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Selection: with tag statistics [148 articles] 

 

Percentiles

  
In NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods (2012), 7.2.6.2

Abstract

[Excerpt: Definitions of order statistics and ranks] For a series of measurements Y1, …, YN, denote the data ordered in increasing order of magnitude by Y〈1〉, …, Y〈N〉. These ordered data are called order statistics. If Y〈j〉 is the order statistic that corresponds to the measurement Yᵢ, then the rank for Yᵢ is j; i.e., [::] Y〈j〉 ∼ Yᵢ, rᵢ=j. [Definition of percentiles] Order statistics provide a way of estimating proportions of the data that should fall above and below a ...

 

Sample quantiles in statistical packages

  
The American Statistician, Vol. 50, No. 4. (1 November 1996), pp. 361-365, https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.1996.10473566

Abstract

There are a large number of different definitions used for sample quantiles in statistical computer packages. Often within the same package one definition will be used to compute a quantile explicitly, while other definitions may be used when producing a boxplot, a probability plot, or a QQ plot. We compare the most commonly implemented sample quantile definitions by writing them in a common notation and investigating their motivation and some of their properties. We argue that there is a need to ...

 

Remote sensing monitoring of land restoration interventions in semi-arid environments with a before–after control-impact statistical design

  
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 59 (July 2017), pp. 42-52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2017.02.016

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A rapid, standardised and objective assessment of the biophysical impact of restoration interventions is proposed. [::] The intervention impact is evaluated by a before–after control-impact sampling design. [::] The method provides a statistical test of the no-change hypothesis and the estimation of the relative magnitude of the change. [::] The method is applicable to NDVI and other remote sensing-derived variables. [Abstract] Restoration interventions to combat land degradation are carried out in arid and semi-arid areas to improve vegetation cover and land productivity. Evaluating the success ...

 

Countering European brain drain

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6339. (19 May 2017), pp. 695-696, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan3920

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Mobile European researchers who went to the United States were significantly more likely to report strong positive career effects than their mobile peers who moved within the European Union (EU) (up to twice as high) [...] In search of a possible “elite” brain drain from Europe, we examined return rates for a sample of Europeans pursuing Ph.D. degrees in economics in the United States (3). Those better students who received Ph.D. degrees from top U.S. institutes are more likely ...

 

Willingness to share research data is related to the strength of the evidence and the quality of reporting of statistical results

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 6, No. 11. (2 November 2011), e26828, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026828

Abstract

The widespread reluctance to share published research data is often hypothesized to be due to the authors' fear that reanalysis may expose errors in their work or may produce conclusions that contradict their own. However, these hypotheses have not previously been studied systematically. We related the reluctance to share research data for reanalysis to 1148 statistically significant results reported in 49 papers published in two major psychology journals. We found the reluctance to share data to be associated with weaker evidence ...

 

Fuzziness vs. probability

  
International Journal of General Systems, Vol. 17, No. 2-3. (June 1990), pp. 211-240, https://doi.org/10.1080/03081079008935108

Abstract

Fuzziness is explored as an alternative to randomness for describing uncertainty. The new sets-as-points geometric view of fuzzy sets is developed. This view identifies a fuzzy set with a point in a unit hypercube and a nonfuzzy set with a vertex of the cube. Paradoxes of two-valued logic and set theory, such as Russell's paradox, correspond to the midpoint of the fuzzy cube. The fundamental questions of fuzzy theory—How fuzzy is a fuzzy set? How much is one fuzzy set a ...

 

Impact factors: no totum pro parte by skewness of citation

  
Cardiovascular Research, Vol. 61, No. 2. (01 February 2004), pp. 201-203, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2003.11.023

Abstract

Citation of the various papers published in one and the same journal is highly skewed. Journals with a high impact factor obtain this high value by frequent citation of only a limited number of their papers and, on the other hand, journals with low impact factors publish many papers that remain uncited [1]. Thus, mere publication of a paper in a given journal cannot be regarded as a quality marker of that particular paper [2], it just means that the authors ...

