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Selection: with tag tree-species [42 articles] 


The effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in Western forests



In the West, thinning and partial cuttings are being considered for treating millions of forested acres that are overstocked and prone to wildfire. The objectives of these treatments include tree growth redistribution, tree species regulation, timber harvest, wildlife habitat improvement, and wildfire-hazard reduction. Depending on the forest type and its structure, thinning has both positive and negative impacts on crown fire potential. Crown bulk density, surface fuel, and crown base height are primary stand characteristics that determine crown fire potential. Thinning ...


Nitrogen-fixing trees inhibit growth of regenerating Costa Rican rainforests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 33. (15 August 2017), pp. 8817-8822,


[Significance] Regrowing tropical forests are critical for global biodiversity conservation and carbon capture. Nitrogen availability often controls how fast these forests can regrow. Because nitrogen-fixing plants are the primary source of new nitrogen into these forests, one might expect that more nitrogen fixers lead to faster forest regrowth. However, here we show that nitrogen fixers actually slow forest regrowth. Their competitive influence on neighboring trees outweighs any growth enhancement from their nitrogen inputs at this site. Our results call for a more ...


Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234,


Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...


Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe

Biology Letters, Vol. 12, No. 4. (27 April 2016), 20151037,


Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity–resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of ...


A dataset of forest biomass structure for Eurasia

Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (16 May 2017), 170070,


The most comprehensive dataset of in situ destructive sampling measurements of forest biomass in Eurasia have been compiled from a combination of experiments undertaken by the authors and from scientific publications. Biomass is reported as four components: live trees (stem, bark, branches, foliage, roots); understory (above- and below ground); green forest floor (above- and below ground); and coarse woody debris (snags, logs, dead branches of living trees and dead roots), consisting of 10,351 unique records of sample plots and 9,613 sample ...


Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 254, No. 3. (February 2008), pp. 390-406,


We modeled and mapped, using the predictive data mining tool Random Forests, 134 tree species from the eastern United States for potential response to several scenarios of climate change. Each species was modeled individually to show current and potential future habitats according to two emission scenarios (high emissions on current trajectory and reasonable conservation of energy implemented) and three climate models: the Parallel Climate Model, the Hadley CM3 model, and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory model. Since we model potential suitable ...


The importance of phenology for the evaluation of impact of climate change on growth of boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests ecosystems: an overview

International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 44, No. 2. (2000), pp. 67-75,


An overview is presented of the phenological models relevant for boreal coniferous, temperate-zone deciduous and Mediterranean coniferous forest ecosystems. The phenology of the boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, affecting the timing of the start of the growing season and thereby its duration, and the level of frost hardiness and thereby the reduction of foliage area and photosynthetic capacity by severe frost events. The phenology of temperate-zone forests is also mainly driven by temperature. Since temperate-zone forests are mostly mixed-species ...


Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations

Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 1, No. 1. (1 February 2008), pp. 95-111,


Species distribution models predict a wholesale redistribution of trees in the next century, yet migratory responses necessary to spatially track climates far exceed maximum post-glacial rates. The extent to which populations will adapt will depend upon phenotypic variation, strength of selection, fecundity, interspecific competition, and biotic interactions. Populations of temperate and boreal trees show moderate to strong clines in phenology and growth along temperature gradients, indicating substantial local adaptation. Traits involved in local adaptation appear to be the product of small ...


Distribution ranges of trees and shrubs of USSR, vol. 3



(In Russian) ...


Distribution ranges of trees and shrubs of USSR, vol. 2



(In Russian) ...


Distribution ranges of trees and shrubs of USSR, vol. 1



(In Russian) ...


The woody plants of Korea



[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [\n] Korean Woody flora was written to familiarize naturalists, forestry professionals, students, and amateurs with the trees of Korea. This eflora is produced to meet a growing demand for information on the identification and characteristics of Korean trees in the light of new knowledge and updated information. This flora is based on the broader sense. [\n] In this eflora photographs, maps, literatures, and many drawings are provided, and features useful for identification of the tree species are emphasized. We were ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 36

