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Selection: with tag spatial-pattern [106 articles] 


Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows: a case study in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22, No. 1. (1 February 2002), pp. 32-39,[0032:fetsdo];2


The spatial distribution of 961 debris flows in the Upper Aragón and Gállego valleys (Central Spanish Pyrenees) was analyzed. Most were located in the Flysch Sector (with a colluvium mantle derived from strongly tectonically modified materials), between 1000 and 1400 m above sea level, on 25?35° gradients with sunny exposure. These gradients were either hillslopes covered by frequently burned scrubland, abandoned fields, or reforested land, confirming the influence of land use and disturbed landscapes on the occurrence of debris flows. ...


A new kind of drought: US record low windiness in 2015

IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 9 (2016), 1412470


Widespread calming of the wind sapped U.S. wind energy power output in 2015, driven by the same weather patterns responsible for California’s severe drought. [Excerpt: Summary and conclusions] 2015 was a year of records: [::] It was the warmest year on record globally. [::] A highly anomalous ocean warming event in the northeast Pacific (NPM) strongly controlled the weather and climate over North America. [::] A high amplitude ridge of unparalleled strength and longevity over western North America dominated until April 2015. [::] Record low ...


Exploring spatial patterns and drivers of forest fires in Portugal (1980–2014)

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 573 (December 2016), pp. 1190-1202,


[Highlights] [::] Wildfires are irregularly distributed in Portugal, both in ignitions and burnt area. [::] In 80% of the municipality's ignition density reveal a positive trend since the 80s. [::] Geographically Weighted Regression was used to identify relevant municipal drivers of fires. [::] Topography and population density were significant factors in municipal ignitions. [::] Topography and uncultivated land were significant factors in municipal burnt area. [Abstract] Information on the spatial incidence of fire ignition density and burnt area, trends and drivers of wildfires is vitally important in providing ...


Spatial patterns and drivers of fire occurrence and its future trend under climate change in a boreal forest of Northeast China

Global Change Biology, Vol. 18, No. 6. (June 2012), pp. 2041-2056,


Understanding the spatial patterns of fire occurrence and its response to climate change is vital to fire risk mitigation and vegetation management. Focusing on boreal forests in Northeast China, we used spatial point pattern analysis to model fire occurrence reported from 1965 to 2009. Our objectives were to quantitate the relative importance of biotic, abiotic, and human influences on patterns of fire occurrence and to map the spatial distribution of fire occurrence density (number of fires occurring over a given area ...


Human influence on California fire regimes

Ecological Applications, Vol. 17, No. 5. (July 2007), pp. 1388-1402,


Periodic wildfire maintains the integrity and species composition of many ecosystems, including the mediterranean-climate shrublands of California. However, human activities alter natural fire regimes, which can lead to cascading ecological effects. Increased human ignitions at the wildland–urban interface (WUI) have recently gained attention, but fire activity and risk are typically estimated using only biophysical variables. Our goal was to determine how humans influence fire in California and to examine whether this influence was linear, by relating contemporary (2000) and historic (1960–2000) ...


Influence of landscape structure on patterns of forest fires in boreal forest landscapes in Sweden

Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1 February 2004), pp. 332-338,


To analyze the effect of landscape structure (viz. amount of wetlands) on the past forest fire regime in boreal Sweden, we reconstructed detailed fire histories by cross-dating fire scars in living and dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in two different landscape types: mire-free landscapes with a low proportion (1%?2%) of mires and mire-rich landscapes with a high proportion (21%?33%) of mires. Two localities were selected and at each one, adjacent mire-free and mire-rich areas of 256?601 ha were sampled. Over ...


How disturbance, competition and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change

Global Change Biology (28 July 2017),


Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species’ ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change, disturbance and competitive interactions to produce range shifts are poorly understood. We used a physiologically-based mechanistic landscape model to study these interactions in the northeastern United States. We designed ...


Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. E6089-E6096,


[Significance] The strong focus on species extinctions, a critical aspect of the contemporary pulse of biological extinction, leads to a common misimpression that Earth’s biota is not immediately threatened, just slowly entering an episode of major biodiversity loss. This view overlooks the current trends of population declines and extinctions. Using a sample of 27,600 terrestrial vertebrate species, and a more detailed analysis of 177 mammal species, we show the extremely high degree of population decay in vertebrates, even in common “species of ...