 

Detecting long-range correlations with detrended fluctuation analysis

  
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Vol. 295, No. 3-4. (June 2001), pp. 441-454, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4371(01)00144-3

Abstract

We examine the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is a well-established method for the detection of long-range correlations in time series. We show that deviations from scaling which appear at small time scales become stronger in higher orders of DFA, and suggest a modified DFA method to remove them. The improvement is necessary especially for short records that are affected by non-stationarities. Furthermore, we describe how crossovers in the correlation behavior can be detected reliably and determined quantitatively and show how ...

 

Statistical significance of seasonal warming/cooling trends

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 15. (11 April 2017), pp. E2998-E3003, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700838114

Abstract

[Significance] The question whether a seasonal climatic trend (e.g., the increase of spring temperatures in Antarctica in the last decades) is of anthropogenic or natural origin is of great importance because seasonal climatic trends may considerably affect ecological systems, agricultural yields, and human societies. Previous studies assumed that the seasonal records can be treated as independent and are characterized by short-term memory only. Here we show that both assumptions, which may lead to a considerable overestimation of the trend significance, do not ...

 

Mapping indicators of female welfare at high spatial resolution

  
(2017)

Abstract

Improved understanding of geographic variation and inequity in health status, wealth, and access to resources within countries is increasingly being recognized as central to meeting development goals. Development and health indicators assessed at national scales conceal important inequities, with the rural poor often least well represented. High-resolution data on key social and health indicators are fundamental for targeting limited resources, especially where development funding has recently come under increased pressure. Globally, around 80% of countries regularly produce sex-disaggregated statistics at a ...

References

  1. Alegana, V.A., Atkinson, P.M., Pezzulo, C., Sorichetta, A., Weiss, D., Bird, T., ErbachSchoenberg, E., Tatem, A.J., 2015. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 (105), 20150073+. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073 .
  2. Banerjee, S., Gelfand, A.E., Polasek, W., 2000. Geostatistical modelling for spatial interaction data with application to postal service performance. Journal of statistical planning and inference 90(1), 87-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3758(00)00111-7 .
 

Exploring the high-resolution mapping of gender-disaggregated development indicators

  
Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 14, No. 129. (05 April 2017), 20160825, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2016.0825

Abstract

Improved understanding of geographical variation and inequity in health status, wealth and access to resources within countries is increasingly being recognized as central to meeting development goals. Development and health indicators assessed at national or subnational scale can often conceal important inequities, with the rural poor often least well represented. The ability to target limited resources is fundamental, especially in an international context where funding for health and development comes under pressure. This has recently prompted the exploration of the potential ...

 

Supplementary Information from Exploring the high-resolution mapping of gender disaggregated development indicators

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Datasets] The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) is a program of national household surveys implemented across a large number of LMICs. The DHS Program collects and analyses data on population demographic and health characteristics through more than 300 surveys in over 90 countries. The gender-disaggregated data we investigated in this report come from DHS datasets. [\n] [...] [Models specification] [::Bayesian model specification] The Gaussian Function (GF) in INLA is represented as a Gaussian Markov Random Function (GMRF). Computations in INLA are carried out using the GMRF by approximating a ...

References

  1. Alegana, V.A., Atkinson, P.M., Pezzulo, C., Sorichetta, A., Weiss, D., Bird, T., ErbachSchoenberg, E., Tatem, A.J., 2015. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 (105), 20150073+. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073 .
  2. Bosco, C., de Rigo, D., Dijkstra, T.A., Sander, G., Wasowski, J., 2013. Multi-scale robust modelling of landslide susceptibility: regional rapid assessment and catchment robust fuzzy ensemble. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology
 

Data-driven predictions in the science of science

  
Science, Vol. 355, No. 6324. (03 February 2017), pp. 477-480, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal4217

Abstract

The desire to predict discoveries—to have some idea, in advance, of what will be discovered, by whom, when, and where—pervades nearly all aspects of modern science, from individual scientists to publishers, from funding agencies to hiring committees. In this Essay, we survey the emerging and interdisciplinary field of the “science of science” and what it teaches us about the predictability of scientific discovery. We then discuss future opportunities for improving predictions derived from the science of science and its potential impact, ...

