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Selection: with tag transdisciplinary-research [87 articles] 

 

Integrated environmental modeling: a vision and roadmap for the future

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 39 (January 2013), pp. 3-23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.09.006

Abstract

Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the extent of the environmental system involved, dynamic and interdependent nature of stressors and their impacts, diversity of stakeholders, and integration of social, economic, and environmental considerations. IEM provides a science-based structure to develop and organize relevant knowledge and information and apply it to ...

 

Exploring transdisciplinary integration within a large research program: empirical lessons from four thematic synthesis processes

  
Research Policy, Vol. 46, No. 3. (April 2017), pp. 678-692, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.01.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We adapt a framework to compare integration across four synthesis processes. [::] We identify challenges and derive recommendations for future synthesis processes. [::] We recommend initiating synthesis processes concurrently with research projects. [::] We consider professional competences and management skills crucial for integration. [::] We recommend the promotion of communities of practice to support integration. [Abstract] What challenges do researchers face when leading transdisciplinary integration? We address this question by analyzing transdisciplinary integration within four thematic synthesis processes of the Swiss National Research Programme (NRP 61) ...

 

Transdisciplinary global change research: the co-creation of knowledge for sustainability

  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 5, No. 3-4. (September 2013), pp. 420-431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.001

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A new framework for integrated, transdisciplinary global change research for sustainability is introduced. [::] From a practical perspective three different dimensions of integration (scientific, international and sectoral) are discussed. [::] Co-design of research agendas and co-production of knowledge are discussed as necessary integration approaches to address Future Earth research challenges. [Abstract] The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among ...

 

Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science

  
Ecosphere, Vol. 5, No. 1. (January 2014), art1, https://doi.org/10.1890/es13-00182.1

Abstract

Complex systems science provides a transdisciplinary framework to study systems characterized by (1) heterogeneity, (2) hierarchy, (3) self-organization, (4) openness, (5) adaptation, (6) memory, (7) non-linearity, and (8) uncertainty. Complex systems thinking has inspired both theory and applied strategies for improving ecosystem resilience and adaptability, but applications in forest ecology and management are just beginning to emerge. We review the properties of complex systems using four well-studied forest biomes (temperate, boreal, tropical and Mediterranean) as examples. The lens of complex systems ...

 

Good data are not enough

  
Nature, Vol. 539, No. 7627. (2 November 2016), pp. 23-25, https://doi.org/10.1038/539023a

Abstract

A vibrant scientific culture encourages many interpretations of evidence, argues Avi Loeb. [Excerpt] [...] Most research funding is allocated assuming that the highest-quality data will inevitably deliver useful scientific interpretation and theoretical concepts, which can be tested and refined by future data. [...] To truly move forward, free thought must be encouraged outside the mainstream. Multiple interpretations of existing data and alternative motivations for collecting new data must be supported. [...] [Blinkered view] Mayan cosmologists had high social status. They got generous support ...

 

Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, No. 9. (23 May 2016), pp. 885-890, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3039

Abstract

Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios ...

 

Why policy needs philosophers as much as it needs science

  
The Guardian, Vol. 2016, No. October, 13. (2016), 57b3q

Abstract

[Excerpt] In a widely-discussed recent essay for the New Atlantis, the policy scholar Daniel Sarewitz argues that science is in deep trouble. While modern research remains wondrously productive, its results are more ambiguous, contestable and dubious than ever before. This problem isn’t caused by a lack of funding or of scientific rigour. Rather, Sarewitz argues that we need to let go of a longstanding and cherished cultural belief – that science consists of uniquely objective knowledge that can put an end to ...

 

Enabling open science: Wikidata for Research (Wiki4R)

  
Research Ideas and Outcomes, Vol. 1 (22 December 2015), e7573, https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.1.e7573

Abstract

Wiki4R will create an innovative virtual research environment (VRE) for Open Science at scale, engaging both professional researchers and citizen data scientists in new and potentially transformative forms of collaboration. It is based on the realizations that (1) the structured parts of the Web itself can be regarded as a VRE, (2) such environments depend on communities, (3) closed environments are limited in their capacity to nurture thriving communities. Wiki4R will therefore integrate Wikidata, the multilingual semantic backbone behind Wikipedia, into ...

