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Selection: with tag tree-mortality [24 articles] 


Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739,


Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...


Climate-driven tree mortality: insights from the piñon pine die-off in the United States

New Phytologist, Vol. 200, No. 2. (October 2013), pp. 301-303,


The global climate is changing, and a range of negative effects on plants has already been observed and will likely continue into the future. One of the most apparent consequences of climate change is widespread tree mortality (Fig. 1). Extensive tree die-offs resulting from recent climate change have been documented across a range of forest types on all forested continents (Allen et al., 2010). The exact physiological mechanisms causing this mortality are not yet well understood (e.g. McDowell, 2011), but they ...


Managing alpine forests in a changing climate

In Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks (28 August 2013), pp. 369-383,
edited by Gillian Cerbu


[Excerpt: Introduction] There is mounting evidence that Alpine forest ecosystems will not be able to fully absorb the changes in site factors associated with climate change, such as higher temperatures, more intensive drought stress and associated biotic impacts since these changes exceed the adaptive capacity of the trees. The projected changes in temperature by 2.2 to 5.1 K from 1980 to 1999 to 2080 to 2099, for the A1B scenario in southern Europe [1], correspond to an altitudinal shift of 300 to ...

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Climate-induced forest dieback: an escalating global phenomenon?

Unasylva, Vol. 60, No. 231-232. (2009), pp. 43-49


Forests, which today cover 30 percent of the world’s land surface (FAO, 2006), are being rapidly and directly transformed in many areas by the impacts of expanding human populations and economies. Less evident are the pervasive effects of ongoing climatic changes on the condition and status of forests around the world. Recent examples of drought and heat-related forest stress and dieback (defined here as tree mortality noticeably above usual mortality levels) are being documented from all forested continents, making it possible ...


Darcy's law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, No. 7. (18 May 2015), pp. 669-672,


Nature Climate Change | Letter Print Share/bookmark Darcy's law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming Nathan G. McDowell & Craig D. Allen Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author Nature Climate Change 5, 669–672 (2015) Received 23 July 2014 Accepted 07 April ...


Can Apulia's olive trees be saved?

Science, Vol. 353, No. 6297. (2016), pp. 346-348,


On 21 October 2013, the Italian phytosanitary service notified the European Commission (EC) that the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa had been detected in olive trees near Gallipoli, a tourist destination in Italy's southern region of Apulia (1). This xylem-limited bacterium is spread by insect vectors and causes disease in crops such as grapevines, citrus, coffee, and almond; various ornamentals; and trees such as oaks, elms, and sycamores. Because of the risks of X. fastidiosa being introduced, established, and spread throughout Europe, ...


Characteristics of Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) surviving a spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) outbreak

Trees - Structure and Function In Trees, Vol. 25, No. 6. (24 May 2011), pp. 965-973,


The characteristics of spruce individuals, which survived a massive bark beetle outbreak, were compared with the characteristics of neighbouring attacked trees in Šumava National Park (Czech Republic). Selected parameters related to crown geometry, stand conditions and distances between trees were measured or estimated. Significant differences were found between the surviving trees and the neighbouring trees attacked by I. typographus. Trees with a higher level of stem shading (longer crown length) tended to survive. The attacked trees were usually located in areas ...


Homogenization in forest performance across an environmental gradient – The interplay between rainfall and topographic aspect

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 310 (December 2013), pp. 256-266,


[Highlights] [::] Large- and small-scale factors interact in their effect on forest performance. [::] Performance homogenization across habitats was linearly related to rainfall. [::] Homogenization was associated with drought conditions, both in time and space. [Abstract] This study aimed to investigate the interaction between local and regional environmental factors that affect forest performance during drought periods. In previous studies, contradictory results regarding the effect of aspect on forests performance, under different settings, were reported. However, each study focused on a different forest ecosystem at a different ...


Drought triggered tree mortality in mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 218, No. 1-3. (October 2005), pp. 229-244,


Tree mortality is an important process causing forest structural and compositional change. In this study, we investigate the influence of drought and topography on recent patterns of tree mortality in old-growth mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of northern California, USA. The surveyed stands have experienced a century of fire exclusion and are dominated by associations of Pinus ponderosa, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies concolor. The average age of trees in the stands was 88 ...