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   thaumetopoea-processionea   thaumetopoea-pytiocampa   thecodiplosis-japonensis   theobroma-cacao   theoretical-approach   theory-driven-bias   theory-vs-actual-implemetation   thermal-requirements   thermodynamics   thermophilous-forest   thermophilous-plants   thespesia-populnea   thinning   thomson-reuters   threat   threatened-species   three-gorges-dam   thresholds   thrinax-radiata   thuja-occidentalis   thuja-plicata   thuja-spp   tibet   tilia-americana   tilia-amurensis   tilia-argentea   tilia-cordata   tilia-dasystyla   tilia-platyphyllos   tilia-spp   tilia-tomentosa   tilio-acerion   tillage   timber-harvesting   timber-quality   timber-uses   timber-value   time-lags   time-series   tipovers   tipping-point   todo-replace-book-abstract-with-chapter-abstract   tolerance   tomicobia-seitneri   tomicus-spp   tool-driven   toona-ciliata   top-down   topographic-position-index   topographic-wetness-index   topography   topology   topsoil-grain-size   torcello   tornado   torreya-californica   torreya-spp   torreya-taxifolia   tortrix-viridana   tourism   toxicity   trade-offs   trade-regulations   traditional-remedy   training-course   trait-based-approach   transboundary-effects   transdiciplinary-scientific-communication   transdisciplinary-research   transect   transparency   transport-system   treculia-africana   tree-age   tree-breeding   tree-cancer   tree-defoliation   tree-density   tree-diseases   tree-diversity   tree-ecology   tree-fall   tree-fruits   tree-height   tree-limit   tree-line   tree-mortality   tree-rings   tree-sap   tree-seeds   tree-species   tree-virus   treefall   trichiocampus-viminalis   trinidad-island   tropical-areas   tropical-forest   tropical-mountain-forest   tropical-storms  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Tolerance to shade, drought, and waterlogging of temperate northern hemisphere trees and shrubs

Ecological Monographs, Vol. 76, No. 4. (November 2006), pp. 521-547,[0521:ttsdaw];2


Lack of information on ecological characteristics of species across different continents hinders development of general world-scale quantitative vegetation dynamic models. We constructed common scales of shade, drought, and waterlogging tolerance for 806 North American, European/West Asian, and East Asian temperate shrubs and trees representing about 40% of the extant natural Northern Hemisphere species pool. These scales were used to test the hypotheses that shade tolerance is negatively related to drought and waterlogging tolerances, and that these correlations vary among continents and ...


Structural factors driving boreal forest albedo in Finland

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 175 (March 2016), pp. 43-51,


[Highlights] [::] Analyzed factors driving fine spatial resolution changes in boreal forest albedo. [::] Based on field plot measurements, ALS data and albedos from Landsat-5 TM data. [::] Tree species, forest structure and understory affected albedo. [::] The dependency of albedo on forest structural variables was species-specific. [::] At high volumes albedo saturated and was mainly governed by tree species. [Abstract] Understanding the influence of forest structure on forest albedo, and thus on the energy exchange between the forest and the atmosphere, is urgently needed in areas with ...


Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests

Biological Reviews, Vol. 90, No. 2. (1 May 2015), pp. 444-466,


It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical–chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance, physical–chemical soil properties and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used scientific publications based on experimental designs where all species grew on the same parent material and initial soil, and were similar in stage of ...


Effect of tree species mixing on the size structure, density, and yield of forest stands

European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 135, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-22,


An increasing number of studies provide evidence that mixed-species stands can overyield monocultures. But it is still hardly understood, how the overyielding at the stand level emerges from the tree, canopy, and size structure. Analyses of 42 triplets with 126 mixed and mono-specific plots in middle-aged, two-species stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), and European beech (Fagus sylvativa L.) in Central Europe revealed that mixed-species compared with mono-specific stands ...


Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 311 (January 2014), pp. 3-16,


[Highlights] [::] C:N ratio in forest floor, peat and mineral topsoil mainly depend on tree species. [::] Most important differences in C:N ratios are seen between deciduous and evergreen species. [::] Either soil type, ecoregion or humus type was the second most important explanatory factor. [::] There was no consistent relationship between modelled deposition and C:N ratios. [Abstract] The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of ...


Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 1. (February 2008), pp. 35-48,


The knowledge of tree species effects on soil C and N pools is scarce, particularly for European deciduous tree species. We studied forest floor and mineral soil carbon and nitrogen under six common European tree species in a common garden design replicated at six sites in Denmark. Three decades after planting the six tree species had different profiles in terms of litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil C and N attributes. Three groups were identified: (1) ash, maple and lime, (2) ...


Extinction, Substitution, and Ecosystem Services

BioScience, Vol. 33, No. 4. (01 April 1983), pp. 248-254,


The loss of services to humanity following extinctions ranges from trivial to catastrophic, depending on the number of elements (populations, species, guilds) deleted and the degree of control each exerted in the system. Most attempts to substitute other organisms for those lost have been unsuccessful, to one degree or another, and prospects for increasing the success rate in the foreseeable future are not great. Attempts to supply the lost services by other means tend to be expensive failures in the long ...


Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition

Nature, Vol. 529, No. 7585. (14 January 2016), pp. 204-207,


[Headlines] Data from millions of trees in thousands of locations are used to show that certain key traits affect competitive ability in predictable ways, and that there are trade-offs between traits that favour growth with and without competition. [Abstract] Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data ...


Silvics of North America

Agriculture Handbook, Vol. 2, pp. 1-877
Keywords: habitat   north-america   silvics   tree-species  

Response to canopy opening does not act as a filter to Fagus sylvatica and Acer sp. advance regeneration in a mixed temperate forest

Annals of Forest Science In Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 67, No. 1. (2010), pp. 105-105,

Assessing the nutritional and climatic response of temperate tree species in the Vosges Mountains

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 62, No. 7. (2005), pp. 761-770


Tree species distribution according to climatic gradients is often analysed through geographic information systems modelling whereas their nutrient requirements is mainly studied by experimentation. Using 325 forest plots, this study analysed the response of frequent tree species in the Vosges mountains, a siliceous area in northeast France, along both climate and nutrient gradients. Besides a better understanding of species behaviour, our aim was to investigate if indicator plants can be used to accurately estimate species response to ecological factors. Results showed ...


Relationships between hydraulic traits and habitat preference for six Acer species occurring in the French Alps

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 61, No. 1. (2004), pp. 81-86


Xylem hydraulic properties and vulnerability to cavitation were studied in six Acer species which occur, in the French Alps, along a soil moisture gradient from the moist valleys to the drier mountain stands. The results obtained suggest that a relationship existed between hydraulic properties and the species moisture preference. Maples located in dry zones (A. opalus, A. monspessulanum) proved more resistant to drought-induced cavitation than species that occurred in an irrigated area (A. negundo, A. pseudoplatanus, A. platanoides, A. campestre). The ...


Climate change and the future for broadleaved tree species in Britain

Forestry, Vol. 78, No. 2. (01 May 2005), pp. 145-161,


The most recent climate change predictions for the UK indicate a warming of between 2 and 5°C by the end of this century, with drier summers and wetter winters also anticipated across the majority of the country. Changes are predicted to be more extreme in the southern half of the UK, where severe summer droughts will become commonplace. Although rising atmospheric CO2 levels are likely to increase productivity through ‘fertilizing’ photosynthesis, water limitation in southern England is likely to lead to ...


Reduction in browsing intensity may not compensate climate change effects on tree species composition in the Bavarian Forest National Park

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 328 (September 2014), pp. 179-192,


We simulated forest response to changes in climatic conditions and browsing intensity. Species composition was dependent on browsing intensity under current climate. Vegetation development was not altered by browsing under climate change. Lower ungulates density may not compensate for the reduction in basal area due to climate change. Climate change may directly induce shifts in stand-level dynamics by altering the regeneration, growth and mortality of tree species, and indirectly by modifying interspecific competition. While some experimental and simulation studies have shown ...


Regiones de procedencia de especies forestales en España



La presente monografía de Regiones de Procedencia es el resultado de una labor técnica que se ha venido desarrollando en los últimos cuatro años, y que parte de un acuerdo establecido en la V reunión del Comité Nacional para la Mejora y Conservación de los Recursos Genéticos Forestales celebrada en La Laguna el 11 de mayo de 2006, por el que se creó un grupo de trabajo con el objetivo de efectuar una revisión de las regiones ...


The Climate-Species-Matrix to select tree species for urban habitats considering climate change

Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 8, No. 4. (17 January 2009), pp. 295-308,


Two hundred and fifty urban woody species are used in Central European parks and gardens. Based on reliable publications we attempt, for the first time, to extensively classify and assess them with regards to their usability after predicted climate changes. A new Climate-Species-Matrix has been developed for this purpose. In a two-dimensional assessment, four degrees of drought resistance and winter robustness are the decisive criteria. The woody species (divided into trees of more than 10 m in potential height and trees/shrubs of ...


Thermophilization of adult and juvenile tree communities in the northern tropical Andes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 34. (25 August 2015), pp. 10744-10749,


[Significance] Understanding how species respond to climate change is crucial to the development of effective conservation strategies. We found directional and systematic changes in the composition of both adult and juvenile tree species in tropical north Andean forests at rates consistent with concurrent temperature increases, supporting the hypothesis of upward species migrations resulting from global warming. Our results indicate that compositional shifts occur primarily via range retractions. This suggests elevated risk for species extinctions and local biodiversity loss with ongoing warming. Other ...


