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Selection: with tag soil-resources [at least 200 articles] 


Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 15, No. 3. (2006), 319,


Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous remote sensing products for fire management. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of current and potential remote sensing methods used to assess fire ...


Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 109, No. 1-2. (November 2011), pp. 44-60,


[Abstract] Fire can affect soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. Aggregate stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil aggregation to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has affected other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency ...


Evaluating the performance of different empirical rainfall erosivity (R) factor formulas using sediment yield measurements

CATENA, Vol. 169 (October 2018), pp. 195-208,


[Highlights] [::] R-factor calculation method impact on soil erosion modeling [::] Comparative analysis (numerical, spatial) of 9 empirical R-factor formulas [::] RUSLE implementation on a typical mountainous Mediterranean catchment [::] Application on two time scales (annual, multi-annual) per R-factor approximation [::] Indirect validation (per R-factor method modelled against measured sediment yield) [Abstract] The study aims to evaluate the performance of nine empirical rainfall erosivity (R) factor formulas at the Venetikos River catchment, Northwestern Greece. The goal is to select the most appropriate one, for the accurate estimation of ...


Gully head modelling: a Mediterranean badland case study

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (11 May 2018),


Predicting the location of gully heads in various environments is an important step towards predicting gully erosion rates. So far, field data collection and modelling of topographic thresholds for gully head development has mainly focussed on gullies that formed in forested areas, rangelands, pastures and cropland. Such information for gullies in badlands however is very scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to extend the database on gully head topographical thresholds through data collection in a badland area and to improve the prediction ...


The significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment

Environmental Management (2018), pp. 1-20,


The study aims to evaluate the significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment. To that end, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was implemented at the Upper Acheloos River catchment, Western Central Greece, annually and multi-annually for the period 1965–92. The model estimates soil erosion as the linear product of six factors (R, K, LS, C, and P) considering the catchment’s climatic, pedological, topographic, land cover, and anthropogenic characteristics, respectively. The C factor was estimated using six alternative land ...


Microbial oxidation of lithospheric organic carbon in rapidly eroding tropical mountain soils

Science, Vol. 360, No. 6385. (12 April 2018), pp. 209-212,


[Microbes eat rocks and leave carbon dioxide] The reaction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with silicate rocks provides a carbon sink that helps counterbalance the release of CO2 by volcanic degassing. However, some types of rocks contain petrogenic organic carbon, the oxidation of which adds CO2 to the atmosphere, counteracting the drawdown by silicates. Hemingway et al. present evidence from the rapidly eroding Central Range of Taiwan showing that microbes oxidize roughly two-thirds of the petrogenic organic carbon there and that the ...


Eroding mountains could release, not trap, greenhouse gases



[Excerpt] The hills are hiding a carbon cache. For decades, scientists believed that the erosion of mountains caused carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere to drop, as silicate rocks newly exposed to rainwater would “weather,” taking up carbon in carbonate minerals that would sluice down rivers and be sequestered on the sea floor. [\n] But a new line of research, published this week in Science, is complicating that picture. A team of scientists has found that, thanks to opportunistic microbes, some mountain ...


Secondo rapporto sullo stato del capitale naturale in Italia



[:Executive summary (in Italian)] Il 2017 ha segnato un importante punto di svolta dell’articolato e lungo percorso di sostenibilità del nostro Paese. Nel quadro di riferimento dettato dall’Agenda 2030 dell’ONU sullo Sviluppo Sostenibile e dalla Strategia nazionale di Sviluppo Sostenibile (SNSvS), l’elaborazione del Primo Rapporto sullo Stato del Capitale Naturale in Italia ha consentito di mettere in luce, per la prima volta, al complesso sistema istituzionale il fondamentale ruolo ricoperto dal Capitale Naturale italiano rispetto al sistema socio-economico collettivo del Paese. [\n] “Dov’è ...