Behavioral self-organization underlies the resilience of a coastal ecosystem

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 8035-8040,


[Significance] Theoretical models suggest that spatial self-organization enhances the resistance of ecosystems to disturbance. However, experiments investigating this important prediction are lacking. Our paper provides clear experimental evidence that spatial self-organization profoundly increases the ability of ecosystems to persist in the face of disturbance. The mechanisms underlying this positive impact of self-organization are driven by the combination of ecological and behavioral processes. Specifically, large-scale banded patterns in mussel beds created by ecological feedback processes facilitate fast behavioral aggregation of individual mussels into ...


Regular patterns link individual behavior to population persistence

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 7747-7749,


[Excerpt] Resisting and recovering from disturbances is a necessity for most species. The strategy is sometimes collective, depending on the aggregation of interacting individuals into regular patterns. However, relating patterns of abundance across scales to both individual behavior and population persistence remains a major challenge for ecology. Such patterns are found in many ecosystems, ranging from microbes to forests, with their regularity taking the form of evenly sized and spaced bands and patches of aggregated individuals. Regular patterns are said to ...


US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 16. (21 April 2015), pp. 5081-5086,


[Significance] The United States has one of the oldest and most sophisticated systems of protected areas in the world. Given the large amount of information on the country’s biodiversity, and the potential resources available, one might expect it to do well in protecting biodiversity. We find that it does not. The United States protected areas do not adequately cover the country’s unique species. To improve the coverage, we map priorities for multiple taxa and recommend specific areas for immediate conservation attention. These ...


Simulating geographic transport network expansion through individual investments

In Spatial data analyses of urban land use and accessibility (2016), pp. 93-133


This chapter introduces a GIS-based model that simulates the geographical expansion of transport networks by several decision makers with varying objectives. The model progressively adds extensions to a growing network by choosing the most attractive investments from a limited choice set. Attractiveness is defined as a function of variables in which revenue and broader societal benefits may play a role and can be based on empirically underpinned parameters that may differ according to private or public interests. The choice set is selected from an exhaustive set of ...


  1. Alonso, W., 1978. A theory of movements. In: Hansen, N.M. (Ed.), Human settlement systems: International perspectives on structure, change and public policy. Cambridge, MA. Ballinger, pp. 197–211.
  2. Anshelevich, E., Dasgupta, A., Tardos, E., Wexler, T., 2003. Near-optimal network design with selfish agents. In: Proceedings of the thirty-fifth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing, San Diego, June 9-11, 2003. ACM, pp. 511–520.
  3. Bala, V., Goyal, S., 2000. A noncooperative model of

Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727,


[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...


Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

Regional Environmental Change (2015), pp. 1-18,


Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as ...


Do changes in spatial distribution, structure and abundance of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) indicate its decline?

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 261, No. 4. (08 February 2011), pp. 844-854,


Silver fir decline was investigated based on changes in spatial distribution of fir, fir abundance in forest stands, dbh (age) structure of fir, and abundance of fir regeneration. The authors used a large-scale approach to study the dynamics of silver fir over nearly 40 years. Based on Silva-SI, a spatial information system, the majority of total forest area in Slovenia was analysed for changes in the distribution of silver fir in the period 1970–2008 using artificial neural networks (ANNs), with respect ...


Species’ geographic ranges and distributional limits: pattern analysis and statistical issues

Oikos, Vol. 108, No. 1. (January 2005), pp. 7-17,


With the increasing concern about species conservation, a need exists for quantitaive characterization of species' geographic range and their borders. In this paper, we survey tools appropriate for the quantification of static spatial patterns related to geographical ranges and their borders. We then build on these static methods to consider the problem of changes in geographic range through time. Methods discussed are illustrated using lark sparrow data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey. While there is no such thing as ...


Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 13, No. 2. (11 February 2013), pp. 311-327,


Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR) to better understand and explore ...


Climate-induced forest dieback: an escalating global phenomenon?

Unasylva, Vol. 60, No. 231-232. (2009), pp. 43-49


Forests, which today cover 30 percent of the world’s land surface (FAO, 2006), are being rapidly and directly transformed in many areas by the impacts of expanding human populations and economies. Less evident are the pervasive effects of ongoing climatic changes on the condition and status of forests around the world. Recent examples of drought and heat-related forest stress and dieback (defined here as tree mortality noticeably above usual mortality levels) are being documented from all forested continents, making it possible ...


