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Selection: with tag species-dispersal [26 articles] 


Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes

Science, Vol. 235, No. 4785. (09 January 1987), pp. 167-171,


The species richness (diversity) of local plant and animal assemblages--biological communities--balances regional processes of species formation and geographic dispersal, which add species to communities, against processes of predation, competitive exclusion, adaptation, and stochastic variation, which may promote local extinction. During the past three decades, ecologists have sought to explain differences in local diversity by the influence of the physical environment on local interactions among species, interactions that are generally believed to limit the number of coexisting species. But diversity of the ...


How disturbance, competition and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change

Global Change Biology (28 July 2017),


Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species’ ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change, disturbance and competitive interactions to produce range shifts are poorly understood. We used a physiologically-based mechanistic landscape model to study these interactions in the northeastern United States. We designed ...


Fine-grain modeling of species’ response to climate change: holdouts, stepping-stones, and microrefugia

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 7. (July 2014), pp. 390-397,


[Highlights] [::] Understanding of microclimates may revolutionize climate change biology. [::] Microrefugia will be rare under future climate change. [::] Conservation strategies should focus on managing holdouts and stepping stones. [Abstract] Microclimates have played a critical role in past species range shifts, suggesting that they could be important in biological response to future change. Terms are needed to discuss these future effects. We propose that populations occupying microclimates be referred to as holdouts, stepping stones and microrefugia. A holdout is a population that persists in a ...


The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology

Ecology Letters, Vol. 7, No. 7. (04 June 2004), pp. 601-613,


The metacommunity concept is an important way to think about linkages between different spatial scales in ecology. Here we review current understanding about this concept. We first investigate issues related to its definition as a set of local communities that are linked by dispersal of multiple potentially interacting species. We then identify four paradigms for metacommunities: the patch-dynamic view, the species-sorting view, the mass effects view and the neutral view, that each emphasizes different processes of potential importance in metacommunities. These ...


Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods

Global Change Biology, Vol. 10, No. 9. (September 2004), pp. 1618-1626,


Concern for climate change has not yet been integrated in protocols for reserve selection. However if climate changes as projected, there is a possibility that current reserve-selection methods might provide solutions that are inadequate to ensure species' long-term persistence within reserves. We assessed, for the first time, the ability of existing reserve-selection methods to secure species in a climate-change context. Six methods using a different combination of criteria (representation, suitability and reserve clustering) are compared. The assessment is carried out using ...


The effects of temporally variable dispersal and landscape structure on invasive species spread

Ecological Applications, Vol. 20, No. 3. (April 2010), pp. 593-608,


Many invasive species are too widespread to realistically eradicate. For such species, a viable management strategy is to slow the rate of spread. However, to be effective, this will require detailed spread data and an understanding of the influence of environmental conditions and landscape structure on invasion rates. We used a time series of remotely sensed distribution maps and a spatial simulation model to study spread of the invasive Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. L. latifolium ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 34

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   spatio-temporal-disaggregation   spatio-temporal-scale   spatiotemporal-change   species   species-area-relationships   species-association   species-biology   species-control   species-decline   species-description   species-dispersal   species-distribution   species-distributions   species-diversity   species-ecology   species-evolution   species-extinction   species-identification   species-indicators   species-interactions   species-invasions   species-local-maximum-altitude   species-positive-interaction   species-resistance   species-richness   species-selection   species-specific-effects   species-trial   species-use   species-vulnerability   spectral-analysis   sphaeropsis-sapinea   sphagnum-spp   sphexishness   spiders   spondias-dulcis   spondias-mombin   spore   spring   sprouting   spruce   spruce-bark-beetle   spruce-decline   sql   squashing-functions   srtm   stability-vs-sparsity   stabilization   stand-composition   stand-density   stand-structure   standard   staphylea-pinnata   staphylococcus-aureus   state-shift   stationarity   statistical-downscaling   statistics   stem-canker   stem-rot   stepping-stones   sterculia-foetida   sterculia-urens   sterilization   stigmella-spp   stochastic-dynamic-programming   stochastic-state-transition   stomatal-conductance   stone-weierstrass-theorem   stoniness   storage   storm   storm-intensity   strategy   strategy-vs-tactic   stratification   string-instrument   strobus   strom   strophosoma-melanogrammus   structure   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   subalpine   subalpine-belt   subtropical-areas   subtropical-climate   subtropical-forest   subtropical-mountain-system   succession   succession-pathways   sudden-changes   sudden-oak-death   sudden-transition   sulphur   sumava-national-park   sun   super-derecho   super-terminal-speed   supervised-training  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Extinction debt of forest plants persists for more than a century following habitat fragmentation

Ecology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (March 2006), pp. 542-548,


Following habitat fragmentation individual habitat patches may lose species over time as they pay off their “extinction debt.” Species with relatively low rates of population extinction and colonization (“slow” species) may maintain extinction debts for particularly prolonged periods, but few data are available to test this prediction. We analyzed two unusually detailed data sets on forest plant distributions and land-use history from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom, and Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium, to test for an extinction debt in relation to species-specific extinction and colonization ...


