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Selection: with tag system-engineering [32 articles] 


A new definition of complexity in a risk analysis setting

Reliability Engineering & System Safety (November 2017),


[Highlights] [::] A new definition of complexity is presented [::] It allows for improved clarity on the links between complexity and risk [::] The idea is to link complexity to activities, and the knowledge about the consequences of these at different levels [Abstract] In this paper, we discuss the concept of complexity in a risk analysis context. Inspired by the work of Johansen and Rausand, a new perspective on complexity is presented which includes several common definitions of complexity as special cases. The idea ...


System-of-Systems engineering management: a review of modern history and a path forward

IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4. (18 December 2008), pp. 484-499,


As our knowledge of system of systems (SoS) has grown and evolved, so has our understanding of how to engineer and manage them. In systems engineering, we develop architectures and frameworks to bring meaning to this kind of uncertainty, but for SoS engineering (SoSE) we are still in search of how we can structure this understanding. In this paper, we review the SoS literature to illustrate the need to create an SoSE management framework based on the demands of constant technological ...


System of Systems - the meaning of of

System of Systems Engineering In 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, Vol. 0 (10 July 2006), pp. 118-123,


We present distinguishing characteristics (i.e. autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence), that can help us to recognize or to realize a System of Systems (SoS). The principle differentiation that we make between a thing being either a 'system' or a SoS focuses on the nature of a system's composition. We will distinctly define this set of distinguishing characteristics which will include a set of cross references from our literature research where we believe others are articulating our chosen differentiating characteristics. We ...


Risk and resilience lessons from Venice

Environment Systems and Decisions, Vol. 34, No. 3. (2014), pp. 378-382,


In the history of disasters in Venice, there are implications for modern times in terms of complex systems management and emerging threats, in particular from examples of risk management and resilience achieved by the Venetian state during outbreaks of the plague. In fourteenth century Venice, risk assessment the way we practice it today would fail to provide meaningful recommendations to reduce the casualty rate of the plague epidemic because the cause and transmission of the disease was not understood. Instead, a ...


Changing the resilience paradigm

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 6. (28 May 2014), pp. 407-409,


Resilience management goes beyond risk management to address the complexities of large integrated systems and the uncertainty of future threats, especially those associated with climate change. [Excerpt] In summary, risk analysis and risk management based on probabilistic quantitative methods have been widely adopted and have been useful for dealing with foreseeable and calculable stress situations. Benchmarks and thresholds for risk analysis are built into the regulations and policies of organizations and nations; however, this approach is no longer sufficient to address the ...


They write the right stuff

Fast Company, Vol. 6 (December 1996), 28121


[Excerpt] As the 120-ton space shuttle sits surrounded by almost 4 million pounds of rocket fuel, exhaling noxious fumes, visibly impatient to defy gravity, its on-board computers take command. Four identical machines, running identical software, pull information from thousands of sensors, make hundreds of milli-second decisions, vote on every decision, check with each other 250 times a second. A fifth computer, with different software, stands by to take control should the other four malfunction. [\n] At T-minus 6.6 seconds, if the pressures, pumps, and temperatures are nominal, ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 39

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   stakeholder-and-community-participation   stand-composition   stand-density   stand-structure   standard   standardized-precipitation-evapotranspiration-index   standardized-precipitation-index   staphylea-colchica   staphylea-pinnata   staphylococcus-aureus   state-shift   stationarity   statistical-downscaling   statistics   stegophora-ulmea   stem-canker   stem-rot   stem-rust   stepping-stones   sterculia-foetida   sterculia-urens   sterilization   sternochetus-mangiferae   stigmella-spp   stochastic-dynamic-programming   stochastic-state-transition   stomatal-conductance   stone-weierstrass-theorem   stoniness   storage   storm   storm-intensity   strategy   strategy-vs-tactic   stratification   string-instrument   strix-uralensis   strobus   strom   strophosoma-melanogrammus   structure   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   stunting   subalpine   subalpine-belt   subtropical-areas   subtropical-climate   subtropical-forest   subtropical-forests   subtropical-mountain-system   succession   succession-pathways   sudden-changes   sudden-oak-death   sudden-transition   sudden-transitions   sulphates   sulphur   sumava-national-park   sun   super-derecho   super-terminal-speed   supervised-training   supply-chain   support-vector-machines   supporting-services   surface-roughness   surprise   survey   survival   sus-scrofa   susceptibility   sustainability   sustainable-development   sustainable-forest   sustainable-forest-management   sustainable-forestry   sweden   swietenia-macrophylla   swiss   switzerland   syagrus-romanzoffiana   sycamore   symbiosis   symphoricarpos-albus   symphoricarpos-spp   symphytum-tauricum   symptoms   synanthropic-species   synergy   synonyms   syntax-vs-semantics   syntaxonomy   system   system-catastrophe   system-dynamics   system-engineering   system-of-systems   system-theory  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