Fine-scale spruce mortality dynamics driven by bark beetle disturbance in Babia Góra National Park, Poland

European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 135, No. 3. (2016), pp. 507-517,


Bark beetle outbreaks have had major impacts on Norway spruce forests in Europe. The large majority of these forests are located in areas under forest management; thus, few studies have investigated outbreak-driven spruce mortality patterns unaffected by humans. Our study examined spruce mortality resultant from a beetle outbreak in a high-elevation, unmanaged forest over a 17-year span. We analyzed three tree-level survivorship and DBH datasets collected during pre-, mid-, and post-outbreak conditions to evaluate long-term mortality dynamics. We measured changes in ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 36

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   thaumetopoea-processionea   thaumetopoea-pytiocampa   thecodiplosis-japonensis   theobroma-cacao   theoretical-approach   theory-driven-bias   theory-vs-actual-implemetation   thermal-requirements   thermodynamics   thermophilous-forest   thermophilous-plants   thespesia-populnea   thinning   thomson-reuters   threat   threatened-species   three-gorges-dam   thresholds   thrinax-radiata   thuja-occidentalis   thuja-plicata   thuja-spp   tibet   tilia-americana   tilia-amurensis   tilia-argentea   tilia-cordata   tilia-dasystyla   tilia-platyphyllos   tilia-spp   tilia-tomentosa   tilio-acerion   tillage   timber-harvesting   timber-quality   timber-uses   timber-value   time-lags   time-series   tipovers   tipping-point   todo-replace-book-abstract-with-chapter-abstract   tolerance   tomicobia-seitneri   tomicus-spp   tool-driven   toona-ciliata   top-down   topographic-position-index   topographic-wetness-index   topography   topology   topsoil-grain-size   torcello   tornado   torreya-californica   torreya-spp   torreya-taxifolia   tortrix-viridana   tourism   toxicity   trade-offs   trade-regulations   traditional-remedy   training-course   trait-based-approach   transboundary-effects   transdiciplinary-scientific-communication   transdisciplinary-research   transect   transparency   transport-system   treculia-africana   tree-age   tree-breeding   tree-cancer   tree-defoliation   tree-density   tree-diseases   tree-diversity   tree-ecology   tree-fall   tree-fruits   tree-height   tree-limit   tree-line   tree-mortality   tree-rings   tree-sap   tree-seeds   tree-species   tree-virus   treefall   trichiocampus-viminalis   trinidad-island   tropical-areas   tropical-forest   tropical-mountain-forest   tropical-storms  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Expected effects of climate change on forest disturbance regimes in British Columbia

Journal of Ecosystems and Management, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2012)


Projections for forest disturbance and damage under a changing climate in British Columbia are summarized, with the objective of collating regionally specific expectations so that land managers can take pro-active steps to avoid or adapt to the changes expected. While some projections are based on extrapolations of recent multi-decadal trends, most are based on global climate models (GCMs) that must make assumptions about the range of CO2 emissions and the status of atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions over the next century. Regardless ...


On underestimation of global vulnerability to tree mortality and forest die-off from hotter drought in the Anthropocene

Ecosphere, Vol. 6, No. 8. (August 2015), art129,


Patterns, mechanisms, projections, and consequences of tree mortality and associated broad-scale forest die-off due to drought accompanied by warmer temperatures—“hotter drought”, an emerging characteristic of the Anthropocene—are the focus of rapidly expanding literature. Despite recent observational, experimental, and modeling studies suggesting increased vulnerability of trees to hotter drought and associated pests and pathogens, substantial debate remains among research, management and policy-making communities regarding future tree mortality risks. We summarize key mortality-relevant findings, differentiating between those implying lesser versus greater levels of ...


Increased evaporation following widespread tree mortality limits streamflow response

Water Resources Research, Vol. 50, No. 7. (1 July 2014), pp. 5395-5409,


A North American epidemic of mountain pine beetle (MPB) has disturbed over 5 million ha of forest containing headwater catchments crucial to water resources. However, there are limited observations of MPB effects on partitioning of precipitation between vapor loss and streamflow, and to our knowledge these fluxes have not been observed simultaneously following disturbance. We combined eddy covariance vapor loss (V), catchment streamflow (Q), and stable isotope indicators of evaporation (E) to quantify hydrologic partitioning over 3 years in MPB-impacted and ...


Density-dependent mortality and the latitudinal gradient in species diversity

Nature, Vol. 417, No. 6890. (13 June 2002), pp. 732-735,


Ecologists have long postulated that density-dependent mortality maintains high tree diversity in the tropics1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. If species experience greater mortality when abundant, then more rare species can persist1, 2, 7, 8, 9. Agents of density-dependent mortality (such as host-specific predators, and pathogens) may be more prevalent or have stronger effects in tropical forests, because they are not limited by climatic factors1, 2, 3, 4, 5. If so, decreasing density-dependent mortality with increasing latitude could partially explain the ...


Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 42. (10 October 2005), pp. 15144-15148,


Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and ...


Disturbance legacies and climate jointly drive tree growth and mortality in an intensively studied boreal forest

Global Change Biology (1 September 2013), pp. n/a-n/a,


Most North American forests are at some stage of post-disturbance regrowth, subject to a changing climate, and exhibit growth and mortality patterns that may not be closely coupled to annual environmental conditions. Distinguishing the possibly interacting effects of these processes is necessary to put short-term studies in a longer-term context, and particularly important for the carbon-dense, fire-prone boreal forest. The goals of this study were to combine dendrochronological sampling, inventory records, and machine-learning algorithms to understand how tree growth and death ...


Intermediate wind disturbance in an old-growth beech-fir forest in southeastern Slovenia

Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 36, No. 3. (March 2006), pp. 629-638,


We studied the immediate effects of two successive storms in 1983 and 2004 in an old-growth Fagus sylvatica L. - Abies alba Mill. forest in the Dinaric Alps, southeastern Slovenia. In the 1983 and 2004 storms the density and basal area of wind-killed trees were 27.4·ha-1 and 5.98 m 2·ha-1 and 11.2·ha-1 and 4.02 m2·ha-1, respectively. In both storm events, mid-sized to large stems were more prone to wind mortality than small stems, and A. alba was more susceptible than F. ...


Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. 49. (08 February 2009), pp. 20610-20615,


We examine the evidence for the possibility that 21st-century climate change may cause a large-scale “dieback” or degradation of Amazonian rainforest. We employ a new framework for evaluating the rainfall regime of tropical forests and from this deduce precipitation-based boundaries for current forest viability. We then examine climate simulations by 19 global climate models (GCMs) in this context and find that most tend to underestimate current rainfall. GCMs also vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia. We ...


A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (05 February 2010), pp. 660-684,


Greenhouse gas emissions have significantly altered global climate, and will continue to do so in the future. Increases in the frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress associated with climate change could fundamentally alter the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Of particular concern are potential increases in tree mortality associated with climate-induced physiological stress and interactions with other climate-mediated processes such as insect outbreaks and wildfire. Despite this risk, existing projections of tree mortality are ...

Visual summary


Predicting tree death for Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba using permanent plot data

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 18, No. 4. (2007), pp. 525-534,


Question: How well can mortality probabilities of deciduous trees(Fagus sylvatica) and conifers (Abies alba) be predicted using permanent plot data that describe growth patterns, tree species, tree size and site conditions? Location: Fagus forests in the montane belt of the Jura folds (Switzerland). Method: Permanent plot data were used to develop and validate logistic regression models predicting survival probabilities of individual trees. Backward model selection led to a reduced model containing the growth-related variable ‘relative basal area increment’ (growth-dependent ...


Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest drought stress and tree mortality

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 3. (30 September 2012), pp. 292-297,


As the climate changes, drought may reduce tree productivity and survival across many forest ecosystems; however, the relative influence of specific climate parameters on forest decline is poorly understood. We derive a forest drought-stress index (FDSI) for the southwestern United States using a comprehensive tree-ring data set representing AD 1000–2007. The FDSI is approximately equally influenced by the warm-season vapour-pressure deficit (largely controlled by temperature) and cold-season precipitation, together explaining 82% of the FDSI variability. Correspondence between the FDSI and measures ...


Relationships between change in fire frequency and mortality due to spruce budworm outbreak in the southeastern Canadian boreal forest

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 9, No. 4. (1998), pp. 492-500,


We present a simple empirical model that allows an estimation of mortality due to spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreak in relation to fire frequency and site characteristics. The occurrence of a recent spruce budworm outbreak around Lake Duparquet (48° 30’N, 79° 20’W, ca. 300 m a.s.l.) in northwestern Québec permitted a reconstruction of the stand composition before the outbreak, and also of the mortality of Abies balsamea due to the outbreak. The basal area of A. balsamea increases with time since ...


Plant health and global change - some implications for landscape management

Biological Reviews, Vol. 85, No. 4. (2010), pp. 729-755,


Global change (climate change together with other worldwide anthropogenic processes such as increasing trade, air pollution and urbanization) will affect plant health at the genetic, individual, population and landscape level. Direct effects include ecosystem stress due to natural resources shortage or imbalance. Indirect effects include (i) an increased frequency of natural detrimental phenomena, (ii) an increased pressure due to already present pests and diseases, (iii) the introduction of new invasive species either as a result of an improved suitability of the ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.