Constraints on global fire activity vary across a resource gradient

Ecology, Vol. 92, No. 1. (2011), pp. 121-132,


We provide an empirical, global test of the varying constraints hypothesis, which predicts systematic heterogeneity in the relative importance of biomass resources to burn and atmospheric conditions suitable to burning (weather/climate) across a spatial gradient of long-term resource availability. Analyses were based on relationships between monthly global wildfire activity, soil moisture, and mid-tropospheric circulation data from 2001 to 2007, synthesized across a gradient of long-term averages in resources (net primary productivity), annual temperature, and terrestrial biome.We demonstrate support for the varying ...


The global methane budget 2000–2012

Earth System Science Data, Vol. 8, No. 2. (12 December 2016), pp. 697-751,


The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety ...


Complex responses to global change at alpine treeline

Physical Geography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (1 July 2001), pp. 333-342,


A focus of geography is the study of complexity: we include many interacting processes when we study places. Another view of complexity in geography is that complex pattern, in particular spatial pattern, can arise from few or simple interactions, if they are nonlinear. Environmental responses to global change are likely to be nonlinear and thus complex. Shifts in ecotones–the boundaries of vegetation types or biomes–may be indicative of such complex response to global change. One reason for expecting nonlinearity is that ...


Climate, CO2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 1. (15 January 2016), pp. 267-282,


Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather ...


Exploring the spatial patterns of fire density in southern Europe using geographically weighted regression

Applied Geography, Vol. 51 (July 2014), pp. 143-157,


[Highlights] [::] We explored the spatial patterns of fire density in two regions of Southern Europe. [::] Geographically Weighted Regression was applied to investigate main drivers of fire. [::] A strong spatial variability of the explanatory power of the variables was found. [::] Precipitation, livestock and shrubland were significant factors in both regions. [::] Fire prevention strategies can be adjusted to particular fire conditions in an area. [Abstract] The spatial patterns of fire occurrence were analyzed in two regions of Southern Europe, focusing on the long-term factors that ...


Anthropogenic effects on global mean fire size

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 24, No. 5. (2015), 589,


Wildland fires are an important agent in the earth’s system. Multiple efforts are currently in progress to better represent wildland fires in earth system models. Although wildland fires are a natural disturbance factor, humans have an important effect on fire occurrence by directly igniting and suppressing fires and indirectly influencing fire behaviour by changing land cover and landscape structure. Although these factors are recognised, their quantitative effect on fire growth and burned area are not well understood and therefore only partly ...


Wildfires in a warmer climate: emission fluxes, emission heights, and black carbon concentrations in 2090-2099

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, No. 7. (16 April 2016), pp. 3195-3223,


Global warming is expected to considerably impact wildfire activity and aerosol emission release in the future. Due to their complexity, the future interactions between climate change, wildfire activity, emission release, and atmospheric aerosol processes are still uncertain. Here we use the process-based fire model SPITFIRE within the global vegetation model JSBACH to simulate wildfire activity for present-day climate conditions and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The modeled fire emission fluxes and fire radiative power serve as input for the aerosol-climate model ...


Scale-free channeling patterns near the onset of erosion of sheared granular beds

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11788-11793,


[Significance] The response of erodible granular beds to shearing flows controls numerous natural phenomena. A central aspect is the existence of a threshold stress below which erosion stops, and whose microscopic underpinning is debated. We use an experiment where this threshold is spontaneously reached to study the spatial organization of the erosion flux. We find that erosion is heterogeneous in space and occurs along favored channels whose distribution is extremely broad, with strongly anisotropic spatial correlations. These findings can be quantitatively explained ...


Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6309. (14 October 2016), aaf8957,


[Abstract] The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone—US$166 billion ...


Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets

Nature, Vol. 529, No. 7587. (20 January 2016), pp. 477-483,


Targets for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide are related to regional changes in climate extremes rather than to changes in global mean temperature, in order to convey their urgency better to individual countries. ...