A decline in prosocial language helps explain public disapproval of the US Congress

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 21. (26 May 2015), pp. 6591-6594,


[Significance] Past laboratory research has shown that talking about helping others can make a positive impression upon a listener. We tested whether this basic social-cognitive phenomenon can help explain how governments gain the confidence of the public they serve. A computerized text analysis of the debates of the US Congress over the past 20 y found that the density of prosocial language strongly predicted public approval ratings 6 mo later. These results suggest that both individuals and governments can gain social approval ...


Reproducible research [From the Editor]

Control Systems, IEEE, Vol. 34, No. 4. (August 2014), pp. 6-7,


One of the concerns of the broader field of computational research is whether the results that are published are reproducible. When the author had a position as a senior research scientist at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in the late 1990s, he had a conversation with a computational physicist who said that most simulation codes in his field were not made publicly available, and it was his opinion that at least 95% of those codes contained major errors that result ...


All models are wrong: reflections on becoming a systems scientist

Syst. Dyn. Rev., Vol. 18, No. 4. (1 December 2002), pp. 501-531,


Thoughtful leaders increasingly recognize that we are not only failing to solve the persistent problems we face, but are in fact causing them. System dynamics is designed to help avoid such policy resistance and identify high-leverage policies for sustained improvement. What does it take to be an effective systems thinker, and to teach system dynamics fruitfully? Understanding complex systems requires mastery of concepts such as feedback, stocks and flows, time delays, and nonlinearity. Research shows that these concepts are highly counterintuitive ...


Errors in systems approaches

International Journal of System of Systems Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 3/4. (2012), 233,


Understanding and treating problems in complex systems, independent of the systems construct (i.e., socio–technical systems or socio–ecological systems), dictates the use of a formal systems approach. The systems approach may be methodological, a method, or a technique, but in each case it involves the imposition of order that ranges from the philosophical to the procedural. Independent of the philosophical construct or procedural rigour used in addressing the complex systems problem is the opportunity to commit a number of errors as part ...


IDEO's culture of helping

Harvard Business Review, Vol. 2014, No. 1. (2014)


[Excerpt] Few things leaders can do are more important than encouraging helping behavior within their organizations. In the top-performing companies it is a norm that colleagues support one another’s efforts to do the best work possible. That has always been true for pragmatic reasons: If companies were to operate at peak efficiency without what organizational scholars call “citizenship behavior,” tasks would have to be optimally assigned 100% of the time, projects could not take any unexpected turns, and no part ...


Reservoir-system simulation and optimization techniques

Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment In Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Vol. 27, No. 7. (2013), pp. 1751-1772,


Reservoir operation is one of the challenging problems for water resources planners and managers. In developing countries the end users are represented by the water sectors in most parts and conflict over water is resolved at the agency level. This paper discusses an overview of simulation and optimization modeling methods utilized in resolving critical issues with regard to reservoir systems. In designing a highly efficient as well as effective dam and reservoir operational system, reservoir simulation constitutes one of the most ...


Design of water-resource systems



[Excerpt] Introduction. The purpose of this book is to improve the methodology of designing water-resource systems. In this respect it differs basically from the many volumes on water resources published in the last decade, which have been concerned mainly with governmental organization for development of resources, the economics of project evaluation, and the collection and evaluation of basic data. Systematic research on the methodology of system design, such as underlies this book, has been neglected in spite of the marked growth ...


Complex dynamics in learning complicated games

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 4. (22 January 2013), pp. 1232-1236,


Game theory is the standard tool used to model strategic interactions in evolutionary biology and social science. Traditionally, game theory studies the equilibria of simple games. However, is this useful if the game is complicated, and if not, what is? We define a complicated game as one with many possible moves, and therefore many possible payoffs conditional on those moves. We investigate two-person games in which the players learn based on a type of reinforcement learning called experience-weighted attraction (EWA). By ...