 

Visions of sustainability in bioeconomy research

  
Sustainability, Vol. 6, No. 3. (06 March 2014), pp. 1222-1249, https://doi.org/10.3390/su6031222

Abstract

The rise of the bioeconomy is usually associated with increased sustainability. However, various controversies suggest doubts about this assumed relationship. The objective of this paper is to identify different visions and the current understanding of the relationship between the bioeconomy and sustainability in the scientific literature by means of a systematic review. After a search in several databases, 87 scientific journal articles were selected for review. Results show that visions about the relationship between bioeconomy and sustainability differ substantially. Four different ...

 

Define the Anthropocene in terms of the whole Earth

  
Nature, Vol. 536, No. 7616. (17 August 2016), pp. 251-251, https://doi.org/10.1038/536251a

Abstract

Researchers must consider human impacts on entire Earth systems and not get trapped in discipline-specific definitions, says Clive Hamilton. [Excerpt] The Anthropocene was conceived by Earth-system scientists to capture the very recent rupture in Earth’s history arising from the impact of human activity on the Earth system as a whole. Read that again. Take special note of the phrases ‘very recent rupture’ and ‘the Earth system as a whole’. Understanding the Anthropocene, and what humanity now confronts, depends on a firm grasp of ...

 

Why doesn't your model pass information to mine?

  
In Workshop on Digital Mapping Techniques 2009 (2009)

Abstract

For several decades geologists have been making three-dimensional (3D) models. Various proprietary and open software tools have been developed which allow geoscientists to produce reasonable 3D representation of the geological system that they are studying. The model they produce is quite often an ‘island’ of independent information. For a long time this didn't matter as there were so few models that there were unlikely to be any adjacent models forming islands in the same sea area. However, that is changing, the ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 36

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   thaumetopoea-processionea   thaumetopoea-pytiocampa   thecodiplosis-japonensis   theobroma-cacao   theoretical-approach   theory-driven-bias   theory-vs-actual-implemetation   thermal-requirements   thermodynamics   thermophilous-forest   thermophilous-plants   thespesia-populnea   thinning   thomson-reuters   threat   threatened-species   three-gorges-dam   thresholds   thrinax-radiata   thuja-occidentalis   thuja-plicata   thuja-spp   tibet   tilia-americana   tilia-amurensis   tilia-argentea   tilia-cordata   tilia-dasystyla   tilia-platyphyllos   tilia-spp   tilia-tomentosa   tilio-acerion   tillage   timber-harvesting   timber-quality   timber-uses   timber-value   time-lags   time-series   tipovers   tipping-point   todo-replace-book-abstract-with-chapter-abstract   tolerance   tomicobia-seitneri   tomicus-spp   tool-driven   toona-ciliata   top-down   topographic-position-index   topographic-wetness-index   topography   topology   topsoil-grain-size   torcello   tornado   torreya-californica   torreya-spp   torreya-taxifolia   tortrix-viridana   tourism   toxicity   trade-offs   trade-regulations   traditional-remedy   training-course   trait-based-approach   transboundary-effects   transdiciplinary-scientific-communication   transdisciplinary-research   transect   transparency   transport-system   treculia-africana   tree-age   tree-breeding   tree-cancer   tree-defoliation   tree-density   tree-diseases   tree-diversity   tree-ecology   tree-fall   tree-fruits   tree-height   tree-limit   tree-line   tree-mortality   tree-rings   tree-sap   tree-seeds   tree-species   tree-virus   treefall   trichiocampus-viminalis   trinidad-island   tropical-areas   tropical-forest   tropical-mountain-forest   tropical-storms  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

A thirsty world

  
Science, Vol. 313, No. 5790. (2006), pp. 1067-1067, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.313.5790.1067

Abstract

[Excerpt] The search for fresh water—to drink, to bathe in, to irrigate crops—is a problem as old as civilization. Across the ages, cities have thrived where the supply is abundant and collapsed in the face of drought. Remarkably, despite the technological progress characterizing the modern era and the fact that most of Earth's surface is covered by oceans, the availability of fresh water remains a pressing concern throughout the world. In this special section, we highlight some of the diverse contemporary ...

 

Opportunities for advances in climate change economics

  
Science, Vol. 352, No. 6283. (15 April 2016), pp. 292-293, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad9634

Abstract

There have been dramatic advances in understanding the physical science of climate change, facilitated by substantial and reliable research support. The social value of these advances depends on understanding their implications for society, an arena where research support has been more modest and research progress slower. Some advances have been made in understanding and formalizing climate-economy linkages, but knowledge gaps remain [e.g., as discussed in (1, 2)]. We outline three areas where we believe research progress on climate economics is both ...