  1. Alberini, A., Rosato, P., Longo, A., Zanatta, V., 2004. Information and Willingness to Pay in a Contingent Valuation Study: the Value of S. Erasmo in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 19/2004.
  2. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., 2005. Combining Actual and Contingent Behaviour to Estimate the Value of Sports Fishing in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 44/2005.
  3. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., Rosato, P., 2007. Combining

Empirical models of annual post-fire erosion on mulched and unmulched hillslopes

CATENA, Vol. 163 (April 2018), pp. 276-287,


[Highlights] [::] Measured hillslope erosion with and without mulch following the 2012 High Park Fire. [::] Mulched slopes had fourfold lower erosion rates during the first year after fire. [::] Bare soil was the strongest control on erosion rates. [::] Empirical models predict erosion using bare soil, precipitation, and flow length. [::] Empirical model performance ranged from poor to good for different fires. [Abstract] Erosion is one of the primary land management concerns following wildfire. This study examines controls on post-fire hillslope-scale erosion for the 2012 High Park ...


US natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation

Environmental Management, Vol. 44, No. 6. (2009), pp. 1001-1021,


Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; ...


Effects of slope angle and aspect on plant cover and species richness in a humid Mediterranean badland

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, No. 13. (October 2014), pp. 1705-1716,


Soil erosion is one of the most severe land degradation processes in the Mediterranean region. Although badlands occupy a relatively small fraction of the Mediterranean area, their erosion rates are very high. Many studies have investigated to what extent vegetation controls soil erosion rates. This study, however, deals with the impact of erosion on vegetation establishment. In semi-arid badlands of the Mediterranean, soil water availability constitutes the main limiting factor for vegetation development. As a consequence, south-facing slopes are typically less ...


Sand in demand: trapped behind dams

Science, Vol. 358, No. 6360. (12 October 2017), pp. 180-180,


[Excerpt] [...] Estimates of total sediment entrapment behind large dams over the past half-century may be on the order of 100 billion metric tons, or 30% of the total potential global flux [...] United Nations estimates project that 66% of the world's population will be urban by 2050, an increase of 2.5 billion people [...]. If this urbanization is the primary driver of accelerated sand appropriation, demand will markedly increase. It is possible that reservoirs and impoundments will therefore be both ...


How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690,


Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...


Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10572-10577,


[Significance] Knowledge of plant rooting depth is critical to understanding plant-mediated global change. Earth system models are highly sensitive to this particular parameter with large consequences for modeled plant productivity, water–energy–carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and silicate weathering regulating multimillion-year-timescale carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Accidental discoveries of >70-m-deep roots in wells and >20-m-deep roots in caves offer glimpses of the enormous plasticity of root response to its environment, but the ...


Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows: a case study in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22, No. 1. (1 February 2002), pp. 32-39,[0032:fetsdo];2


The spatial distribution of 961 debris flows in the Upper Aragón and Gállego valleys (Central Spanish Pyrenees) was analyzed. Most were located in the Flysch Sector (with a colluvium mantle derived from strongly tectonically modified materials), between 1000 and 1400 m above sea level, on 25?35° gradients with sunny exposure. These gradients were either hillslopes covered by frequently burned scrubland, abandoned fields, or reforested land, confirming the influence of land use and disturbed landscapes on the occurrence of debris flows. ...


Post-fire erosion response in a watershed mantled by volcaniclastic deposits, Sarno Mountains, Southern Italy

CATENA, Vol. 152 (May 2017), pp. 227-241,


[Highlights] [::] We describe a post-fire erosion response of a steep watershed in Italy. [::] The fire burned 11 ha of forest with high and moderate severity. [::] The erosion response was triggered by a convective rainstorm. [::] A hyperconcentrated flow resulted from sediment bulking of surface runoff. [::] Amount of soil loss was estimated. [Abstract] In this study we document a post-fire erosion response to a short-lived, intense rainstorm occurred on 6 September 2012 in the Sant'Angelo creek watershed, Sarno Mountains, Southern Italy. The rainstorm occurred one ...


The concept of potential natural vegetation: an epitaph?

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 21, No. 6. (December 2010), pp. 1172-1178,


We discuss the usefulness of the concept of Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV), which describes the expected state of mature vegetation in the absence of human intervention. We argue that it is impossible to model PNV because of (i) the methodological problems associated to its definition and (ii) the issues related to the ecosystems dynamics.We conclude that the approach to characterizing PNV is unrealistic and provides scenarios with limited predictive power. In places with a long-term human history, interpretations of PNV need ...