Spatiotemporal patterns of changes in fire regime and climate: defining the pyroclimates of south-eastern France (Mediterranean Basin)

Climatic Change, Vol. 129, No. 1-2. (2015), pp. 239-251,


The impacts of climate change on fires are expected to be highly variable spatially and temporally. In heavily anthropized landscapes, the great number of factors affecting fire regimes further limits our ability to predict future fire activity caused by climate. To address this, we develop a new framework for analysing regional changes in fire regimes from specific spatiotemporal patterns of fires and climate, so-called pyroclimates. We aim to test the trends of fire activity and climate (1973–2009) across the Mediterranean and ...


Equality in maternal and newborn health: modelling geographic disparities in utilisation of care in five East African countries

PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 8. (25 August 2016), e0162006,


Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities ...


Bistability, spatial interaction, and the distribution of tropical forests and savannas

Ecosystems (2016), pp. 1-12,


Recent work has indicated that tropical forest and savanna can be alternative stable states under a range of climatic conditions. However, dynamical systems theory suggests that in case of strong spatial interactions between patches of forest and savanna, a boundary between both states is only possible at conditions in which forest and savanna are equally stable, called the ‘Maxwell point.’ Frequency distributions of MODIS tree-cover data at 250 m resolution were used to estimate such Maxwell points with respect to the ...


The effects of temporally variable dispersal and landscape structure on invasive species spread

Ecological Applications, Vol. 20, No. 3. (April 2010), pp. 593-608,


Many invasive species are too widespread to realistically eradicate. For such species, a viable management strategy is to slow the rate of spread. However, to be effective, this will require detailed spread data and an understanding of the influence of environmental conditions and landscape structure on invasion rates. We used a time series of remotely sensed distribution maps and a spatial simulation model to study spread of the invasive Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. L. latifolium ...


Predicting plant species richness in a managed forest

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 180, No. 1-3. (July 2003), pp. 583-593,


This paper describes an attempt to predict ground flora species richness under various forest management scenarios. The approach is based on a geographic information system (GIS) and uses three standard map layers of topography, soils and stands to derive environmental gradients of light, nutrients, water and disturbance. A simple floristic survey provides the data necessary to relate plant distribution with environmental variables. The potential distribution of 60 understorey plant species is modelled based on the four derived gradients. The sum of ...


Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats

Biological Conservation, Vol. 55, No. 1. (1991), pp. 77-92,


We propose a protocol for assessing the ecological impacts of edge effects in fragments of natural habitat surrounded by induced (artificial) edges. The protocol involves three steps: (1) identification of focal taxa of particular conservation or management interest, (2) measurement of an ‘edge function’ that describes the response of these taxa to induced edges, and (3) use of a ‘Core-Area Model’ to extrapolate edge function parameters to existing or novel situations. The Core-Area Model accurately estimates the total area of pristine ...


Improving the assessment and reporting on rare and endangered species through species distribution models

Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 2 (December 2014), pp. 226-237,


Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to understand rare and endangered species distributions, as well as the environmental pressures affecting them. Detailed knowledge of their distribution is critical for reporting its conservation status, and SDMs are potential tools to provide the relevant information to conservation practitioners. In this study, we modeled the distribution of Veronica micrantha, a vulnerable plant whose conservation status has to be periodically assessed under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. [\n] The objective was to highlight the ...


Influence of different species range types on the perception of macroecological patterns

Systematics and Biodiversity, Vol. 9, No. 2. (1 June 2011), pp. 159-170,


In the face of increasing availability and use of distribution data, large-scale approaches of mapping species distribution patterns have become a central component of development of large-scale conservation policies. Particularly in tropical regions and for non-vertebrate taxa, knowledge on distribution patterns at large spatial extents remains woefully limited. Datasets are often geographically and taxonomically incomplete, have presence-only character and lack abundance information. One intermediate step for the application of such data common to most approaches is the construction of species geographic ...


How does forest landscape structure explain tree species richness in a Mediterranean context?

