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(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 42

  
(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   tuscany   tuta-absoluta   twig-dieback   two-dimensional-gas-chromatography   two-stage-peer-review   udig   uganda   ukraine   ulex-europaeus   ulmus-americana   ulmus-carpinifolia   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor   ulmus-parvifolia   ulmus-procera   ulmus-pumila   ulmus-rubra   ulmus-spp   ulmus-thomasii   umbellularia-californica   umbrella-species   un-framework-convention-on-climate-change   uncertainty   uncertainty-propagation   underfitting   understorey   understorey-species   undisturbed-habitat   uneven-aged-forest   unexpected-effect   unfalsifiability   ungulate   ungulate-browsing   united-kingdom   united-nations   united-states   universal-approximation   unknown   unrealistic-expectations   unsupervised-training   upper-treeline   uprooting   urban-areas   urban-forest   urban-habitats   urban-trees   urgent-hpc   url-decay   urocerus-gigas   ursus-arctos   usda   ushahidi   usle   usle-m   usped   utilization   vaccination   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   vaccinium-myrtillus   vaccinium-oxycoccos   vaccinium-spp   vaccinium-uliginosum   vaccinium-vitis-idaea   vaccinum-myrtillus   validation   valsa-melanodiscus   values-at-stake   values-vs-scientific-evidence   vapour-pressure-deficit   variability   variable-selection   variance-partitioning   variation   vascular-plants   vascular-system   vauable   vegetation   vegetation-buffer   vegetation-changes   vegetation-composition   vegetation-condition   vegetation-diversity   vegetation-dynamics   vegetation-types   vegetative-propagation   vehicle-detection   veneer   venice   verification-vs-corroboration   veronica-micrantha   veronica-officinalis   vertebrate   verticillium-dahliae   vgi   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus   viburnum-opulus   viburnum-orientale  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Pest categorisation of Stegophora ulmea

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05105, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5105

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a pest categorisation of Stegophora ulmea, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Sydowiellaceae. S. ulmea causes a tree disease known as black spot of elm (Ulmus spp.). The pathogen is reported from North America (native range) and Asia (Far-East Russia and China), but not from the EU. S. ulmea is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IIAI) as a harmful organism whose introduction ...

References

  1. Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., 2016. Ulmus - elms in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (eds.). European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, pp. e01bd40+.
  2. Baker, R., Candresse, T., Dormannsné Simon, E., Gilioli, G., Grégoire, J.-C., Jeger, M. J., Karadjova, O. E., Lövei, G., Makowski, D., Manceau, C., Navajas, M., Porta Puglia, A., Rafoss,
 

Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association

  
iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 8, No. 2. (01 April 2015), pp. 126-134, https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1231-008

Abstract

Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham), respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence of infected trees. During ...

 

Anoplophora glabripennis infestation (col.: cerambycidae) in Italy

  
EPPO Bulletin, Vol. 39, No. 2. (August 2009), pp. 146-152, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2009.02286.x

Abstract

In June 2007, the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) was found at Corbetta, in Lombardy, 23 km west of Milan, Italy. The invasive exotic pest was observed in four host trees, one sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. and three silver birches Betula pendula Rothmahler. During summer 2007, 20 living and 107 dead A. glabripennis beetles were collected on or around the infested trees. The dissection of the infested material showed that 287 beetles emerged from the trees during previous years ...

 

Host plant selection and resource utilisation by Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in southern England

  
Forestry, Vol. 88, No. 1. (01 January 2015), pp. 84-95, https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpu037

Abstract

In February 2012, an outbreak of Asian longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), was discovered at Paddock Wood in Kent, in southern England, next to a small industrial premise where a previous company had imported stone from China. Anoplophora glabripennis is a serious pest of deciduous broadleaved trees and is native to China, but it has been transported around the world in wood packaging material. Its discovery at Paddock Wood prompted an eradication programme in which all infested trees and any trees ...

 

Ecology and management of exotic and endemic Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis

  
Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 11, No. 4. (November 2009), pp. 359-375, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00443.x

Abstract

[\n] The Asian longhorned beetle is native to China and Korea, and was found for the first time outside its native habitat in the U.S.A. in 1996, with subsequent detections being made in Canada and several European countries. [\n] We review the taxonomy, distribution, basic biology, behaviour, ecology and management of endemic and exotic Anoplophora glabripennis, including information that is available in the extensive Chinese literature. [\n] This species has caused massive mortality of Populus species in China and models have demonstrated that ...

