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Selection: with tag species-extinction [29 articles] 


The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6334. (14 April 2017), pp. 180-183,


[Quantifying hunting-induced defaunation] As the human population grows and increasingly encroaches on remaining wildlife habitat, hunting threatens many species. Benítez-López et al. conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of hunting trends and impacts across the tropics (see the Perspective by Brashares and Gaynor). Bird and mammal populations were considerably lower in areas where hunting occurred. Although commercial hunting and proximity to roads and urban centers were the most damaging factors, all hunting had worrying impacts, even in protected areas. Protection and alternative approaches for ...


Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals

Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 10. (01 October 2016), 160498,


Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and ...


Little evidence for fire-adapted plant traits in Mediterranean climate regions

Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 2. (20 February 2011), pp. 69-76,


As climate change increases vegetation combustibility, humans are impacted by wildfires through loss of lives and property, leading to an increased emphasis on prescribed burning practices to reduce hazards. A key and pervading concept accepted by most environmental managers is that combustible ecosystems have traditionally burnt because plants are fire adapted. In this opinion article, we explore the concept of plant traits adapted to fire in Mediterranean climates. In the light of major threats to biodiversity conservation, we recommend caution in ...


Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts

Science In Science, Vol. 289, No. 5487. (22 September 2000), pp. 2068-2074,


One of the major concerns with a potential change in climate is that an increase in extreme events will occur. Results of observational studies suggest that in many areas that have been analyzed, changes in total precipitation are amplified at the tails, and changes in some temperature extremes have been observed. Model output has been analyzed that shows changes in extreme events for future climates, such as increases in extreme high temperatures, decreases in extreme low temperatures, and increases in intense ...


Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. E6089-E6096,


[Significance] The strong focus on species extinctions, a critical aspect of the contemporary pulse of biological extinction, leads to a common misimpression that Earth’s biota is not immediately threatened, just slowly entering an episode of major biodiversity loss. This view overlooks the current trends of population declines and extinctions. Using a sample of 27,600 terrestrial vertebrate species, and a more detailed analysis of 177 mammal species, we show the extremely high degree of population decay in vertebrates, even in common “species of ...


US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 16. (21 April 2015), pp. 5081-5086,


[Significance] The United States has one of the oldest and most sophisticated systems of protected areas in the world. Given the large amount of information on the country’s biodiversity, and the potential resources available, one might expect it to do well in protecting biodiversity. We find that it does not. The United States protected areas do not adequately cover the country’s unique species. To improve the coverage, we map priorities for multiple taxa and recommend specific areas for immediate conservation attention. These ...


Involve social scientists in defining the Anthropocene

Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7632. (7 December 2016), pp. 192-193,


The causes of Earth's transition are human and social, write Erle Ellis and colleagues, so scholars from those disciplines must be included in its formalization. ...


Evolution: why some groups have more species

Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7620. (14 September 2016), pp. 282-282,


[Excerpt] [...] Across the tree of life, some groups have many more species than others. To find out why, Joshua Scholl and John Wiens at the University of Arizona in Tucson collated published data on the number of species and their phylogenetic relationships in each group of living organisms. Contrary to some hypotheses, older groups did not have more species than young groups. Instead, the authors found that the balance of speciation and extinction over time, known as the diversification rate, determined ...


Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life

Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Vol. 283, No. 1838. (14 September 2016), 20161334,


Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates ...


State of the world's plants - 2016



This report provides, for the first time, a baseline assessment of our current knowledge on the diversity of plants on earth, the global threats these plants currently face, and the policies in place and their effectiveness in dealing with these threats. [\n] On the diversity of plants, we can report that there are now an estimated ~391,000 vascular plants known to science of which 369,000 are flowering plants. Around 2000 new vascular plant species are described each year. In 2015 these included ...


The sixth mass coextinction: are most endangered species parasites and mutualists?

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 276, No. 1670. (07 September 2009), pp. 3037-3045,


The effects of species declines and extinction on biotic interactions remain poorly understood. The loss of a species is expected to result in the loss of other species that depend on it (coextinction), leading to cascading effects across trophic levels. Such effects are likely to be most severe in mutualistic and parasitic interactions. Indeed, models suggest that coextinction may be the most common form of biodiversity loss. Paradoxically, few historical or contemporary coextinction events have actually been recorded. We review the ...