 

Improving generalized regression analysis for the spatial prediction of forest communities

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 33, No. 10. (October 2006), pp. 1729-1749, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01465.x

Abstract

Abstract Aim  This study used data from temperate forest communities to assess: (1) five different stepwise selection methods with generalized additive models, (2) the effect of weighting absences to ensure a prevalence of 0.5, (3) the effect of limiting absences beyond the environmental envelope defined by presences, (4) four different methods for incorporating spatial autocorrelation, and (5) the effect of integrating an interaction factor defined by a regression tree on the residuals of an initial environmental model. Location  State of Vaud, ...

 

Estimating abundance from repeated presence-absence data or point counts

  
Ecology, Vol. 84, No. 3. (March 2003), pp. 777-790, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0777:eafrpa]2.0.co;2

Abstract

We describe an approach for estimating occupancy rate or the proportion of area occupied when heterogeneity in detection probability exists as a result of variation in abundance of the organism under study. The key feature of such problems, which we exploit, is that variation in abundance induces variation in detection probability. Thus, heterogeneity in abundance can be modeled as heterogeneity in detection probability. Moreover, this linkage between heterogeneity in abundance and heterogeneity in detection probability allows one to exploit a heterogeneous ...

 

Multivariate binary discrimination by the kernel method

  
Biometrika, Vol. 63, No. 3. (1 December 1976), pp. 413-420, https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/63.3.413

Abstract

An extension of the kernel method of density estimation from continuous to multivariate binary spaces is described. Its simple nonparametric nature together with its consistency properties make it an attractive tool in discrimination problems, with some advantages over already proposed parametric counterparts. The method is illustrated by an application to a particular medical diagnostic problem. Simple extensions of the method to categorical data and to data of mixed binary and continuous form are indicated. ...

 

Framework for making better predictions by directly estimating variables’ predictivity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 50. (13 December 2016), pp. 14277-14282, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616647113

Abstract

[Significance] Good prediction, especially in the context of big data, is important. Common approaches to prediction include using a significance-based criterion for evaluating variables to use in models and evaluating variables and models simultaneously for prediction using cross-validation or independent test data. The first approach can lead to choosing less-predictive variables, because significance does not imply predictivity. The second approach can be improved through considering a variable’s predictivity as a parameter to be estimated. The literature currently lacks measures that do ...

 

Statistical analysis

  
In Science: editorial policies (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Statistical analysis] Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. [::] Data pre-processing steps such as transformations, re-coding, re-scaling, normalization, truncation, and handling of below detectable level readings and outliers should be fully described; any removal or modification of data values must be fully acknowledged and justified. [::] [...] [::] The number of sampled units, N, upon which each reported statistic is based must be stated. [::] For continuous ...

 

Poisson point process models solve the “pseudo-absence problem” for presence-only data in ecology

  
The Annals of Applied Statistics, Vol. 4, No. 3. (September 2010), pp. 1383-1402, https://doi.org/10.1214/10-aoas331

Abstract

Presence-only data, point locations where a species has been recorded as being present, are often used in modeling the distribution of a species as a function of a set of explanatory variables—whether to map species occurrence, to understand its association with the environment, or to predict its response to environmental change. Currently, ecologists most commonly analyze presence-only data by adding randomly chosen “pseudo-absences” to the data such that it can be analyzed using logistic regression, an approach which has weaknesses in ...

 

Passing the point of no return

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1109-1109, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal2188

Abstract

[Excerpt] In the field of ecology, regime shifts are massive changes in function and character that occur when an ecosystem passes a tipping point. Regime shifts sometimes have severe consequences for human well-being through losses of ecosystem services, including desertification in arid regions and marine fisheries collapses. These changes are difficult to predict and sometimes impossible to reverse. For these reasons, understanding how to anticipate and prevent regime shifts is one of the most important challenges faced by environmental scientists. [\n] Theoretical analyses ...