 

Occurrence of Phytophthora multivora and Phytophthora plurivora in the Czech Republic

  
Plant Protection Science, Vol. 49 (2013), pp. 155-164

Abstract

Beginning in 2006, a survey of two related Phytophthora species, P. multivora and P. plurivora, was performed in the Czech Republic. Both pathogens were distributed throughout a broad range of environments including forest and riparian stands and probably became naturalised in the country. The two species differed in their frequency and elevational distribution. P. multivora was less frequent, but commonly occurred in the lowest regions such as Central Bohemia and South Moravia, i.e. areas which generally exhibit a high level of ...

 

Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor’s transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

  
Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 6 (20 July 2015), https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00541
Keywords: dutch-elm   europe   north-america   ulmus-spp  
 

The Conservation of Elm Genetic Resources in Europe

  
In The Elms: Breeding,Conservation, and Disease Management (2000), pp. 281-293, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4507-1_18

Abstract

Throughout Europe, elms are threatened by Dutch elm disease and the destruction of riparian forests. The long-term conservation of elm genetic resources is now being implemented by a European Union (EU) project in collaboration with the EUFORGEN Noble Hardwoods network. The EU RESGEN 78 project involves partner institutes in 9 countries. It aims to achieve better evaluation of the existing collections and effective ex situ long term conservation measures. The ongoing activities include the establishment of a European database, characterization of ...

 

Life history of the Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera Cerambycidae) in southern Europe

  
Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 17, No. 2. (1 May 2015), pp. 188-196, https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12096

Abstract

[::] The Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis is highly polyphagous and widely spread over regions with different climates. Determining the key life-history traits is important for understanding how local conditions affect its successful establishment and to develop adaptive management strategies. [::] Field and laboratory studies were conducted from 2010 to 2012 on an A. glabripennis infestation in Northern Italy, aiming to determine its seasonal phenology, adult beetle longevity, density of successful emergence, infestation age and overwintering life history. [::] Adult beetle ...

 

Host preferences of the gypsy moth in eastern North American versus European forests

  
Revue d'Entomologie du Quebec, Vol. 31, No. 1-2. (1986), pp. 43-51

Abstract

The host preferences reported for gypsy month, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), are compiled and compared for temperate zone forests in Europe versus eastern North America. Species of Larix, Salix, Populus, Betula, Alnus, Ostrya, Fagus, Quercus, Castanea, Amelanchier, Crataegus, Prunus, Sorbus, Malus, and Tilia are clearly preferred by gypsy moth larvae in both Europe and North America. North American species of Carya, Sassafras, Hamamelis, Rhus, and Nyssa are acceptable but species of Maclura, Morus, Liriodendron, Platanus, Gleditsia, Robinia, Gymmocladus, Ilex, Diospyros, ...

 

Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter

  
Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 90 (April 2014), pp. 199-216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.02.013

Abstract

Eighteen Holocene fossil pollen records were compiled in northern Europe. The REVEALS model was applied to quantify the past regional vegetation abundances. The REVEALS estimates are more informative than the untransformed pollen percentages. New insights in vegetation evenness and the timing and magnitude of past plant composition changes. Influence of Neolithic deforestation on plant composition was more extensive than previously assumed. We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply ...

 

The mid-Holocene Ulmus fall at Diss Mere, South-East England - disease and human impact?

  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Vol. 2, No. 2. (1993), pp. 61-68, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00202183

Abstract

There are five major hypotheses to explain the apparently synchronous, widespread, spectacular, specific, and sudden elm decline in north-west Europe — climatic change, soil change, competition, human impact, and pathogenic attack. The first four hypotheses predict slow declines (ca. 50–250 years), whereas the pathogen hypothesis predicts a rapid decline (ca. 10–20 years). Pollen analyses of annually laminated sediments from Diss Mere across the elm fall show that the Ulmus decline occurred within 7 years but that there was human impact in ...