 

Rainfall infiltration and soil hydrological characteristics below ancient forest, planted forest and grassland in a temperate northern climate

  
Ecohydrology (2015), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1658

Abstract

How rainfall infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics develop over time under forests of different ages in temperate regions is poorly understood. In this study, infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics were investigated under forests of different ages and under grassland. Soil hydraulic characteristics were measured at different scales under a 250-year-old grazed grassland (GL), 6-year-old (6yr) and 48-year-old (48yr) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantations, remnant 300-year-old individual Scots pine (OT) and a 4000-year-old Caledonian Forest (AF). In situ field-saturated hydraulic ...

 

Grant giving: global funders to focus on interdisciplinarity

  
Nature, Vol. 525, No. 7569. (16 September 2015), pp. 313-315, https://doi.org/10.1038/525313a

Abstract

Granting bodies need more data on how much they are spending on work that transcends disciplines, and to what end, explains Rick Rylance. [Excerpt] Three arguments are often made in favour of interdisciplinary research. [::] First, complex modern problems such as climate change and resource security are not amenable to single-discipline investigation; they often require many types of expertise across the biological, physical and social disciplines. [::] Second, discoveries are said to be more likely on the boundaries between fields, where the ...

 

Interdisciplinarity: how to catalyse collaboration

  
Nature, Vol. 525, No. 7569. (16 September 2015), pp. 315-317, https://doi.org/10.1038/525315a

Abstract

Turn the fraught flirtation between the social and biophysical sciences into fruitful partnerships with these five principles, urge Rebekah R. Brown, Ana Deletic and Tony H. F. Wong. [Excerpt] An urgent push to bridge the divide between the biophysical and the social sciences is crucial. It is the only way to drive global sustainable development that delivers social inclusion, environmental sustainability and economic prosperity1. Sustainability is the classic 'wicked' problem, characterized by poorly defined requirements, unclear boundaries and contested causes that no ...

 

Interdisciplinary research by the numbers

  
Nature, Vol. 525, No. 7569. (16 September 2015), pp. 306-307, https://doi.org/10.1038/525306a

Abstract

An analysis reveals the extent and impact of research that bridges disciplines. [Excerpt] Interdisciplinary work is considered crucial by scientists, policymakers and funders — but how widespread is it really, and what impact does it have? Scholars say that the concept is complex to define and measure, but efforts to map papers by the disciplines of the journals they appear in and by their citation patterns are — tentatively — revealing the growth and influence of interdisciplinary research. [\n][...] [Interdisciplinary research takes time to ...

Visual summary

 

Why interdisciplinary research matters

  
Nature, Vol. 525, No. 305. (2015), https://doi.org/10.1038/525305a

Abstract

Scientists must work together to save the world. A special issue asks how they can scale disciplinary walls. [Excerpt] Scientists must work together to save the world. A special issue asks how they can scale disciplinary walls. To solve the grand challenges facing society — energy, water, climate, food, health — scientists and social scientists must work together. But research that transcends conventional academic boundaries is harder to fund, do, review and publish — and those who attempt it struggle for recognition ...

 

Study of a collaborative repository of semantic metadata and models for regional environmental datasets' multivariate transformations

  
(2015)
edited by Giorgio Guariso

Abstract

A semantic modelling procedure is introduced to ease array-based multivariate transformations of public environmental data, along with the architecture of a collaborative repository of modelling meta-information based on the procedure. [\n] The procedure, Semantic Array Programming (SemAP), is intended as a lightweight paradigm to support integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM), in the context of wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling for environment (WSTMe, here tested from catchment up to regional and continental scale). [\n] It is a common experience among computational scientists, ...

References

  1. Aalde, H., Gonzalez, P., Gytarsky, M., Krug, T., Kurz, W. A., Ogle, S., Raison, J., Schoene, D., Ravindranath, N. H., Elhassan, N. G., Heath, L. S., Higuchi, N., Kainja, S., Matsumoto, M., Sanz Sánchez, M. J., Somogyi, Z., 2006. Forest Land. Vol. 4 of IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Ch. 4, 83 pp. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_04_Ch4_Forest_Land.pdf .
 

Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

  
Infection and Immunity, Vol. 83, No. 4. (01 April 2015), pp. 1229-1233, https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.02939-14

Abstract

Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. ...

 

Boreal forests, aerosols and the impacts on clouds and climate

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 366, No. 1885. (28 December 2008), pp. 4613-4626, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2008.0201

Abstract

Previous studies have concluded that boreal forests warm the climate because the cooling from storage of carbon in vegetation and soils is cancelled out by the warming due to the absorption of the Sun's heat by the dark forest canopy. However, these studies ignored the impacts of forests on atmospheric aerosol. We use a global atmospheric model to show that, through emission of organic vapours and the resulting condensational growth of newly formed particles, boreal forests double regional cloud condensation nuclei ...

 

Moving beyond climate change

  
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 52, No. 3. (30 April 2010), pp. 15-19, https://doi.org/10.1080/00139151003761611

Abstract

[Excerpt] The rhetoric leading up to the Copenhagen Climate Summit last December (COP15) was deafening. [...] Copenhagen has shown us the limits of what can be achieved on climate change through centralization and hyperbolic multi-lateralism. Climate change—least of all, the Rubik’s cube version of climate change we have chosen to construct—will not be adequately defused through such top-down United Nations processes. Earth-system scientists may have shown us how the physical planetary system functions as a single entity, but we are a long way short of displaying even the minimum attributes necessary for effective earth system ...

 

LCLUC as an entry point for transdisciplinary research – Reflections from an agriculture land use change study in South Asia

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 148 (January 2015), pp. 42-52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.03.019

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Land use change is the most visible and complex form of change triggered by several determinants. [::] As multiple drivers shape land use change, transdisciplinary research is requisite for management. [::] Geospatial data, tools and techniques offers potential to connect disciplinary knowledge. [::] Role of effective ‘entry points’ is key to develop and scale transdisciplinary understanding. [::] LCLUC is explained as a good entry point. [Abstract] This article highlights applied understanding of classifying earth imaging data for land cover ...

References

  1. Aboelela, S.W., Larson, E., Bakken, S., Carrasquillo, O., Formicola, A., Glied, S.A., Haas, J., Gebbie, K.M., 2007. Defining interdisciplinary research: Conclusions from a critical review of the literature. Health Services Research, 42 (1 I), 329-346. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00621.x .
  2. Anu, A., Sabu, T.K., 2007. Biodiversity analysis of forest litter ant assemblages in the Wayanad region of Western Ghats using taxonomic and conventional diversity measures. Journal of Insect Science, 7, 6+. https://doi.org/10.1673/031.007.0601 .
 

Under the radar: mitigating enigmatic ecological impacts

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 11. (November 2014), pp. 635-644, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2014.09.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] There are ecological impacts that are overlooked by standard impact evaluations. [::] These ‘enigmatic’ impacts can be cumulative, offsite, cryptic, or secondary. [::] Enigmatic impacts can act synergistically and are hard to detect and mitigate. [::] Potential solutions include strategic assessments and insurance schemes. [Abstract] Identifying the deleterious ecological effects of developments, such as roads, mining, and urban expansion, is essential for informing development decisions and identifying appropriate mitigation actions. However, there are many types of ecological impacts that slip ‘under the radar’ of conventional ...

 

Dealing with femtorisks in international relations

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (09 December 2014), pp. 17356-17362, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400229111

Abstract

The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential “actors” take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. ...

 

Importing Timber, Exporting Ecological Impact

  
Science, Vol. 308, No. 5720. (15 April 2005), pp. 359-360, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1109476

Abstract

Covering 32% of the planet, boreal forests are one of the last relatively intact terrestrial biomes, and are a critical carbon sink in global climate dynamics. Mature and old-growth boreal forests provide a large number of products that are culturally and economically important, from wood-based lumber, pulp, and fuel wood, to numerous nonwood products. Intensive wood harvest and conservation of naturally dynamic intact forests tend to be mutually exclusive; where biodiversity is highly valued, wood harvests are limited or banned outright. ...

 

Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Environmental Sustainability: A Resource Base and Framework for IT-Enabled Business Transformation

  
MIS Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 1. (2011), pp. 197-236

Abstract

The quality and future of human existence are directly related to the condition of our natural environment, but we are damaging the environment. Scientific evidence has mounted a compelling case that human behavior is responsible for deterioration in the Earth’s natural environment, with the rate of deterioration predicted to increase in the future. Acknowledging this evidence, the governments of 192 countries have formally agreed to take action to resolve problems with the climate system, one of the most highly stressed parts ...