 

Characteristics and controls of extremely large wildfires in the western Mediterranean Basin

  
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 121, No. 8. (August 2016), pp. 2141-2157, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016jg003389

Abstract

Large fires account for a disproportionally high percentage of area burned with potentially severe environmental and socioeconomic impacts. This study characterizes extremely large fires (ELFs; 2500–24,843 ha) in Portugal (1998–2013) and the concomitant fuel and weather conditions, analyzing the response of ELF size to their variation. ELF burned less shrubland-grassland (33% of the total ELF area) than forest (59% of total), the latter primarily composed by pine and pine-eucalypt. High fuel hazard was the norm, as indicated by median values of 0.98 ...

 

Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: evaluation on the present climate

  
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, No. D16. (18 August 2011), https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd015934

Abstract

A statistical bias correction technique is applied to a set of high-resolution climate change simulations for Europe from 11 state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) from the project ENSEMBLES. Modeled and observed daily values of mean, minimum and maximum temperature and total precipitation are used to construct transfer functions for the period 1961–1990, which are then applied to the decade 1991–2000, where the results are evaluated. By using a large ensembles of model runs and a long construction period, we take into ...

 

Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: analysis of the climate change signal

  
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, No. D17. (16 September 2012), D17110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd017968

Abstract

A statistical bias correction technique is applied to twelve high-resolution climate change simulations of temperature and precipitation over Europe, under the SRES A1B scenario, produced for the EU project ENSEMBLES. The bias correction technique is based on a transfer function, estimated on current climate, which affects the whole Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of variables, and which is assumed constant between the current and future climate. The impact of bias correction on 21st Century projections, their inter-model variability, and the climate change ...

 

Live fuel moisture content and ignition probability in the Iberian peninsular territory of Spain

  
GeoFocus, Vol. 13, No. 2. (2013), pp. 25-40

Abstract

This paper presents an operational algorithm to produce Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) at national scale from MODIS data. The algorithm is based on the inversion of Radiative Transfer Models (RTM) that estimate moisture content based on different simulation scenarios. In addition, logistic regression models were calibrated to convert the derived LFMC values into Ignition Probability (IP) maps. The areas under the curve obtained by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot method provided by the models were close to 0.6. Several ...

 

Decreasing fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 3. (16 March 2016), e0150663, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150663

Abstract

Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the ...

 

Stop ignoring misconduct

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7618. (1 September 2016), pp. 29-30, https://doi.org/10.1038/537029a

Abstract

Efforts to reduce irreproducibility in research must also tackle the temptation to cheat, argue Donald S. Kornfeld and Sandra L. Titus. [Excerpt: Preventing misconduct] To diminish the threat that misconduct poses to science, scientists and society: [::] Authorities should acknowledge that deliberate misconduct is an important contributor to irreproducibility. [::] Mentors should be evaluated to assure quality; those who contribute to misconduct should be penalized. [::] Institutions and government agencies should have procedures to protect whistle-blowers from retaliation. [::] Senior faculty members who are found guilty of ...

 

Development of probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pest introduction for the EU territory

  
EFSA Supporting Publications, Vol. 13, No. 8. (1 August 2016), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2016.en-1062

Abstract

This report demonstrates a probabilistic quantitative pathway analysis model that can be used in risk assessment for plant pest introduction into EU territory on a range of edible commodities (apples, oranges, stone fruits and wheat). Two types of model were developed: a general commodity model that simulates distribution of an imported infested/infected commodity to and within the EU from source countries by month; and a consignment model that simulates the movement and distribution of individual consignments from source countries to destinations in the EU. The general ...

 

Development of probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pests introduction for the EU territory

  
EFSA Supporting Publications, Vol. 12, No. 9. (1 September 2015), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2015.en-809

Abstract

The aim of this report is to provide EFSA with probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pest introduction for the EU territory through non-edible plant products or plants. [\n] We first provide a conceptualization of two types of pathway models. The individual based PM simulates an individual consignment (or a population of such consignment) by describing the stochastic change in the state of the individual consignment over time and space. The flow-based PM, simulates the flow of infested product over ...