 

Ulmus

  
In Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie (2004)

Abstract

Die Ulmen sind auf der gesamten nördlichen Halbkugel in den gemäßigten Breiten verbreitet; großräumig fehlen sie nur im westlichen Nordamerika und in den asiatischen Trockengebieten. Einzelne Arten, in Europa hauptsächlich wohl die Feld-Ulme, sind seit prähistorischer Zeit in menschlicher Kultur. In der Folge ist eine große Zahl von Formen entstanden, die oft recht unklare Sippen repräsentieren. Die Ulme zählt zu den Edellaubhölzern. Das Holz findet sowohl in der Möbelindustrie als Furnier Verwendung als auch bei kunsthandwerklichen Einzelstücken. Daneben hat die Ulme ...

 

Appendix - The Species of the Genus Ulmus L.

  
In The Elms - Breeding, Conservation, and Disease Management (2000), pp. 351-358
Keywords: forest-resources   taxonomy   ulmus-spp  

Abstract

A number of species have been renamed through time. Taxonomists disagree whether to recognize certain taxa as a species or as a variety of another species. Here, an attempt is made to present the recent nomenclature of the different elm species. In addition to synonyms and former names, the section, habitat, and relative resistance to Dutch elm disease is given for each species separately. ...

 

Vegetative reproduction of trees in some European natural forests

  
Vegetatio, Vol. 72, No. 2. (1987), pp. 103-110

Abstract

Various means of vegetative reproduction in unexploited forests in western Europe are illustrated with examples. Root suckers are sometimes almost the only method of forest regeneration near the limits of tree growth on the Wadden islands and they can play an important role in forest gaps and riverine forests. Trunk suckers finally replacing their parent trees occur in Alnus, Tilia and Ulmus. Partial uprooting of trees, favoured by special soil conditions, was shown to be an important condition for vegetative reproduction. ...

 

That Sinking Feeling: Wetland Investigations of the Origins of Venice

  
Journal of Wetland Archaeology, Vol. 4, No. 1. (2004), pp. 139-153, https://doi.org/10.1179/jwa.2004.4.1.139

Abstract

Abstract It is well known that Venice has always had an intimate association with the sea. Despite the historical interest the origins of the city have, until relatively recently, remained cloaked in obscurity. Until the mid-1980s Venice remained one of the few major historical cities in Europe where urban archaeology had yet to uncover significant information. Over the last two decades the situation has changed as shown by fifteen sites with early levels. Despite the difficulties of working in a tidal ...

 

Broadleaved tree species in conifer-dominated forestry: Regeneration and limitation of saplings in southern Sweden

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 214, No. 1–3. (2005), pp. 142-157, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.04.001

Abstract

Forests and forestry in Sweden are dominated by conifers. Silviculture using mixed or broadleaved stands is often recommended, but the degree to which broadleaves regenerate naturally needs to be clarified. The Swedish National Forest Inventory is here used for a region-wide study of broadleaved saplings (1.3 m tall to 4.9 cm dbh) regenerated naturally. For 12 species (taxa) in young forests (<7 m tall) and high forests (≥7 m), sapling densities were related to seven forest types and three productivity classes. Birch had highest densities in ...

 

Ulmaceae

  
In Flora of Iraq, vol 4 (1980), pp. 65-75
 

The Woody Flora of Bulgaria: A Review

  
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen, Vol. 152, No. 2. (2001), pp. 52-60, https://doi.org/10.3188/szf.2001.0052

Abstract

This review presents a brief survey of the Bulgarian dendroflora. The country is situated in the transition zone between the continental and Mediterranean climate and, therefore, considerable habitat diversity exists on its territory. About 370 species – trees, shrubs and sub-shrubs – have been established up until today. An overview of the species’ diversity, woody formations and their distribution is presented. The data show that Bulgaria is characterised by a relatively rich dendroflora that needs appropriate close-to-nature management and measures for its ...

 

Flora of the USSR - Volume V

  
(1970)
edited by V. L. Komarov

Abstract

Described tree species Genera: [::]Alnus [::]Betula [::]Carpinus [::]Castanea [::]Celtis [::]Corylus [::]Fagus [::]Juglans [::]Morus [::]Ostrya [::]Populus [::]Quercus [::]Salix [::]Ulmus ...