Investigation of root reinforcement decay after a forest fire in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) protection forest

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 400 (September 2017), pp. 339-352,


[Highlights] [::] Engineering resilience of Scots pine 4 years after forest fire has been quantified. [::] Spatial distribution of root reinforcement (RR) has been modeled. [::] RR decay by a factor of 3.6, 4 years after a stand replacing forest fire. [::] Natural regeneration has almost no root reinforcement 4 years after fire. [::] Decay of root mechanical properties determine most of RR loss. [Abstract] Natural disturbances may cause a temporary reduction or elimination of the protective effect of forests. The management of protection forests aims to influence ...


Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds

Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 61, No. 1. (17 March 2012), pp. 217-227,


Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these ...


How do root and soil characteristics affect the erosion-reducing potential of plant species?

Ecological Engineering (August 2017),


[Highlights] [::] Fibrous roots are very effective in reducing flow erosion rates in sandy soils. [::] Soil texture and bulk density affects the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots. [::] Increasing soil bulk density hampers the erosion-reducing potential of fine roots. [::] Increasing sand content hampers the erosion-reducing potential of tap roots. [Abstract] Plant roots can be very effective in stabilizing the soil against concentrated flow erosion. So far, most research on the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots was conducted on loamy soils. However susceptible to incisive erosion ...


How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. E5187-E5196,


[Significance] A dataset from one of the last protected tropical peat swamps in Southeast Asia reveals how fluctuations in rainfall on yearly and shorter timescales affect the growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands over thousands of years. The pattern of rainfall and the permeability of the peat together determine a particular curvature of the peat surface that defines the amount of naturally sequestered carbon stored in the peatland over time. This principle can be used to calculate the long-term carbon dioxide emissions ...


More rain, less soil: long-term changes in rainfall intensity with climate change

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 41, No. 4. (30 March 2016), pp. 563-566,


This commentary discusses the role of long-term climate change in driving increases in soil erosion. Assuming that land use and management remain effectively constant, we discuss changes in the ability of rainfall to cause erosion (erosivity), using long daily rainfall data sets from southeast England. An upward trend in mean rainfall per rain day is detected at the century-plus timescale. Implications for soil erosion and sediment delivery are discussed and evidence from other regions reviewed. We conclude that rates of soil ...


Modelling the effect of soil burn severity on soil erosion at hillslope scale in the first year following wildfire in NW Spain

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 41, No. 7. (15 June 2016), pp. 928-935,


Fire severity is recognized as a key factor in explaining post-fire soil erosion. However, the relationship between soil burn severity and soil loss has not been fully established until now. Sediment availability may also affect the extent of post-fire soil erosion. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil burn severity, estimated by an operational classification system based on visual indicators, can significantly explain soil loss in the first year after wildfire in shrubland and other areas affected by ...


Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: a case study in South-eastern Spain

Geomorphology, Vol. 232 (March 2015), pp. 117-124,


[Highlights] [::] A method to identify most vulnerable areas towards soil erosion has been proposed. [::] Slope steepness, aspect and fire severity were the inputs. [::] The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs. [::] North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest. [Abstract] Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to ...


Wildfire effects on soil erodibility of woodlands in NW Spain

Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 21, No. 2. (March 2010), pp. 75-82,


Knowledge of soil erodibility following wildfire is of crucial importance for prioritisation of post-fire restoration practices for soil erosion mitigation. The present work therefore aims to determine the effect of wildfire on soil erodibility for common woodlands in Galicia, NW Spain. This is done by comparing selected topsoil properties of 28 pairs of recently wildfire-burned and neighbouring unburned sites on different geologic substrates. The soil properties were selected for their supposed importance in erodibility, and include aggregate size distribution and water ...


Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: a review

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 599-600 (December 2017), pp. 1740-1755,


[Highlights] [::] Forest catchment supply high quality water to a number of communities around the world. [::] Forest fire release sequestered metals from soil organic matter and vegetation. [::] Post-fire erosion rapidly transports these metals to downstream soil and water bodies. [::] Their deposition in the water bodies affects the water quality and aquatic biota. [::] This metal contamination may reach to human being as a consumer. [Abstract] One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of ...


SoilGrids250m: Global gridded soil information based on machine learning

PLOS ONE, Vol. 12, No. 2. (16 February 2017), e0169748,


This paper describes the technical development and accuracy assessment of the most recent and improved version of the SoilGrids system at 250m resolution (June 2016 update). SoilGrids provides global predictions for standard numeric soil properties (organic carbon, bulk density, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), pH, soil texture fractions and coarse fragments) at seven standard depths (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm), in addition to predictions of depth to bedrock and distribution of soil classes based on the World Reference ...