Red List of Bulgarian vascular plants

Phytologia Balcanica, Vol. 15, No. 1. (2009), pp. 63-94


The national threat status of 898 species of vascular plants from the Bulgarian flora has been evaluated using Version 3.1 of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. The resulting Red List of the Bulgarian vascular plants (threat categories) comprises 801 species (20.5 % of the total flora), of which one Extinct (EX), 12 Regionally Extinct (RE), 208 Critically Endangered (CR), 297 Endangered (EN), 204 Vulnerable (VU), and 79 Near Threatened (NT). The list of other evaluated ...


Manual of the Trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico)

Vol. 2 (1961)


Volume 2 of the basic survey of every native tree and tree-like shrub, 717 species in all. Extremely full descriptions, information. Over 100 finding keys. "The nearly 800 excellent drawings alone are worth more than the modest price of the publication." ...


Characterisation and categorisation of the diversity in viscoelastic vibrational properties between 98 wood types

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 69, No. 3. (2012), pp. 373-386,


Context Increased knowledge on diversity in wood properties would have implications both for fundamental research and for promoting a diversification of uses as material. Aims The objective is to contribute to overcoming the critical lack of data on the diversity of wood dynamic mechanical/viscoelastic vibrational properties by testing lesser known species and categorising sources of variability. Methods Air-dry axial specific dynamic modulus of elasticity (E′/γ) and damping coefficient (tanδ) were measured on a wide sampling (1,792 specimens) of 98 wood types from 79 species. An experimental ...


Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Waldbäume und Sträucher



In diesem Werk werden erstmals die vollständig freigelegten Wurzelsysteme von 78 Bäumen und Sträuchern in 188 Zeichnungen und 1.200 Farbbildern dargestellt und beschrieben. Ergänzt wird diese Gesamtdarstellung durch die Erklärung des anatomischen Wurzelaufbaues anhand von Wurzelschnitten. Bisherige Wurzeldarstellungen beschreiben meist nur den stammnahen Bereich, was zu falschen Rückschlüssen führen kann. Die nun vorliegende Darstellung vermittelt darüber hinaus die räumliche Verteilung der Wurzelmasse und macht die Auswirkung von Umwelteinflüssen auf die Wurzelform deutlich. Das umfangreiche Bildmaterial bildet die Grundlage für eine allgemeine und ...


Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species - A global review

Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 17, No. 5. (September 2011), pp. 788-809,


Aim  Woody plants were not widely considered to be important invasive alien species until fairly recently. Thousands of species of trees and shrubs have, however, been moved around the world. Many species have spread from planting sites, and some are now among the most widespread and damaging of invasive organisms. This article presents a global list of invasive alien trees and shrubs. It discusses taxonomic biases, geographical patterns, modes of dispersal, reasons for introductions and key issues regarding invasions of non-native ...



Keywords: botany   tree-species  

Notes on tree planting and the use of native species in North East England

(May 2012)


The purpose of this guide is to provide basic informa tion when planning woodland planting schemes for conservation and amenity purposes in Nor th East England. It is not a definitive guide to tree planting, nor is it designed to be used by commercial foresters, although it may be of value when planning conservation areas within co niferous forests. The main emphasis of this guide is focused on the pla nting of native tree species and establishing woodlands which are characteristic ...


Tree Root Systems. Arboricultural research and information note 130/95/ARB


Trees and their life histories - Illustrated from photographs by Henry Irving

In Trees and their life histories. Illustrated from photographs by Henry Irving. (1909),

Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference



Researched for more than three decades, this definitive work provides up-to-date descriptions of all the true conifers of the world, including 545 species of trees and shrubs. Written for accessibility to both horticultural and botanical audiences, it is the first comprehensive update of conifer taxonomy in nearly a century. Noted conifer taxonomist James E. Eckenwalder also discusses the relationships among the groups, practical usages, champion trees, fossil occurrences, and biology. New identification guides for the families and genera are based whenever possible on ...


EUFORGEN Technical Guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) and Brutia pine (Pinus brutia)



These Technical Guidelines are intended to assist those who cherish the valuable Aleppo pine and Brutia pine genepools and wish to ensure their sustainability, through conserving important seed sources or use in practical forestry. The focus is on conserving the genetic diversity of the species at the European scale. The recommendations provided in this module should be regarded as a commonly agreed basis to be complemented and further developed in local, national or regional conditions. The Guidelines are based on the available ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
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