 

Ophiostoma novo-ulmi sp. nov., causative agent of current Dutch elm disease pandemics

  
Mycopathologia In Mycopathologia, Vol. 115, No. 3. (1991), pp. 151-161, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00462219

Abstract

The aggressive subgroup of the Dutch elm disease pathogen Ophiostoma ulmi (Buism.) Nannf. syn. Ceratocystis ulmi (Buism.) Moreau is named as a new species, O. novo-ulmi, and is thereby separated from the ‘old’ non-aggressive subgroup, which is retained as O. ulmi. O. novo-ulmi differs from O. ulmi in colony morphology, growth rate, optimum temperature for growth, perithecial neck length, pathogenicity to elm, bark colonising ability, cerato-ulmin protein production, synnemetal and protoperithecial production, mating type frequency, protein and isozyme polymorphisms, mitochondrial DNA ...

 

Preferenza di Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham) durante la fase di maturazione delle gonadi nei confronti di due specie di olmo

  
Redia: Giornale di Zoologia, Vol. 73 (1990), pp. 347-354

Abstract

The feeding preference of Scolytus multistriatus, a vector of Dutch elm disease [caused by Ceratocystis ulmi], on Ulmus carpinifolia [U. minor] and U. laevis was studied in a net tent in the field in Italy in 1989. Newly emerged adults were introduced into the tent containing 4-year-old trees, 8 of each species. The mean number of feeding grooves cut on U. minor was 4 times higher than that on U. laevis indicating the preference of the scolytid for the former tree ...

 

Screening European Elms for Resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

  
Forest Science, Vol. 51, No. 2. (April 2005), pp. 134-141

Abstract

Resistance breeding of the native elms against Dutch elm disease, caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier, is a major objective in Europe for the conservation of this tree species. More than 2,500 cuttings of 324 elm clones (Ulmus minor Miller, U. glabra Huds., U. laevis Pall., U. pumila L., U. minor x U. glabra, and U. minor x U. pumila) from eight European countries, planted in several randomized two-block designed plots were inoculated with various O. novo-ulmi strains. Crown wilting ...

 

Strategies and guidelines for the conservation of the genetic resources of Ulmus spp.

  
In Noble Hardwoods Network: Report of the Fourth Meeting, 4-6 September 1999, Gmunden, Austria and the Fifth Meeting, 17-19 May 2001, Blessington, Ireland (2002), pp. 50-67

Abstract

Why should gene conservation of elms be treated differently from that of other common Noble Hardwood species? The sole answer that readily comes to mind is: “because elms are endangered species, due to Dutch elm disease”. As a matter of fact, the two Dutch elm disease (DED) pandemics that spread across Europe this century have caused dramatic mortality in elm populations, and the disease still represents a great threat for each individual elm tree. However, the statement that “elms are endangered ...

 

Isoenzymes as an aid to clarify the taxonomy of French elms

  
Heredity, Vol. 74, No. 1. (January 1995), pp. 39-47, https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1995.5

Abstract

Isoenzymes were used to assess the genetic variability of the three French species of elms: Ulmus laevis Pall. from section Blepharocarpus, Ulmus minor Mill. and Ulmus glabra Huds. from section Ulmus. Three main results were obtained. The first was that these species are segmental tetraploids, i.e. they behave as tetraploids for part of the genome and as diploids for the rest of it. Secondly, we found that there exists a large amount of polymorphism in the French species of elm. Thirdly, ...

 

Phylogeny of Elms (Ulmus, Ulmaceae): Molecular Evidence for a Sectional Classification

  
Systematic Botany, Vol. 19, No. 4. (1994), pp. 590-610

Abstract

The approximately 45 woody species of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) have been placed in five to nine sections on the basis of morphological characters. Cladistic analyses of chloroplast DNA restriction site variation were employed to examine phylogenetic relationships among 29 Ulmus accessions, including representatives from all proposed sections and subsections, and Zelkova serrata. Sufficient variation was detected to construct cladograms with branches both well-resolved and supported. The cpDNA results are largely congruent with those based on nuclear ribosomal DNA. Inclusion of 18 morphological/chemical ...

 

Ulmus

  
In Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 3 (1997)

Abstract

Flora of North America builds upon the cumulative wealth of information acquired since botanical studies began in the United States and Canada more than two centuries ago. Recent research has been integrated with historical studies, so that the Flora of North America is a single-source synthesis of North American floristics. FNA has the full support of scientific botanical societies and is the botanical community's vehicle for synthesizing and presenting this information. The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 ...