A gridded global data set of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposit thicknesses for regional and global land surface modeling

Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, No. 1. (March 2016), pp. 41-65,


Earth's terrestrial near-subsurface environment can be divided into relatively porous layers of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposits above unweathered bedrock. Variations in the thicknesses of these layers control the hydrologic and biogeochemical responses of landscapes. Currently, Earth System Models approximate the thickness of these relatively permeable layers above bedrock as uniform globally, despite the fact that their thicknesses vary systematically with topography, climate, and geology. To meet the need for more realistic input data for models, we developed a high-resolution ...


SoilGrids1km - Global soil information based on automated mapping

PLOS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 8. (29 August 2014), e105992,


Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. We present SoilGrids1km â a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution â containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kgâ1), soil pH, sand, silt and ...


Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 24. (13 June 2017), pp. 6322-6327,


[Significance] Ecosystems’ feedback to climate change remains a source of uncertainty in global models that project future climate conditions. That uncertainty rests largely on how much soil carbon will be lost as microbial respiration and how that loss varies across ecosystems. Although there has been a large emphasis on microbial temperature responses, how soil microorganisms respond to changes in moisture remains poorly understood. Here we show that historical rainfall controls soil respiration responses to current moisture. This finding was robust, with historical ...


Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606,


[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...


Environmental versus geographical determinants of genetic structure in two subalpine conifers

New Phytologist, Vol. 201, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 180-192,


[::] Alpine ecosystems are facing rapid human-induced environmental changes, and so more knowledge about tree adaptive potential is needed. This study investigated the relative role of isolation by distance (IBD) versus isolation by adaptation (IBA) in explaining population genetic structure in Abies alba and Larix decidua, based on 231 and 233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sampled across 36 and 22 natural populations, respectively, in the Alps and Apennines. [::] Genetic structure was investigated for both geographical and environmental groups, using analysis of ...


Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...


  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,

Executive summary

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...


  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...


European soil database - Distribution version v2.0



[Excerpt] The information on this CD-ROM relates to the European Soil Database (distribution version v2.0) and consists of the following components: [::] An introduction to the European Soil Database explaining the essentials of its 4 components: [::1] the Soil Geographical Database of Eurasia at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE) [::2] the Pedotransfer Rules Database (PTRDB) [::3] the Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE) [::4] the Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES) [::] A collection of maps, which allows the user to view the soil attribute data [::] ...


Soil erosion assessment - Mind the gap

Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 43, No. 24. (28 December 2016), 2016GL071480,


Accurate assessment of erosion rates remains an elusive problem because soil loss is strongly nonunique with respect to the main drivers. In addressing the mechanistic causes of erosion responses, we discriminate between macroscale effects of external factors—long studied and referred to as “geomorphic external variability”, and microscale effects, introduced as “geomorphic internal variability.” The latter source of erosion variations represents the knowledge gap, an overlooked but vital element of geomorphic response, significantly impacting the low predictability skill of deterministic models at ...


Integration of ecological and socio-economic factors to assess global vulnerability to wildfire

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 2. (2014), pp. 245-258,


[Aim] This paper presents a map of global fire vulnerability, estimating the potential damage of wildland fires to global ecosystems. [Location] Global scale at 0.5° grid resolution. [Methods] Three vulnerability factors were considered: ecological richness and fragility, provision of ecosystem services and value of houses in the wildland–urban interface. Each of these factors was estimated from existing global databases. Ecological values were estimated from biodiversity relevance, conservation status and fragmentation based on Olson's ecoregions. The ecological regeneration delay was estimated from adaptation to fires and soil ...


Methodological approach for the assessment of environmental effects of agroforestry at the landscape scale

Ecological Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 4. (April 2007), pp. 450-462,


Silvoarable agroforestry, the deliberate combined use of trees and arable crops on the same area of land, has been proposed in order to improve the environmental performance of agricultural systems in Europe. Based on existing models and algorithms, we developed a method to predict the environmental effects of SAF at a farm and landscape scale. The method is comprised of an assessment of soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration, and landscape diversity and allowed the comparison of the environmental performance of ...