 

Advances in mapping malaria for elimination: fine resolution modelling of Plasmodium falciparum incidence

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 6 (13 July 2016), 29628, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29628

Abstract

The long-term goal of the global effort to tackle malaria is national and regional elimination and eventually eradication. Fine scale multi-temporal mapping in low malaria transmission settings remains a challenge and the World Health Organisation propose use of surveillance in elimination settings. Here, we show how malaria incidence can be modelled at a fine spatial and temporal resolution from health facility data to help focus surveillance and control to population not attending health facilities. Using Namibia as a case study, we ...

 

Partial distance correlation with methods for dissimilarities

  
The Annals of Statistics, Vol. 42, No. 6. (December 2014), pp. 2382-2412, https://doi.org/10.1214/14-aos1255

Abstract

Distance covariance and distance correlation are scalar coefficients that characterize independence of random vectors in arbitrary dimension. Properties, extensions and applications of distance correlation have been discussed in the recent literature, but the problem of defining the partial distance correlation has remained an open question of considerable interest. The problem of partial distance correlation is more complex than partial correlation partly because the squared distance covariance is not an inner product in the usual linear space. For the definition of partial ...

 

Energy distance

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, Vol. 8, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 27-38, https://doi.org/10.1002/wics.1375

Abstract

Energy distance is a metric that measures the distance between the distributions of random vectors. Energy distance is zero if and only if the distributions are identical, thus it characterizes equality of distributions and provides a theoretical foundation for statistical inference and analysis. Energy statistics are functions of distances between observations in metric spaces. As a statistic, energy distance can be applied to measure the difference between a sample and a hypothesized distribution or the difference between two or more samples ...

 

Fast computing for distance covariance

  
Technometrics (25 June 2015), pp. 0-0, https://doi.org/10.1080/00401706.2015.1054435

Abstract

Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O(n2) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be implemented by an O(n log n) algorithm and ...

 

Global trends in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a changing world

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (05 June 2016), 20150345, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0345

Abstract

Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth’s surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Yet many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. However, important exceptions aside, the quantitative evidence available does not support these perceived overall trends. Instead, global area burned appears to have overall declined over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is ...

 

Global forest area disturbance from fire, insect pests, diseases and severe weather events

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 352 (September 2015), pp. 78-88, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.06.010

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Almost 67 Mha of forest land burned annually (2003–2012) mostly in South America. [::] A decreasing global trend of burned forest area. [::] An increasing trend in burned forest area for the boreal climatic domain. [::] Correlation between areas of burned forest and of partial canopy cover reduction. [::] In total, countries reported 142 Mha of forest area affected by other disturbances. [Abstract] Reliable global data on forest degradation and disturbances due to fire, insect pests, diseases and severe weather are important to understand ecosystem health ...

 

Simultaneous estimation of multinomial cell probabilities

  
Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 68, No. 343. (1 September 1973), pp. 683-691, https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1973.10481405

Abstract

A new estimator, p*, of the multinomial parameter vector is proposed, and it is shown to be a better choice in most situations than the usual estimator, (the vector of observed proportions). The risk functions (expected squared-error loss) of these two estimators are examined in three ways using: (a) exact calculations, (b) standard asymptotic theory, and (c) a novel asymptotic framework in which the number of cells is large and the number of observations per cell is moderate. The general superiority ...

 

Calibration of remotely sensed proportion or area estimates for misclassification error

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 39, No. 1. (January 1992), pp. 29-43, https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(92)90138-a

Abstract

Classifications of remotely sensed data contain misclassification errors that bias areal estimates. Monte Carlo techniques were used to compare two statistical methods that correct or calibrate remotely sensed areal estimates for misclassification bias using reference data from an error matrix. The inverse calibration estimator was consistently superior to the classical estimator using a simple random sample of reference plots. The effects of sample size of reference plots, detail of the classification system, and classification accuracy on the precision of the inverse ...