Biodiversity and Conservation In Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 17, No. 5. (1 May 2008), pp. 1227-1240,


Although the strong relationship between vegetation and climatic factors is widely accepted, other landscape composition and configuration characteristics could be significantly related with vegetation diversity patterns at different scales. Variation partitioning was conducted in order to analyse to what degree forest landscape structure, compared to other spatial and environmental factors, explained forest tree species richness in 278 UTM 10 × 10 km cells in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia (NE Spain). Tree species richness variation was decomposed through linear regression into three groups of ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 33

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   silviculture   similarity   simple-sequence-repeats   simulation   single-nucleotide-polymorphism   sismic-hazard   site-quality   sitka-spruce   situational-awareness   slope   slope-stability   slovakia   slovenia   slovenian-alps   smoke   smooth-transition   smyrnium-perfoliatum   snow   snow-avalances   so2   soc   social-engineering-risk   social-learning   social-media   social-system   society   socratea-exorrhiza   sodium   soft-constraint   soft-systems-approach   softw   software-control   software-engineering   software-errors   software-evolution   software-evolvability   software-libraries   software-patents   software-quality   software-security   software-uncertainty   software-validity   software-verification   soil   soil-carbon   soil-compactation   soil-conditions   soil-erosion   soil-evolution   soil-fertility   soil-food   soil-formation   soil-hydrophobicity   soil-loss   soil-microbial-properties   soil-moisture   soil-pollution   soil-resources   soil-restoration   soil-sealing   soil-stabilization   soils   solanum-dulcamara   solanum-spp   solar-energy   solar-radiation   solid-phase-microextraction   sonneratia-apetala   soot   sophora-chrysophylla   sophora-secundiflora   sophora-spp   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-domestica   sorbus-intermedia   sorbus-spp   sorbus-torminalis   sorex-spp   south-america   south-asia   southeast-asia   southeastern-europe   southern-africa   southern-alps   southern-asia   southern-europe   southern-oscillation   spain   spartium-junceum   spathodea-campanulata   spatial-analysis   spatial-disaggregation   spatial-ecology   spatial-interpolation   spatial-pattern   spatial-prioritization   spatial-resolution   spatial-spread  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


A computational framework for generalized moving windows and its application to landscape pattern analysis

International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 44 (February 2016), pp. 205-216,


[Highlights] [::] Moving window analysis is a prominent means of analyzing the spatial variability of landscape patterns at multiple scales. [::] A new computational framework is presented that overcomes technical and computational barriers to the use and implementation of moving windows based landscape pattern analysis of raster maps. [::] For a small window of 41 × 41 pixels, computation time was reduced by a factor 600 compared to the most commonly used software. These gains will be greater for larger windows. [::] The framework facilitates ...


Spatial patterns of European droughts under a moderate emission scenario

Advances in Science and Research, Vol. 12 (24 July 2015), pp. 179-186,


Meteorological drought is generally defined as a prolonged deficiency of precipitation and is considered one of the most relevant natural hazards as the related impacts can involve many different sectors. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of European droughts for the periods 1981–2010, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100, focusing on the projections under a moderate emissions scenario. To do that, we used the outputs of the KNMI-RACMO2 model, which belongs to the A1B family and whose spatial resolution is 0.25° × ...


  1. Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., Smith, M., 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, FAO Irrigation and drainage paper, 56, FAO, Rome, 15 pp..
  2. Beguería, S., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Reig, F., Latorre, B., 2014. Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) revisited: parameter fitting, evapotranspiration models, tools, datasets and drought monitoring, Int. J. Climatol., 34, 3001–3023.
  3. Blenkinsop, S., Fowler, H. J., 2007. Changes in European

Towards more predictable and consistent landscape metrics across spatial scales

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 57 (October 2015), pp. 11-21,


[Highlights] [::] Landscape metrics are used to quantify landscape composition and configuration. [::] These metrics are sensitive to spatial pattern and the scale of the spatial data. [::] Metrics that are less sensitive to scale and are less correlated are highlighted. [::] Complex interactions between scale and the spatial pattern of the landscape were found. [::]Investigation of these interactions is needed to accurately quantify spatial patterns. [Abstract] Habitat change and fragmentation are considered key drivers of environmental change and biodiversity loss. To understand and mitigate the effects of ...


The biggest drought events in Europe from 1950 to 2012

Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2015),


[Highlights] [::] We compiled a list of the biggest European drought events (1950–2012). [::] We focused on drought events at meteorological and hydrological time scale. [::] We used a combination of three drought indicators (SPI, SPEI, and RDI). [::] We defined the frequency, severity, duration, and intensity of the events. [::] We present regional and country drought time series. [Abstract] [::Study region] Europe, including European Russia, but excluding Greenland, the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Madeira. [::Study focus] Drought is a complex climate-related phenomenon that can affect different sectors causing ...