 

Multifunctional landscapes - towards transdisciplinary research

  
Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 57, No. 3-4. (December 2001), pp. 159-168, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-2046(01)00201-8

Abstract

This paper deals with the process of integration required to study multifunctionality in agricultural landscapes. It examines what we really understand by integration between subject disciplines and how we can move from independent parallel disciplinary studies carried out in the same area to increasing degrees of interdisciplinarity. I explore the current interest in interdisciplinarity with the aim of mapping out what we can expect interdisciplinary research to achieve and what it will not. The main part of the paper examines the ...

 

Precaution, foresight and sustainability: reflection and reflexivity in the governance of science and technology

  
In Reflexive Governance for Sustainable Development (2006), pp. 225-273, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781847200266.00020

Abstract

[Excerpt] The introductory chapter to this volume demonstrates how the advent of the ‘sustainability agenda’ holds crucial significance for the prospects of more reflexive governance. (Voß and Kemp, this volume). Nowhere is this truer than in the governance of science and technology. Discourses on sustainability are dominated by understandings and possibilities mediated by science. They are pervaded by the aims and potentialities associated with different forms of technology. It is also the experience of the unfolding implications of twentieth-century science ...

 

Intensified Arctic warming under greenhouse warming by vegetation–atmosphere–sea ice interaction

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 9, No. 9. (01 September 2014), 094007, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/9/094007

Abstract

Observations and modeling studies indicate that enhanced vegetation activities over high latitudes under an elevated CO 2 concentration accelerate surface warming by reducing the surface albedo. In this study, we suggest that vegetation-atmosphere-sea ice interactions over high latitudes can induce an additional amplification of Arctic warming. Our hypothesis is tested by a series of coupled vegetation-climate model simulations under 2xCO 2 environments. The increased vegetation activities over high latitudes under a 2xCO 2 condition induce additional surface warming ...

 

Species selection for soil reinforcement and protection

  
In Slope Stability and Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions (2008), pp. 167-210, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6676-4_6

Abstract

Species selection is vitally important for ensuring the success of any ecotechnological solution that may be employed on a particular site. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the engineer with a database of plant species that are suitable for both soil and slope stability by either mechanical or hydrological means, i.e., anchoring and buttressing of deep tap roots; bank and channel reinforcement; deep reinforcement and soil strength enhancement; removing soil moisture, surface protection, shallow reinforcement and erosion control. Protection ...

 

The potential of transdisciplinary research for sustaining and extending linkages between the health and social sciences

  
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 11. (December 1992), pp. 1343-1357, https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(92)90038-r

Abstract

The last decade of the twentieth century is witnessing a profusion of projects drawing together social and health scientists to study and recommend solutions for a wide range of health problems. The process—practices in both developed and developing countries—is usually called multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary research. Its historical precedents are briefly reviewed in this paper along with the types of problems addressed. From a review and discussion of a sample of projects selected from two major proponents of this approach to research, ...

 

From science to policy through transdisciplinary research

  
Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 11, No. 1. (February 2008), pp. 46-53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2007.06.001

Abstract

Is transdisciplinary research a useful means of bridging science and policy? And does transdisciplinarity go beyond informing public agencies, the private sector, or civil society of the results of research? The interacting policy cultures serve as a framework for studying transdisciplinary projects funded by two environmental research programs, the Swiss Priority Program Environment (SPPE) and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (MISTRA). Two types of projects are distinguished. Researchers in projects of the first type reorganize knowledge according to the ...

 

All models are wrong: reflections on becoming a systems scientist

  
Syst. Dyn. Rev., Vol. 18, No. 4. (1 December 2002), pp. 501-531, https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.261

Abstract

Thoughtful leaders increasingly recognize that we are not only failing to solve the persistent problems we face, but are in fact causing them. System dynamics is designed to help avoid such policy resistance and identify high-leverage policies for sustained improvement. What does it take to be an effective systems thinker, and to teach system dynamics fruitfully? Understanding complex systems requires mastery of concepts such as feedback, stocks and flows, time delays, and nonlinearity. Research shows that these concepts are highly counterintuitive ...