 

SESAM - a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 38, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 1433-1444, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02550.x

Abstract

Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts with constituent species to approximate the properties of assemblages. Here, we propose to unify the two approaches in a single ‘spatially explicit species assemblage modelling’ (SESAM) framework. This framework uses relevant designations of initial species source pools for modelling, macroecological variables, and ecological assembly rules to constrain predictions of the richness and composition ...

 

Probabilistic population projections with migration uncertainty

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 23. (07 June 2016), pp. 6460-6465, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1606119113

Abstract

[Significance] Projected populations to the end of this century are an important factor in many policy decisions. Population forecasts become less reliable as we look farther into the future, suggesting a probabilistic approach to convey uncertainty. Migration projections have been largely deterministic until now, even in probabilistic population projections. Deterministic migration projections neglect a substantial source of population uncertainty. We incorporate a probabilistic migration model with probabilistic models of fertility and mortality to produce probabilistic population projections for all countries until 2100. ...

 

Species-area and species-sampling effort relationships: disentangling the effects

  
Ecography, Vol. 34, No. 1. (February 2011), pp. 18-30, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06288.x

Abstract

Species numbers tend to increase with both the area surveyed (species–area relationship, SAR) and the number of samples taken (species–sampling effort relationship, SSER). These two relationships differ in their nature and underlying mechanisms but are not clearly distinguished in field studies. To discriminate the effects of area (spatial extent) and sampling effort (SE) on species richness, several models explicitly involving both variables were proposed and tested against 13 datasets from marine micro-, meio- and macrobenthos. A combination of power SSER and ...

 

Multi-scale land-use disaggregation modelling: concept and application to EU countries

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 82 (August 2016), pp. 183-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.04.028

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Development of a scale independent model to disaggregate land use data. [::] Generate high resolution maps for crops cultivated in EU-28. [::] Validation of model results by comparison with detailed survey data. [Abstract] Changes of carbon stocks in agricultural soils, emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, and the delivery of ecosystem services of agricultural landscapes depend on combinations of land-use, livestock density, farming practices, climate and soil types. Many environmental processes are highly non-linear. If the analysis of the environmental impact is based on ...

 

Sailing from the seas of chaos into the corridor of stability: practical recommendations to increase the informational value of studies

  
Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, Vol. 9, No. 3. (01 May 2014), pp. 278-292, https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614528520

Abstract

Recent events have led psychologists to acknowledge that the inherent uncertainty encapsulated in an inductive science is amplified by problematic research practices. In this article, we provide a practical introduction to recently developed statistical tools that can be used to deal with these uncertainties when performing and evaluating research. In Part 1, we discuss the importance of accurate and stable effect size estimates as well as how to design studies to reach a corridor of stability around effect size estimates. In ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 34

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   spatio-temporal-disaggregation   spatio-temporal-scale   spatiotemporal-change   species   species-area-relationships   species-association   species-biology   species-control   species-decline   species-description   species-dispersal   species-distribution   species-distributions   species-diversity   species-ecology   species-evolution   species-extinction   species-identification   species-indicators   species-interactions   species-invasions   species-local-maximum-altitude   species-positive-interaction   species-resistance   species-richness   species-selection   species-specific-effects   species-trial   species-use   species-vulnerability   spectral-analysis   sphaeropsis-sapinea   sphagnum-spp   sphexishness   spiders   spondias-dulcis   spondias-mombin   spore   spring   sprouting   spruce   spruce-bark-beetle   spruce-decline   sql   squashing-functions   srtm   stability-vs-sparsity   stabilization   stand-composition   stand-density   stand-structure   standard   staphylea-pinnata   staphylococcus-aureus   state-shift   stationarity   statistical-downscaling   statistics   stem-canker   stem-rot   stepping-stones   sterculia-foetida   sterculia-urens   sterilization   stigmella-spp   stochastic-dynamic-programming   stochastic-state-transition   stomatal-conductance   stone-weierstrass-theorem   stoniness   storage   storm   storm-intensity   strategy   strategy-vs-tactic   stratification   string-instrument   strobus   strom   strophosoma-melanogrammus   structure   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   subalpine   subalpine-belt   subtropical-areas   subtropical-climate   subtropical-forest   subtropical-mountain-system   succession   succession-pathways   sudden-changes   sudden-oak-death   sudden-transition   sulphur   sumava-national-park   sun   super-derecho   super-terminal-speed   supervised-training  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Key Statistics 2014 European Pulp and Paper Industry