The fate of flowers and fruits of Cornus sanguinea L. in three contrasting Mediterranean habitats

Oecologia In Oecologia, Vol. 74, No. 4. (1988), pp. 592-599,


In the Mediterranean region of southern France, the fate of flowers and fruits of Cornus sanguinea, a deciduous shrub, was studied in three contrasting habitats: (1) an abandoned olive grove, (2) the edge and (3) the interior of a deciduous forest. Abundance of flowering and fruiting of C. sanguinea differed widely between the three habitats. The fate of the flowers, on the other hand, did not differ significantly between habitats. Taking all three habitats together, 77% of the flowers aborted, 23% ...


Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants

In Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants (1982),

Are mismatches the norm? Timing of flowering, fruiting, dispersal and germination and their fitness effects in Frangula alnus (Rhamnaceae)

Oikos, Vol. 124, No. 5. (May 2015), pp. 639-648,


The close morphological and temporal links between phases of plant growth and reproduction call for integrated studies incorporating several reproductive phases from flowering to recruitment, and associated plant-animal interactions. Phenological strategies, as well as plastic phenological response to climate change, incorporate complex interactions between developmental constraints, pollination and seed dispersal. Relationships between reproductive phenology and components of fitness were studied for two years in the north-temperate, self-incompatible, insect-pollinated, and bird-dispersed shrub Frangula alnus (Rhamnaceae). Fruit set, dispersal, germination and juvenile survival, ...


Prunus mahaleb and Birds: The High-Efficiency Seed Dispersal System of a Temperate Fruiting Tree

Ecological Monographs, Vol. 51, No. 2. (June 1981), pp. 203-218,


Seed dispersal of Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae), a tree producing large fruit crops, was studied in southeastern Spain to establish the degree of reciprocal dependence between the plant and the birds which disperse it. P. mahaleb drupes contain a relatively large seed (pulp: stone ratio 0.62). The water content of pulp is 82.9% and dry flesh contains 3.2% crude fat and 2.8% crude protein, being largely made up of carbohydrates. Four bird species were the main seed dispersers. Visitation rates, feeding efficiency, ...


Spatial patterns of dispersal, seed predation and germination during colonization of abandoned grassland by Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana

Vegetatio, Vol. 125, No. 2. (August 1996), pp. 193-205,


Key processes during recruitment of Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana were investigated in abandoned calcareous grasslands and adjacent scrub using the following methods: (1) observation of hoarding animals during the main period of ripening of acorns and hazel nuts, (2) exposition of seeds on the soil surface and in 5–6 cm depth to test differences in predation and germination, and (3) mapping of seedlings in the grasslands. European jays (Garrulus glandarius) and mice were the main disperser of seeds. Jays preferred ...


Seed dispersal distances: a typology based on dispersal modes and plant traits

Botanica Helvetica In Botanica Helvetica, Vol. 117, No. 2. (7 December 2007), pp. 109-124,


The ability of plants to disperse seeds may be critical for their survival under the current constraints of landscape fragmentation and climate change. Seed dispersal distance would therefore be an important variable to include in species distribution models. Unfortunately, data on dispersal distances are scarce, and seed dispersal models only exist for some species with particular dispersal modes. To overcome this lack of knowledge, we propose a simple approach to estimate seed dispersal distances for a whole regional flora. We reviewed ...


Intraspecific variations in dispersal ability of saproxylic beetles in fragmented forest patches

Oecologia In Oecologia (2014), pp. 1-10,


The extrapolation of metapopulation concepts to saproxylic insects suggests that the occupancy of forest patches and the colonization of ephemeral deadwood substrates are driven by micro-evolutionary processes that are related to adaptive plasticity and intraspecific sex-dependent polymorphism of dispersal traits. We hypothesized that forest fragmentation could favor more mobile individuals within populations, but little empirical data have been published on the potentially sex-biased response of insect populations to habitat availability. We selected 88 fragmented woodlots in two European agricultural landscapes to ...


Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 46. (18 November 2014), pp. E4911-E4919,


[Significance] Pathogens, invasive species, rumors, or innovations spread much more quickly around the world nowadays than in previous centuries. The speedup is caused by more frequent long-range dispersal, for example via air traffic. These jumps are crucial because they can generate satellite “outbreaks” at many distant locations, thus rapidly increasing the total rate of spread. We present a simple intuitive argument that captures the resulting spreading patterns. We show that even rare long-range jumps can transform the spread of simple epidemics ...


  1. Ruiz GM, et al. (2000) Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature 408(6808):49–50.
  2. Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ (2001) Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from argentine ants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:1095–1100.
  3. Brockmann D, Hufnagel L, Geisel T (2006) The scaling laws of human travel. Nature 439:462–465.
  4. Gonzalez M, Hidalgo C, Barabási A (2008) Understanding individual human mobility patterns.