 

The history of elm breeding

  
Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2004), pp. 161-177

Abstract

Breeding elms resistant to Dutch elm disease (DED) started in the Netherlands in the year 1928 on the initiative of a group of women scientists. They were active until 1954, when Hans Heybroek took over at the Dorschkamp Research Institute and carried on until his retirement in 1992. Two more programmes were initiated in Europe, in Italy and Spain, in 1978 and 1993 respectively, under the impulse of Dutch breeding activities. Elm breeding in America began in 1937 in the USDA-Agricultural ...

 

‘Fiorente’ and ‘Arno’ Elm Trees

  
HortScience, Vol. 42, No. 3. (2007), pp. 712-714

Abstract

Dutch elm disease (DED) has spread through Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. Several independent genetic improvement programs for breeding DED-resistant elms have been established in Europe. The Italian elm breeding program began in the late 1970s with the goal of hybridizing susceptible European elms with resistant Asian species to select DED-resistant clones suited to the Mediterranean climate. Ulmus ‘Fiorente’ and ‘Arno’ are two new releases selected for DED resistance, superior growth rate, attractive foliage, and upright habit. ...

 

Die vierte deutsche Ulme? Ein Baum mit Geschichte

  
In Mitteilungen der Deutschen Dendrologischen Gesellschaft nr. 88 (2003), pp. 117-119
Keywords: germany   ulmus-spp  
 

Elm

  
(1983)
Keywords: monography   ulmus-spp   united-kingdom  

Abstract

Elm, one of the three principal landscape trees of England, differs from the others in its complex variability and its intricate relationship with human settlement. The book covers all its aspects: its history, its use and distribution by man from prehistoric times onwards, its vernacular names, the numerous organisms associated exclusively with it and its place in English literature and the visual arts. The book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the English landscape. It is of ...

 

Review. Reproductive ecology of riparian elms

  
Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, Vol. 31, No. 1. (2004), pp. 17-27

Abstract

This paper review our current knowledge of the reproductive ecology in the genus Ulmus, for which few investigations has been conducted and relatively little information is available. In the genus Ulmus, as in other riparian or sub-riparian genera, trees reproduce either vegetatively (by sprouting) or sexually. These mechanisms work differently. Sprouting permits colonization of open areas close to the trees, being especially frequent from large trees following death of their stem. Sprouting from the surviving roots of trees affected with Dutch ...

 

An analysis of pest risk from an Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) to hardwood trees in the European community

  
Crop Protection, Vol. 21, No. 8. (September 2002), pp. 635-645, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-2194(02)00016-9

Abstract

The risk posed by the wood-boring pest, Anoplophora glabripennis, to hardwood tree species in the EC was assessed using an internationally developed pest risk assessment scheme. The assessment reviewed information concerning the current distribution, biology and economic impact of A. glabripennis in Asia and North America together with recent European interceptions. Hosts grow across much of Europe and, using the computer program CLIMEX, southern regions of Europe were highlighted as areas where climate is most suitable for the pest's establishment. There ...

 

Ecological effects of introduced tree species in Britain

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (2001), pp. 31-42, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00487-4

Abstract

Non-native trees have been introduced to Britain and native trees have been redistributed for over 2000 years, but most species were introduced in the last 400 years, and the ecological consequences have not yet been fully manifested. Introduction has been followed by various forms of adaptation to British conditions: (i) genetic changes in the trees themselves, (ii) assimilation into forest communities, (iii) colonisation by native plants, animals and fungi and (iv) gradual cultural acceptance. Nevertheless, some naturalised shrubs are widely regarded ...

 

Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasm

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 7. (July 2014), 3773, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3773

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasma, now renamed Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (CPu), for the European Union (EU) territory. CPu is a well-defined phytoplasma species of the genus Candidatus Phytoplasma, for which molecular detection assays are available. CPu is transmitted by grafting and vegetative propagation material as well as by insect vectors. CPu is reported from North America and is present in at least four EU Member States: the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy. CPu distribution in Europe ...