Coextinction and persistence of dependent species in a changing world

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 43, No. 1. (2012), pp. 183-203,


The extinction of a single species is rarely an isolated event. Instead, dependent parasites, commensals, and mutualist partners (affiliates) face the risk of coextinction as their hosts or partners decline and fail. Species interactions in ecological networks can transmit the effects of primary extinctions within and between trophic levels, causing secondary extinctions and extinction cascades. Documenting coextinctions is complicated by ignorance of host specificity, limitations of historical collections, incomplete systematics of affiliate taxa, and lack of experimental studies. Host shifts may ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 34

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   spatio-temporal-disaggregation   spatio-temporal-scale   spatiotemporal-change   species   species-area-relationships   species-association   species-biology   species-control   species-decline   species-description   species-dispersal   species-distribution   species-distributions   species-diversity   species-ecology   species-evolution   species-extinction   species-identification   species-indicators   species-interactions   species-invasions   species-local-maximum-altitude   species-positive-interaction   species-resistance   species-richness   species-selection   species-specific-effects   species-trial   species-use   species-vulnerability   spectral-analysis   sphaeropsis-sapinea   sphagnum-spp   sphexishness   spiders   spondias-dulcis   spondias-mombin   spore   spring   sprouting   spruce   spruce-bark-beetle   spruce-decline   sql   squashing-functions   srtm   stability-vs-sparsity   stabilization   stand-composition   stand-density   stand-structure   standard   staphylea-pinnata   staphylococcus-aureus   state-shift   stationarity   statistical-downscaling   statistics   stem-canker   stem-rot   stepping-stones   sterculia-foetida   sterculia-urens   sterilization   stigmella-spp   stochastic-dynamic-programming   stochastic-state-transition   stomatal-conductance   stone-weierstrass-theorem   stoniness   storage   storm   storm-intensity   strategy   strategy-vs-tactic   stratification   string-instrument   strobus   strom   strophosoma-melanogrammus   structure   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   subalpine   subalpine-belt   subtropical-areas   subtropical-climate   subtropical-forest   subtropical-mountain-system   succession   succession-pathways   sudden-changes   sudden-oak-death   sudden-transition   sulphur   sumava-national-park   sun   super-derecho   super-terminal-speed   supervised-training  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Extinction, Substitution, and Ecosystem Services

BioScience, Vol. 33, No. 4. (01 April 1983), pp. 248-254,


The loss of services to humanity following extinctions ranges from trivial to catastrophic, depending on the number of elements (populations, species, guilds) deleted and the degree of control each exerted in the system. Most attempts to substitute other organisms for those lost have been unsuccessful, to one degree or another, and prospects for increasing the success rate in the foreseeable future are not great. Attempts to supply the lost services by other means tend to be expensive failures in the long ...


Extinction debt of forest plants persists for more than a century following habitat fragmentation

Ecology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (March 2006), pp. 542-548,


Following habitat fragmentation individual habitat patches may lose species over time as they pay off their “extinction debt.” Species with relatively low rates of population extinction and colonization (“slow” species) may maintain extinction debts for particularly prolonged periods, but few data are available to test this prediction. We analyzed two unusually detailed data sets on forest plant distributions and land-use history from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom, and Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium, to test for an extinction debt in relation to species-specific extinction and colonization ...


Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

Science Advances, Vol. 1, No. 5. (19 10:51:26 June 2015),


The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing in the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions ...


Extinction risks from climate change

Science, Vol. 348, No. 6234. (01 May 2015), pp. 501-502,


Biologists worry that the rapid rates of warming projected for the planet (1) will doom many species to extinction. Species could face extinction with climate change if climatically suitable habitat disappears or is made inaccessible by geographic barriers or species' inability to disperse (see the figure, panels A to E). Previous studies have provided region- or taxon-specific estimates of biodiversity loss with climate change that range from 0% to 54%, making it difficult to assess the seriousness of this problem. On ...


Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology

Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 30, No. 21-22. (October 2011), pp. 2930-2947,


[Highlights] [::] Species distribution modeling (SDM) offers new possibilities for paleobiology. [::] Key methods issues include predictors, validation, and integration with genetics. [::] Many SDM-based studies have addressed the role of Pleistocene glacial refugia. [::] SDM-based studies also address megafaunal extinctions and deep-time biogeography. [::] The equilibrium postulate and niche stability constitute important assumptions. [Abstract] Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for ...


Conservation: The Endangered Species Act at 40

Nature, Vol. 504, No. 7480. (19 December 2013), pp. 369-370,


On the anniversary of a landmark piece of US legislation, four experts weigh in on what has worked and what needs to change. ...