Free and Open Source Software underpinning the European Forest Data Centre

Geophysical Research Abstracts In European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2013, Vol. 15 (2013), 12101,


Worldwide, governments are growingly focusing on free and open source software (FOSS) as a move toward transparency and the freedom to run, copy, study, change and improve the software. The European Commission (EC) is also supporting the development of FOSS [...]. In addition to the financial savings, FOSS contributes to scientific knowledge freedom in computational science (CS) and is increasingly rewarded in the science-policy interface within the emerging paradigm of open science. Since complex computational science applications may be affected by ...


Large-scale complex IT systems

Commun. ACM, Vol. 55, No. 7. (July 2012), pp. 71-77,


The reductionism behind today's software-engineering methods breaks down in the face of systems complexity. ...


Toward open science at the European scale: Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for integrated environmental modelling

Geophysical Research Abstracts In European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2013, Vol. 15 (2013), 13245,


[Excerpt] Interfacing science and policy raises challenging issues when large spatial-scale (regional, continental, global) environmental problems need transdisciplinary integration within a context of modelling complexity and multiple sources of uncertainty. This is characteristic of science-based support for environmental policy at European scale, and key aspects have also long been investigated by European Commission transnational research. Approaches (either of computational science or of policy-making) suitable at a given domain-specific scale may not be appropriate for wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling for environment (WSTMe) and ...


Software-level soft-error mitigation techniques

In Soft Errors in Modern Electronic Systems, Vol. 41 (2011), pp. 253-285,


Several application domains exist, where the effects of Soft Errors on processor-based systems cannot be faced by acting on the hardware (either by changing the technology, or the components, or the architecture, or whatever else). In these cases, an attractive solution lies in just modifying the software: the ability to detect and possibly correct errors is obtained by introducing redundancy in the code and in the data, without modifying the underlying hardware. This chapter provides an overview of the methods resorting ...


Computational Sustainability: Computational methods for a sustainable environment, economy, and society

The Bridge, Vol. 39, No. 4. (2009), pp. 5-13


The dramatic depletion of natural resources in the last century now threatens our planet and the livelihood of future generations. Our Common Future, a report by the World Commission on Environment and Develop- ment published in 1987, introduced for the first time the notion of “sus- tainable development: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (UNEP, 1987). The concerns raised in that report were reiterated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). In ...


Algorithm Engineering - An Attempt at a Definition

In Efficient Algorithms, Vol. 5760 (2009), pp. 321-340,


This paper defines algorithm engineering as a general methodology for algorithmic research. The main process in this methodology is a cycle consisting of algorithm design, analysis, implementation and experimental evaluation that resembles Popper’s scientific method. Important additional issues are realistic models, algorithm libraries, benchmarks with real-world problem instances, and a strong coupling to applications. Algorithm theory with its process of subsequent modelling, design, and analysis is not a competing approach to algorithmics but an important ingredient of algorithm engineering. ...


Reverse Engineering of Biological Complexity

Science, Vol. 295, No. 5560. (01 March 2002), pp. 1664-1669,


Advanced technologies and biology have extremely different physical implementations, but they are far more alike in systems-level organization than is widely appreciated. Convergent evolution in both domains produces modular architectures that are composed of elaborate hierarchies of protocols and layers of feedback regulation, are driven by demand for robustness to uncertain environments, and use often imprecise components. This complexity may be largely hidden in idealized laboratory settings and in normal operation, becoming conspicuous only when contributing to rare cascading failures. These ...


The “physics” of notations: toward a scientific basis for constructing visual notations in software engineering

Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 35, No. 6. (15 November 2009), pp. 756-779,


Visual notations form an integral part of the language of software engineering (SE). Yet historically, SE researchers and notation designers have ignored or undervalued issues of visual representation. In evaluating and comparing notations, details of visual syntax are rarely discussed. In designing notations, the majority of effort is spent on semantics, with graphical conventions largely an afterthought. Typically, no design rationale, scientific or otherwise, is provided for visual representation choices. While SE has developed mature methods for evaluating and designing semantics, ...


