatives, run from 2000 to 2030 using the pan-European EU-ClueScanner 1 km resolution land use model are then used to test the sensitivity and robustness of the composite index ...


Double threat for Tibet

Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7514. (19 August 2014), pp. 240-241,


Climate change and human development are jeopardizing the plateau’s fragile environment. ...


Land take and food security: assessment of land take on the agricultural production in Europe

Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (17 April 2014), pp. 1-15,


Soil is a multifunctional, non-renewable natural resource for Europe as clearly expressed in the European Union (EU) Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231). Soil carries out multiple functions, including the support of food production. Urban development and its associated land take poses a major threat to soil and could have significant effects on agricultural production. This paper aims to evaluate the potential productivity losses in European agriculture due to land-take processes between 1990 and 2006. Agricultural land take was calculated ...


A coherent set of future land use change scenarios for Europe

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment In Scenario-Based Studies of Future Land Use in Europe, Vol. 114, No. 1. (May 2006), pp. 57-68,


This paper presents a range of future, spatially explicit, land use change scenarios for the EU15, Norway and Switzerland based on an interpretation of the global storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that are presented in the special report on emissions scenarios (SRES). The methodology is based on a qualitative interpretation of the SRES storylines for the European region, an estimation of the aggregate totals of land use change using various land use change models and the allocation ...


How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 2. (14 January 2014), pp. 746-751,


[Significance] Recent wildfire events throughout the world have highlighted the consequences of residential development in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) including hundreds to thousands of homes burned during a single wildfire to, more tragically, firefighter and homeowner fatalities. Despite substantial investments in modifying wildland fuels near populated areas, losses appear to be increasing. In this article, we examine the conditions under which WUI wildfire disasters occur and introduce a wildfire risk assessment framework. By using this framework, we examine how prefire mitigation ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.