  1. Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., Smith, M., 1998. Crop Evapotranspiration – Guidelines for Computing CropWater Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, vol. 56. FAO, Rome, 15 pp.
  2. Arpe, K., Leroy, S.A.G., Lahijani, H., Khan, V., 2012. Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level. Hydrology and Earth System Science, 16, 19-27. .
  3. August, D., Geiger, M., 2008. Drought in the Mediterranean - Recent

Development of indicators reflecting criteria of spatial differentiation - 1.6. Natural assets environmental indicators



[Excerpt] In the task sharing established at the Preparatory Meeting of the Study Programme on European Spatial Planning (SPESP), Brussels, 7 December 1998, it was agreed that the Work Group in charge of the development of theme 1.6, Indicators on Natural Assets, would be made up of the National Focal Points (NFP’s) of Spain and Denmark. Furthermore, it was planned that the work would be carried out in close collaboration with the European Environment Agency (EEA), given the obvious relationship of this organisation with the theme under study. Apart ...


Habitat-based statistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of butterflies and day-flying moths in a fragmented landscape

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 37, No. s1. (September 2000), pp. 60-72,


1. Most species’ surveys and biodiversity inventories are limited by time and money. Therefore, it would be extremely useful to develop predictive models of animal distributions based on habitat, and to use these models to estimate species' densities and range sizes in poorly sampled regions. 2. In this study, two sets of data were collected. The first set consisted of over 2000 butterfly transect counts, which were used to determine the relative density of each species in 16 major habitat types in a 35-km2 ...


GRASS GIS manual:

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2014)


[Excerpt] The suite is a toolset for multiscale analysis of landscape structure. It aims at implementing metrics as found in external software for quantitative measures of landscape structure like FRAGSTATS (McGarigal and Marks 1995). [\n] The suite offers a set of patch and diversity indices. It supports analysis of landscapes composed of a mosaic of patches, but, more generally, the modules work with any two-dimensional raster map whose cell values are integer (e.g., 1, 2) or floating point (e.g., 1.1, ...


Evolution and entropy in the organization of urban street patterns

Annals of GIS, Vol. 19, No. 1. (8 February 2013), pp. 1-16,


The street patterns of cities are the result of long-term evolution and interaction between various internal, social and economic, and external, environmental and landscape, processes and factors. In this article, we use entropy as a measure of dispersion to study the effects of landscapes on the evolution and associated street patterns of two cities: Dundee in Eastern Scotland and Khorramabad in Western Iran, cities which have strong similarities in terms of the size of their street systems and populations but considerable ...


Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

Conservation Ecology, Vol. 4, No. 2. (2000), 3


We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km2 (9×9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km2 (243×243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined) from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests ...


Key structural forest connectors can be identified by combining landscape spatial pattern and network analyses

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 262, No. 2. (July 2011), pp. 150-160,


Conservation and enhancement of ecological connectivity is widely recognized as one of the key objectives of forest landscape management. However, practical difficulties still exist due to the lack of pragmatic and operational methodologies that can be efficiently applied for these purposes within the scope of a forest management plan. Here we present the novel integration of two recent approaches for analyzing forest structural connectivity that offers considerable synergies and potential relevant benefits for forest planning at a variety of scales. We ...


Edge geometry influences patch-level habitat use by an edge specialist in south-eastern Australia

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4. (2008), pp. 377-389,


We investigated patterns in habitat use by the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) along farmland-woodland edges of large patches of remnant vegetation (>300 ha) in the highly fragmented box-ironbark woodlands and forests of central Victoria, Australia. Noisy miners exclude small birds from their territories, and are considered a significant threat to woodland bird communities in the study region. Seventeen different characteristics of edge habitat were recorded, together with the detection or non-detection of noisy miners along 129 500-m segments of patch edge. Habitat ...


Evaluating the effects of changes in landscape structure on soil erosion by water and tillage

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 15, No. 6. (2000), pp. 577-589,


Landscape structure, or the spatial organization of different land units, has an impact on erosion and sedimentation on agricultural land. However, current erosion models emphasize the temporal, and less the spatial, variability of relevant parameters so that the effects of changes in landscape structure have hitherto not been studied in detail. Therefore, a spatially distributed water and tillage erosion model that allows the incorporation of landscape structure is presented. The model is applied to three study sites in the Belgian Loam ...

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