‘Integronsters’, integral and integrated modeling

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 39 (January 2013), pp. 149-158,


In many cases model integration treats models as software components only, ignoring the fluid relationship between models and reality, the evolving nature of models and their constant modification and recalibration. As a result, with integrated models we find increased complexity, where changes that used to impact only relatively contained models of subsystems, now propagate throughout the whole integrated system. This makes it harder to keep the overall complexity under control and, in a way, defeats the purpose of modularity, when efficiency ...


Engineering the Software for Understanding Climate Change

Computing in Science & Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 6. (17 November 2009), pp. 65-74,


Climate scientists build large, complex simulations with little or no software engineering training—and don't readily adopt the latest software engineering tools and techniques. This ethnographic study of climate scientists shows that their culture and practices share many features of agile and open source projects, but with highly customized software validation and verification techniques. ...


Antipatterns in the Creation of Intelligent Systems

Intelligent Systems, IEEE In Intelligent Systems, Vol. 22, No. 1. (January 2007), pp. 91-95,


A design pattern is a named problem-solution pair that enables large-scale reuse of software architectures or their components. Ideally, patterns explicitly capture expert knowledge, design trade-offs, and design rationale and make these lessons learned widely available for off-the-shelf use. They can also enhance developers' vocabulary - for example, by easing the transition to object-oriented programming. Conventionally, patterns consist of four elements: a name, the problem to be solved, the solution to the problem (often termed the refactored solution), and the consequences ...


Computer programming as an art

Communications of the ACM, Vol. 17, No. 12. (1 December 1974), pp. 667-673,


When Communications of the ACM began publication in 1959, the members of ACM's Editorial Board made the following remark as they described the purposes of ACM's periodicals [2]: “If computer programming is to become an important part of computer research and development, a transition of programming from an art to a disciplined science must be effected.” Such a goal has been a continually recurring theme during the ensuing years; for example, we read in 1970 of the “first steps toward transforming ...


Performance Anti-Patterns

Queue, Vol. 4, No. 1. (February 2006), pp. 44-50,


Performance pathologies can be found in almost any software, from user to kernel, applications, drivers, etc. At Sun we’ve spent the last several years applying state-of-the-art tools to a Unix kernel, system libraries, and user applications, and have found that many apparently disparate performance problems in fact have the same underlying causes. Since software patterns are considered abstractions of positive experience, we can talk about the various approaches that led to these performance problems as anti-patterns—something to be avoided rather than ...


Complexity, its in the mind of the beholder

The Journal of Object Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1. (2006), pp. 31-37,


Complexity is a much analyzed, much debated, much measured property of software-intensive products. From a strategic point of view, complexity has implications for the development and evolution of software-intensive products. In this issue of Strategic Software Engineering I will consider multiple views of complexity, sources of complexity and actions that manage complexity. ...


Complex Engineered Systems: A New Paradigm

In Complex Engineered Systems, Vol. 14 (2006), pp. 1-21,


Human history is often seen as an inexorable march towards greater complexity — in ideas, artifacts, social, political and economic systems, technology, and in the structure of life itself. While we do not have detailed knowledge of ancient times, it is reasonable to conclude that the average resident of New York City today faces a world of much greater complexity than the average denizen of Carthage or Tikal. A careful consideration of this change, however, suggests that most of it has ...


Emergent Engineering: a Radical Paradigm Shift

Int. J. Auton. Adapt. Commun. Syst., Vol. 4, No. 1. (1 December 2011), pp. 39-60,


We shed light on the disruptive advances brought by the ubiquity of computing and communication environments, which link devices and people in unprecedented ways into a new kind of techno?social systems and infrastructures recently named 'cyber-physical ecosystems' (CPE). While pointing to fundamental biases that prevent the traditional engineering school of thought from coping with the magnitude in scale and complexity of these new technological developments, we attempt to lay out the foundation for a new way of thinking about systems design, ...


When systems engineering fails-toward complex systems engineering

Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2003. IEEE International Conference on In Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2003. IEEE International Conference on, Vol. 2 (October 2003), pp. 2021-2028 vol.2,


We review the lessons learned from problems with systems engineering over the past couple of decades and suggest that there are two effective strategies for overcoming them: (1) restricting the conventional systems engineering process to not-too-complex projects, and (2) adopting an evolutionary paradigm for complex systems engineering that involves rapid parallel exploration and a context designed to promote change through competition between design/implementation groups with field testing of multiple variants. The second approach is an extension of many of the increasingly ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.