  
Keywords: paper   pulp   statistics  

Abstract

The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) is a Brussels-based non-profit making organisation founded in 1992, which represents the European pulp and paper industry towards the European Institutions. Through its member associations, CEPI also represents approximately 505 pulp, paper and board producing companies across Europe, ranging from small and medium-sized enterprises to multinationals (counting companies with a presence in more than one CEPI country only once). It represents 93% of the European pulp and paper industry in terms of production. The pulp ...

 

People in the EU - statistics on demographic changes

  
In Statistics Explained (2015), 41896

Abstract

[Excerpt] This article is part of a set of statistical articles that are based on Eurostat’s flagship publication People in the EU: who are we and how do we live? (which also exists as a PDF publication); it presents a range of statistics that cover the characteristics of the demographic situation in the European Union (EU). [Main statistical findings] Statistics on the structure of the EU’s population and those measuring the change in the number of inhabitants have received growing attention from policymakers ...

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National forest inventories - Pathways for common reporting

  
by Iciar Alberdi Asensio, Anna-Lena Axelsson, Anamaria Azevedo, Susana Barreiro, Annemarie Bastrup-Birk, Peter N. Beets, Jana Beranova, Roberto V. Bombin, Paul Boudewyn, Olivier Bouriaud, Mario Božić, Urs-Beat Brändli, Andrea Brandon, Anne Branthomme, Peter Brassel, Graham Bull, Rita Butterschøn, Vladimír Čaboun, Juro Čavlović, Martin Cerný, Gherardo Chirici, Emil Cienciala, Catherine Cluzeau, Antoine Colin, Sonia Condés Ruiz, Wim P. Daamen, Yeda M. de Oliveira, Lucio DiCosmo, Gerard M. Dirkse, Marius Dumitru, Bridget V. Fraser, Joberto Freitas, Jonas Fridman, Karl Gabler, Patrizia Gasparini, Mark D. Gillis, Christian Ginzler, Paulo Godinho-Ferreira, Guilherme Gomide, Takeshi Goto, Chris J. Goulding, Thomas Gschwantner, Nabila Hamza, Mark H. Hansen, Petra Hennig, Jean-Christophe Hervé, Yasumasa Hirata, Lingxia Hong, Gro Hylen, Yuji Imaizumi, Jurgis Jansons, Jin-Hyun Jeong, Vivian K. Johannsen, Albertas Kasperavičius, Edgar Kaufmann, Sung-Ho Kim, László Kolozs, Marko Kovac, Franz Kroiher, Miloš Kučera, Gintaras Kulbokas, Andrius Kuliešis, Gal Kusar, Paul M. Lane, Adrian Lanz, Nicolas Latte, Mark Lawrence, Xiangdong Lei, Ieva Licite, Loizos Loizou, Anders Lundström, Yuanchang Lu, Gheorghe Marin, Santiago S. Martínez deToda, Felipe P. Martín, Toshimasa Masuyama, Yoko Matsumoto, Patricia Mattos, Ronald E. McRoberts, Ioannis Meliadis, Roman Michalak, Javier M. Millán, Hiroki Miyazono, Martin Moravčík, Jan-Erik Nilsen, Daniel Nitu, Thomas Nord-Larsen, Christy O’Donovan, Gerardo S. Peña, Hans Petersson, Marco Piazza, Heino Polley, Katja Power, Tibor Priwitzer, John Redmond, Nicolas Robert, Jacques Rondeux, Maria A. Rosot, Glenda Russo, Mohamed Saket, Christine Sanchez, Klemens Schadauer, Friedrich Schmitz, Man-Yong Shin, Primoz Simoncic, Jens P. Skovsgaard, W. Brad Smith, Arnór Snorrason, Ulf Söderberg, O. N. Solontsov, Göran Ståhl, Peter R. Stephens, András Szepesi, Mengping Tang, Esther Thürig, Erkki Tomppo, Stein M. Tomter, Vittorio Tosi, Thekla Tsitsoni, Tarja Tuomainen, Mislav Vedriš, Veiko Adermann, Lars Vesterdal, Claude Vidal, José A. Villanueva Aranguren, Marc Wagner, Peter Weiss, Susanne Winter, Theocharis Zagkas, Stanisław Zajączkowski