Running an open experiment: transparency and reproducibility in soil and ecosystem science

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 8. (01 August 2016), 084004,


Researchers in soil and ecosystem science, and almost every other field, are being pushed—by funders, journals, governments, and their peers—to increase transparency and reproducibility of their work. A key part of this effort is a move towards open data as a way to fight post-publication data loss, improve data and code quality, enable powerful meta- and cross-disciplinary analyses, and increase trust in, and the efficiency of, publicly-funded research. Many scientists however lack experience in, and may be unsure of the benefits ...


Health impacts of wildfires

PLoS Currents Disasters (2012), 1881,


[Introduction] Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of ...


Fire effects on soils: the human dimension

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (05 June 2016), 20150171,


Soils are among the most valuable non-renewable resources on the Earth. They support natural vegetation and human agro-ecosystems, represent the largest terrestrial organic carbon stock, and act as stores and filters for water. Mankind has impacted on soils from its early days in many different ways, with burning being the first human perturbation at landscape scales. Fire has long been used as a tool to fertilize soils and control plant growth, but it can also substantially change vegetation, enhance soil erosion ...


Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337,


Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...


Scale-free channeling patterns near the onset of erosion of sheared granular beds

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11788-11793,


[Significance] The response of erodible granular beds to shearing flows controls numerous natural phenomena. A central aspect is the existence of a threshold stress below which erosion stops, and whose microscopic underpinning is debated. We use an experiment where this threshold is spontaneously reached to study the spatial organization of the erosion flux. We find that erosion is heterogeneous in space and occurs along favored channels whose distribution is extremely broad, with strongly anisotropic spatial correlations. These findings can be quantitatively explained ...


The development of environmental thinking in economics

Environmental Values, Vol. 8, No. 4. (November 1999), pp. 413-435,


There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ecological economics are increasingly incompatible with those practising ...


The economic possibilities of conservation

The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3. (01 May 1913), pp. 497-519,


[Excerpt] It is desirable to confine the idea of conservation to its original application to natural resources. Even in this sense the concept as developed in the conservation movement comprises several distinct purposes, which are not clearly separated in the popular mind. In the first place, it expresses a demand for a fair distribution of the natural resources not yet alienated. [\n] [...] The real heart of the conservation problem presents an issue which taxes the resources of economic theory to the utmost. ...


Modelling the effects of fire and rainfall regimes on extreme erosion events in forested landscapes

Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Vol. 28, No. 8. (2014), pp. 2015-2025,


Existing models of post-fire erosion have focused primarily on using empirical or deterministic approaches to predict the magnitude of response from catchments given some initial rainfall and burn conditions. These models are concerned with reducing uncertainties associated with hydro-geomorphic transfer processes and typically operate at event timescales. There have been relatively few attempts at modelling the stochastic interplay between fire disturbance and rainfall as factors which determine the frequency and severity with which catchments are conditioned (or primed) for a hazardous ...


Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 122 (July 2013), pp. 10-37,


[Highlights] [::] Develop an organizational framework for post-wildfire response in different regions. [::] Soil properties are a critical link between infiltration, runoff, and erosion. [::] Need mathematical relations between burn severity metrics and soil properties. [::] Determine physical-based precipitation metrics that best predict runoff and erosion. [::] Incorporate basin morphology in runoff models for steep, rough channels. [Abstract] Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, ...


Increased wind erosion from forest wildfire: implications for contaminant-related risks

Journal of Environment Quality, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2 February 2006), pp. 468-478,


Assessments of contaminant-related human and ecological risk require estimation of transport rates, but few data exist on wind-driven transport rates in nonagricultural systems, particularly in response to ecosystem disturbances such as forest wildfire and also relative to water-driven transport. The Cerro Grande wildfire in May of 2000 burned across ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P.&C. Lawson var. scopulorum Englem.) forest within Los Alamos National Laboratory in northern New Mexico, where contaminant transport and associated post-fire inhalation risks are of concern. ...


The charcoal vision: a win–win–win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality

Agronomy Journal, Vol. 100, No. 1. (2008), 178,


Processing biomass through a distributed network of fast pyrolyzers may be a sustainable platform for producing energy from biomass. Fast pyrolyzers thermally transform biomass into bio-oil, syngas, and charcoal. The syngas could provide the energy needs of the pyrolyzer. Bio-oil is an energy raw material (∼17 MJ kg−1) that can be burned to generate heat or shipped to a refinery for processing into transportation fuels. Charcoal could also be used to generate energy; however, application of the charcoal co-product to soils ...

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