References

  1. Arnaud, G., Malembic-Maher, S., Salar, P., Bonnet, P., Maixner, M., Marcone, C., Boudon-Padieu, E., and Foissac, X., 2007. Multilocus Sequence Typing confirms the close genetic interrelatedness of three distinct Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma strain lusters and group 16SrV Phytoplasmas infecting grapevine and alder in Europe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 4001–4010.
  2. Baker, W.L., 1949. Studies on the transmission of the virus causing phloem necrosis of American elm, with notes on the biology of its insect
 

Growing scattered broadleaved tree species in Europe in a changing climate: a review of risks and opportunities

  
Forestry, Vol. 83, No. 1. (2010), pp. 65-81, https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpp034

Abstract

Scattered broadleaved tree species such as ashes (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), birches (Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.), elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill.), limes (Tilia cordata Mill. and Tilia platyphyllos Scop.), maples (Acer campestre L., Acer platanoides L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L.), wild service tree (Sorbus domestica L. and Sorbus torminalis L. Crantz), walnuts (Juglans regia L., Juglans nigra L. and hybrids) and wild cherry ...

 

Leaf variation in the genus Ulmus

  
Forestry, Vol. 72, No. 3. (01 January 1999), pp. 183-190, https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/72.3.183

Abstract

R.H. Richens made an extensive study of the variation of the genus Ulmus, based on measurements of leaves taken from individual trees. His collection began in East Anglia and the English counties then designated as Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, but later extended over the whole of England and Wales. Subsequently, the collection was extended to France and the Channel Islands, to Northern Spain, and to the former Yugoslavia. The analyses of these data have been published in a series of papers, ...

 

Long-term change in an unmanaged population of wych elm subjected to Dutch elm disease

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 86, No. 2. (April 1998), pp. 205-218, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00255.x

Abstract

|1   Changes in a population of Ulmus glabra in Lady Park Wood (UK), a mixed deciduous native woodland, were studied by means of permanent transects. All individuals reaching 1.3 m height were recorded at irregular intervals from 1945 to 1993. |2   Dutch elm disease struck this population in about 1972. Most of the canopy and subcanopy stems were killed, but a few, slow-growing, subcanopy individuals survived unscathed. |3   Subsequent seedling regeneration and growth of sprouts from rootstocks of infected trees was substantial and vigorous. ...

 

Ecology of elms in Romania

  
Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2004), pp. 29-35

Abstract

The resistance of indigenous elm species to Dutch Elm Disease (DED) has been studied since 1991 with emphasis on natural forests. The situation varies with altitude, local conditions, species and with stand origin. The variability in morphological characteristics is important and some varieties are described. The taxonomy of elms in Romania, as in the whole of Europe, seems to be confusing (Ulmus ambigua was described in 1952 by Beldie in Flora of Romania). Natural hybrids between field elm and mountain elm ...

 

Rapid Evolutionary Changes in a Globally Invading Fungal Pathogen (Dutch Elm Disease)

  
Biological Invasions In Biological Invasions, Vol. 3, No. 3. (2001), pp. 223-233, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1015248819864

Abstract

Two enormously destructive pandemics of Dutch elm disease occurred in the 20th century, resulting in the death of a majority of mature elms across much of the northern hemisphere. The first pandemic, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi, occurred as this pathogen spread across Europe, North America and Southwest and Central Asia during the 1920s–1940s. The current pandemic is caused by another Ophiostoma species, O. novo-ulmi. Since the 1940s, O. novo-ulmi has been spreading into the regions previously affected by O. ulmi. It ...

 

Glacial Refugia: Hotspots But Not Melting Pots of Genetic Diversity

  
Science, Vol. 300, No. 5625. (06 June 2003), pp. 1563-1565, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1083264

Abstract

Glacial refuge areas are expected to harbor a large fraction of the intraspecific biodiversity of the temperate biota. To test this hypothesis, we studied chloroplast DNA variation in 22 widespread European trees and shrubs sampled in the same forests. Most species had genetically divergent populations in Mediterranean regions, especially those with low seed dispersal abilities. However, the genetically most diverse populations were not located in the south but at intermediate latitudes, a likely consequence of the admixture of divergent lineages colonizing ...

 

Long-term forest fire ecology and dynamics in southern Switzerland

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 87, No. 2. (1 March 1999), pp. 273-289, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1999.00346.x

Abstract

1. Pollen and charcoal analysis at two lakes in southern Switzerland revealed that fire has had a prominent role in changing the woodland composition of this area for more than 7000 years. 2. The sediment of Lago di Origlio for the period between 5100 and 3100 BC cal. was sampled continuously with a time interval of about 10 years. Peaks of charcoal particles were significantly correlated with repeated declines in pollen of Abies, Hedera, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior t., Fagus and ...

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