Central European vegetation response to abrupt climate change at 8.2 ka

Geology, Vol. 29, No. 6. (2001), pp. 551-554,<0551:cevrta>;2


Oxygen isotope records show, a major climatic reversal at 8.2 ka in Greenland and Europe. Annually laminated sediments from two lakes in Switzerland and Germany were sampled contiguously to assess the response of European vegetation to climate change ca. 8.2 ka with time resolution and precision comparable to those of the Greenland ice cores. The pollen assemblages show pronounced and immediate responses (0-20 yr) of terrestrial vegetation to the climatic change at 8.2 ka. A sudden collapse of Corylus avellana (hazel) ...


Fish parasites resolve the paradox of missing coextinctions

Nature Communications, Vol. 4 (16 April 2013), 1718,


Models of coextinction identify parasites as one of the most menaced ecological groups. The number of host species a parasite uses should strongly affect its risk of coextinction. The naïve expectation is that the lower the number, the higher is the parasite’s risk of being left with no hosts. Here we analyse the coextinction risk of 12,141 fish parasite species and find that highly specific parasites are not the most endangered, because they tend to use hosts with low vulnerability to ...


Climate Change Impacts on the Tree of Life: Changes in Phylogenetic Diversity Illustrated for Acropora Corals

Biology, Vol. 1, No. 3. (14 December 2012), pp. 906-932,


The possible loss of whole branches from the tree of life is a dramatic, but under-studied, biological implication of climate change. The tree of life represents an evolutionary heritage providing both present and future benefits to humanity, often in unanticipated ways. Losses in this evolutionary (evo) life-support system represent losses in “evosystem” services, and are quantified using the phylogenetic diversity (PD) measure. High species-level biodiversity losses may or may not correspond to high PD losses. If climate change impacts are clumped ...


Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived?

Nature, Vol. 471, No. 7336. (3 March 2011), pp. 51-57,


Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only five times in the past 540million years or so. Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia. Here we review how differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the ...


Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 102, No. 23. (07 June 2005), pp. 8245-8250,


Climate change has already triggered species distribution shifts in many parts of the world. Increasing impacts are expected for the future, yet few studies have aimed for a general understanding of the regional basis for species vulnerability. We projected late 21st century distributions for 1,350 European plants species under seven climate change scenarios. Application of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List criteria to our projections shows that many European plant species could become severely threatened. ...


The mid-Holocene extinction of silver fir (Abies alba) in the Southern Alps: a consequence of forest fires? Palaeobotanical records and forest simulations

Vegetation History and Archaeobotany In Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Vol. 15, No. 4. (1 September 2006), pp. 435-444,


Pollen records suggest that Abies alba played a dominating role in both the montane and lowland forests at the border of the Southern Alps between ca. 8500 and 5700 years ago. Two major declines in fir, at about 7300–7000 cal b.p. and at ca. 6000 cal b.p., followed by the local extinction of the species are characteristic of the area below ca. 1000 m a.s.l. In order to test the impact of fire on the population dynamics of silver fir, a ...


Species multiply as Earth heats up



Biodiversity increases with gentle warming. Rather than kicking off the expected cycles of extinction, periods of warming in Earth's history were accompanied by increased biodiversity, according to a report published this week. But this does not mean that the mass extinctions that are taking place today, with Earth warming at an unprecedented rate, will be reversed in future. [...] ...


One-fifth of invertebrate species at risk of extinction



Freshwater snails and reef-building corals among threatened groups. One in five of the world’s invertebrate species are threatened with extinction, according to the latest report from the Zoological Society of London (ZSL). [...] ...


Holocene tree-limit and distribution of Abies alba in the inner French Alps: anthropogenic or climatic changes?

Boreas, Vol. 34, No. 4. (November 2005), pp. 468-476,


The expansion of silver fir (Abies alba) during the 20th century in the European inner Alps calls into question the causes of the observed dynamics. We investigate the past distribution of Abies alba via analysis of wood charcoal buried in natural soils (identification, weighing, dating) and of pollen and macro-remains from peat to help us understand its present-day expansion. Material was sampled in the driest areas of the inner French Alps — some samples from calcareous sites, and most from southern ...


Extinction risk from climate change

Nature, Vol. 427, No. 6970. (08 January 2004), pp. 145-148,


Climate change over the past 30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of extinction shows a power-law relationship with geographical range size, we predict, on the basis of mid-range climate-warming scenarios for 2050, that ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.