Abstract

[Excerpt: Preface] Forest inventories throughout the world have evolved gradually over time. The content as well as the concepts and definitions employed are constantly adapted to the users’ needs. Advanced inventory systems have been established in many countries within Europe, as well as outside Europe, as a result of development work spanning several decades, in some cases more than 100 years. [\n] With continuously increasing international agreements and commitments, the need for information has also grown drastically, and reporting requests have become more frequent and the content of the ...

 

Binless strategies for estimation of information from neural data

  
Physical Review E, Vol. 66, No. 5. (11 November 2002), 051903, https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.66.051903

Abstract

We present an approach to estimate information carried by experimentally observed neural spike trains elicited by known stimuli. This approach makes use of an embedding of the observed spike trains into a set of vector spaces, and entropy estimates based on the nearest-neighbor Euclidean distances within these vector spaces [L. F. Kozachenko and N. N. Leonenko, Probl. Peredachi Inf. 23, 9 (1987)]. Using numerical examples, we show that this approach can be dramatically more efficient than standard bin-based approaches such as ...

 

A tutorial on independent component analysis

  
(11 Apr 2014)

Abstract

Independent component analysis (ICA) has become a standard data analysis technique applied to an array of problems in signal processing and machine learning. This tutorial provides an introduction to ICA based on linear algebra formulating an intuition for ICA from first principles. The goal of this tutorial is to provide a solid foundation on this advanced topic so that one might learn the motivation behind ICA, learn why and when to apply this technique and in the process gain an introduction to this exciting field of active research. [Excerpt: ...

 

Reproducibility: a tragedy of errors

  
Nature, Vol. 530, No. 7588. (3 February 2016), pp. 27-29, https://doi.org/10.1038/530027a

Abstract

Mistakes in peer-reviewed papers are easy to find but hard to fix, report David B. Allison and colleagues. [Excerpt: Three common errors] As the influential twentieth-century statistician Ronald Fisher (pictured) said: “To consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination. He can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” [\n] [...] Frequent errors, once recognized, can be kept out of the literature with targeted education and policies. Three of the most common are ...

 

The global spectrum of plant form and function

  
Nature, Vol. 529, No. 7585. (23 December 2015), pp. 167-171, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16489

Abstract

[Headlines] The authors found that the key elements of plant form and function, analysed at global scale, are largely concentrated into a two-dimensional plane indexed by the size of whole plants and organs on the one hand, and the construction costs for photosynthetic leaf area, on the other. [Abstract] Earth is home to a remarkable diversity of plant forms and life histories, yet comparatively few essential trait combinations have proved evolutionarily viable in today’s terrestrial biosphere. By analysing worldwide variation in six major traits ...

 

On the extinction of craft skills with numbers - The case of “Overall, 7.9% of species are predicted to become extinct from climate change.”

  
(December 2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] [\n] This paper is about craft skills with numbers and, in particular, about problems with the use of numbers of unknown pedigree. As an example, I will discuss a very striking number that appeared in the mainstream press in early May 20152: a new scientific study was reported to have found that 7.9% of species would become extinct as a result of climate change. What was quite remarkable about this number is that it had two digits: not 10%, not ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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