The roles of dispersal, fecundity, and predation in the population persistence of an oak (Quercus engelmannii) under global change

PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 5. (18 May 2012), e36391,


A species’ response to climate change depends on the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors that define future habitat suitability and species’ ability to migrate or adapt. The interactive effects of processes such as fire, dispersal, and predation have not been thoroughly addressed in the climate change literature. Our objective was to examine how life history traits, short-term global change perturbations, and long-term climate change interact to affect the likely persistence of an oak species - Quercus engelmannii (Engelmann oak). Specifically, ...


Tree hitched a ride to island

Nature, Vol. 510, No. 7505. (18 June 2014), pp. 320-321,


Acacia analysis reveals globetrotting seed trekked 18,000 kilometres from Hawaii to Réunion. [excerpt] In what is probably the farthest single dispersal event ever recorded, researchers have shown using genetic analysis that an acacia tree endemic to Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean is directly descended from a common Hawaiian tree known as the koa. In fact, these two trees on small specks of land on opposite sides of the globe turn out to be the same species. The event is remarkable not ...


Climate change and the migration capacity of species

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 21, No. 3. (2006), pp. 111-113,


In a recent paper, McLachlan et al. presented evidence that migration rates of two tree species at the end of the last glacial (c. 10–20 thousand years ago) were much slower than was previously thought. These results provide an important insight for climate-change impacts studies and suggest that the ability of species to track future climate change is limited. However, the detection of late-glacial refugia close to modern range limits also implies that some of our most catastrophic projections might be ...


Long-Distance Dispersal of Plants

Science, Vol. 313, No. 5788. (11 August 2006), pp. 786-788,


Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants poses challenges to research because it involves rare events driven by complex and highly stochastic processes. The current surge of renewed interest in LDD, motivated by growing recognition of its critical importance for natural populations and communities and for humanity, promises an improved, quantitatively derived understanding of LDD. To gain deep insights into the patterns, mechanisms, causes, and consequences of LDD, we must look beyond the standard dispersal vectors and the mean trend of the distribution ...


Unlikely Yet Pivotal Long Dispersals

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6180. (11 April 2014), pp. 153-154,


[Excerpt] Long-distance dispersal can enable a species to colonize new areas far from its range, with potentially drastic consequences for ecology, evolution, and biogeography. In The Monkey's Voyage, Alan de Queiroz argues that long-distance dispersals are necessary to explaining the evolutionary histories of many animals and plants across the world. Although Charles Darwin (1) and Alfred Russel Wallace (2) came to the same conclusion over a century ago, the dispersalist view has long been strongly resisted. In particular, the acceptance of ...


Conservation Ecology: Cumulative effects of barriers on the movements of forest birds

Conservation Ecology, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), pp. XIX-XX


Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration) from habitat loss (composition), and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these ...


Glacial Refugia: Hotspots But Not Melting Pots of Genetic Diversity

Science, Vol. 300, No. 5625. (06 June 2003), pp. 1563-1565,


Glacial refuge areas are expected to harbor a large fraction of the intraspecific biodiversity of the temperate biota. To test this hypothesis, we studied chloroplast DNA variation in 22 widespread European trees and shrubs sampled in the same forests. Most species had genetically divergent populations in Mediterranean regions, especially those with low seed dispersal abilities. However, the genetically most diverse populations were not located in the south but at intermediate latitudes, a likely consequence of the admixture of divergent lineages colonizing ...


Using Niche-Based Models to Improve the Sampling of Rare Species

Conservation Biology, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1 April 2006), pp. 501-511,


Because data on rare species usually are sparse, it is important to have efficient ways to sample additional data. Traditional sampling approaches are of limited value for rare species because a very large proportion of randomly chosen sampling sites are unlikely to shelter the species. For these species, spatial predictions from niche-based distribution models can be used to stratify the sampling and increase sampling efficiency. New data sampled are then used to improve the initial model. Applying this approach repeatedly is ...


Estimating dispersibility of Acer, Fraxinus and Tilia in fragmented landscapes from patterns of seedling establishment

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 1, No. 3. (1988), pp. 175-187,


Relative dispersibility of Tilia americana L., Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh, was inferred from the ratio among species-specific regression coefficients (β) computed from seedling density-distance plots. Density counts were made in spatially-uniform old fields adjacent to single seed sources or monotypic fencerows. Resultant seedling shadow curves approximate the negative exponential form expected for many seeds (log y=a−βX). This basic curve shape fit species of differing dispersibility, dispersal under a range of wind directions and one-year-old or all-aged cohorts. The ...


Spatial patterns in long-distance dispersal of Quercus ilex acorns by jays in a heterogeneous landscape

Ecography, Vol. 26, No. 5. (2003), pp. 573-584,


In this paper, I analyse the interaction between the holm-oak Quercus ilex, and one of its main dispersers, the European jay Garrulus glandarius, in an heterogeneous Mediterranean landscape. I quantify the spatial dispersal pattern of the seed shadow at two spatial scales, landscape (among patches) and microhabitat (within patches), by directly tracking the movement of seeds. Two main traits of the jay-mediated dispersal of holm-oak acorns across the landscape, the spatial pattern of dissemination and the distance from the source tree, ...

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