 

Landscape ecology: its role as a trans-disciplinary science for rangeland sustainability

  
The Rangeland Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4. (2013), 363, https://doi.org/10.1071/rj12067

Abstract

The aim is to review landscape ecology and the contribution it can make to sustainable rangeland management, using Australia as an example. An examination is made of how much traditional ecology, as a discipline, influences landscape ecology in Australia. Also evaluated is whether, under this influence, landscape ecology is emerging as effectively as it could be as a trans-disciplinary science that can contribute significantly to rangeland sustainability. Surveys of landscape ecologists in Australia make it possible to classify Australian landscape ecology ...

 

Framework for participative reflection on the accomplishment of transdisciplinary research programs

  
Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 13, No. 8. (22 December 2010), pp. 733-741, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2010.08.002

Abstract

In response to the increasingly complex social–ecological issues facing society, there is a growing trend to conduct environmental research in large collaborative programs. This approach is described as transdisciplinary research as it transcends formal disciplinary boundaries, explicitly acknowledges that many different perspectives are relevant to the resolution of complex problems, and actively involves the users of research. This poses challenges for the evaluation of “impact” as any evaluation process must take into consideration the different expectations, values, culture, language and reward ...

 

Nurture your scientific curiosity early in your research career

  
Nature Genetics, Vol. 45, No. 2. (29 January 2013), pp. 116-118, https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2527

Abstract

Uncertainty makes scientific research challenging and at the same time exciting. Whereas curiosity and passion for uncovering the unknown drive future generations of researchers, the landscape of science has changed. We investigated whether the requirements for having a successful research career are changing, and whether junior researchers are aware of these requirements. Structured discussion with peers and more experienced researchers can point the way forward to an excellent career. ...

 

Improving the culture of interdisciplinary collaboration in ecology by expanding measures of success

  
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 12, No. 1. (February 2014), pp. 39-47, https://doi.org/10.1890/120370

Abstract

[Abstract] Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to understand ecological systems at scales critical to human decision making. Current reward structures are problematic for scientists engaged in interdisciplinary research, particularly early career researchers, because academic culture tends to value only some research outputs, such as primary-authored publications. Here, we present a framework for the costs and benefits of collaboration, with a focus on early career stages, and show how the implementation of novel measures of success can help defray the costs of collaboration. ...

 

Collaboration and productivity in scientific synthesis

  
BioScience, Vol. 61, No. 11. (01 November 2011), pp. 900-910, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.11.9

Abstract

Scientific synthesis has transformed ecological research and presents opportunities for advancements across the sciences; to date, however, little is known about the antecedents of success in synthesis. Building on findings from 10 years of detailed research on social interactions in synthesis groups at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, we demonstrated with large-scale quantitative analyses that face-to-face interaction has been vital to success in synthesis groups, boosting the production of peer-reviewed publications. But it has been about more than ...

 

On the role of climate forcing by volcanic sulphate and volcanic ash

  
Advances in Meteorology, Vol. 2014 (2014), pp. 1-17, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/340123

Abstract

There is overall agreement that volcanic sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere can reduce solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface for years, thereby reducing surface temperatures, affecting global circulation patterns and generally the global climate system. However, the response of the climate system after large volcanic eruptions is not fully understood and global climate models have difficulties to reproduce the observed variability of the earth system after large volcanic eruptions until now. For geological timescales, it has been suggested that, in addition ...

 

Land ownership drives stand structure and carbon storage of deciduous temperate forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 305 (October 2013), pp. 146-157, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.013

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We sampled clusters of beech dominated forest stands of different land ownership. [::] Forest ownership drives stand structure; biogeography determines tree diversity. [::] Carbon storage is higher in small-scale private forests than in public forests. [::] Small-scale private forests comprise higher habitat diversity and dead wood amounts. [::] Consideration of ownership is central for forest conservation on a landscape-scale. [Abstract] In European cultural landscapes, forest area is subdivided into a mosaic of stands of different ownership types and sizes. Differences in ownership and ...

 

A case study of forest change in the Swiss lowlands

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 14, No. 6. (1999), pp. 567-576, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1008168209725

Abstract

This paper presents a regional case study of forest development and the history of forest use and management in the north-eastern lowlands of Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries. The analysis draws on historical documents related to forestry to consider the following aspects of forest change: forest types, growing stock, trees species composition and non-timber forest uses. Based on the data presented, three overlapping periods of forest use and management can be discerned. The ‘period of traditional multiple use’ lasted ...

 

Climate policy: streamline IPCC reports

  
Nature, Vol. 508, No. 7495. (4 April 2014), pp. 171-173, https://doi.org/10.1038/508171a

Abstract

As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change asks how its assessment process should evolve, Dave Griggs argues for decadal updates and eased workloads. [Excerpt] Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has gained a justified reputation for producing the most up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative statements of our knowledge of climate change, this has come at a cost to the scientific community. On 13 April, the IPCC releases the last part of its Fifth Assessment Report. Each report has become longer — ...

 

Climate impacts in Europe - The JRC PESETA II project

  
edited by J. C. Ciscar

Abstract

The objective of the JRC PESETA II project is to gain insights into the sectoral and regional patterns of climate change impacts in Europe by the end of this century. The study uses a large set of climate model runs and impact categories (ten impacts: agriculture, energy, river floods, droughts, forest fires, transport infrastructure, coasts, tourism, habitat suitability of forest tree species and human health). The project integrates biophysical direct climate impacts into a macroeconomic economic model, which enables the comparison ...

References

  1. Aaheim, A., Amundsen, H., Dokken, T., Wei, T., 2012. Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change in European Economies. Global Environmental Change 22(4), 959-968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.06.005 .
  2. Alley, R.B., Whillans, I.M., 1991. Changes in the West Antarctic ice sheet. Science 254 (5034), 959–963. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.254.5034.959 .
  3. Anstey, J., Davini, P., Gray, L., Woollings, T., 2012. Multi-model analysis of winter blocking and tropospheric jet variability: The roles of horizontal and vertical resolution. Submitted to J.
 

Even for slide-prone region, landslide was off the chart

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6179. (4 April 2014), pp. 16-17, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.344.6179.16

Abstract

The rugged terrain inland of Seattle is prone to landslides. Yet the latest Oso landslide, which killed at least 27 people on 22 March, stands out as an anomaly. Calculations suggest that it flowed three times farther than slides of similar size and elevation drop, most likely due to the effect of heavy rains on the region's glacier-deposited soils. ...

 

Making use of the ecosystem services concept in regional planning - trade-offs from reducing water erosion

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology (2014), pp. 1-15, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-9992-3

Abstract

In this article we demonstrate how to integrate the ecosystem services concept into regional planning using the example of a case study in Saxony, Germany. We analysed how the reduction of water erosion as a regulating service impacts six other ecosystem services. Ecological integrity, provisioning services (provision of food and fibre, provision of biomass), regulating services (soil erosion protection, drought-risk regulation, flood regulation), and the cultural service landscape aesthetics are taken into account. Using a decision support software, we found that ...

 

New permafrost is forming around shrinking Arctic lakes, but will it last?

  
Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 41, No. 5. (16 February 2014), pp. 2014GL059251-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059251

Abstract

Widespread lake shrinkage in cold regions has been linked to climate warming and permafrost thaw. Permafrost aggradation, however, has been observed within the margins of recently receded lakes, in seeming contradiction of climate warming. Here permafrost aggradation dynamics are examined at Twelvemile Lake, a retreating lake in interior Alaska. Observations reveal patches of recently formed permafrost within the dried lake margin, colocated with discrete bands of willow shrub. We test ecological succession, which alters shading, infiltration, and heat transport, as the ...

 

The relationship between acquaintanceship and coauthorship in scientific collaboration networks

  
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 62, No. 11. (November 2011), pp. 2121-2132, https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.21629

Abstract

This article examines the relationship between acquaintanceship and coauthorship patterns in a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional, geographically distributed research center. Two social networks are constructed and compared: a network of coauthorship, representing how researchers write articles with one another, and a network of acquaintanceship, representing how those researchers know each other on a personal level, based on their responses to an online survey. Statistical analyses of the topology and community structure of these networks point to the importance of small-scale, local, personal networks ...

 

The equity and legitimacy of markets for ecosystem services

  
Development and Change, Vol. 38, No. 4. (July 2007), pp. 587-613, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2007.00425.x

Abstract

Markets for ecosystem services are being promoted across the developing world, amidst claims that the provision of economic incentives is vital to bring about resource conservation. This article argues that equity and legitimacy are also critical dimensions in the design and implementation of such markets, if social development goals beyond economic gains are to be achieved. The article examines this issue by focusing on two communities involved in a project for carbon sequestration services of forests in the state of Chiapas, ...

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