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Selection: with tag soil-erosion [at least 200 articles] 

 

More rain, less soil: long-term changes in rainfall intensity with climate change

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 41, No. 4. (30 March 2016), pp. 563-566, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3868

Abstract

This commentary discusses the role of long-term climate change in driving increases in soil erosion. Assuming that land use and management remain effectively constant, we discuss changes in the ability of rainfall to cause erosion (erosivity), using long daily rainfall data sets from southeast England. An upward trend in mean rainfall per rain day is detected at the century-plus timescale. Implications for soil erosion and sediment delivery are discussed and evidence from other regions reviewed. We conclude that rates of soil ...

 

Modelling the effect of soil burn severity on soil erosion at hillslope scale in the first year following wildfire in NW Spain

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 41, No. 7. (15 June 2016), pp. 928-935, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3876

Abstract

Fire severity is recognized as a key factor in explaining post-fire soil erosion. However, the relationship between soil burn severity and soil loss has not been fully established until now. Sediment availability may also affect the extent of post-fire soil erosion. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil burn severity, estimated by an operational classification system based on visual indicators, can significantly explain soil loss in the first year after wildfire in shrubland and other areas affected by ...

 

Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: a case study in South-eastern Spain

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 232 (March 2015), pp. 117-124, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.12.005

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A method to identify most vulnerable areas towards soil erosion has been proposed. [::] Slope steepness, aspect and fire severity were the inputs. [::] The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs. [::] North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest. [Abstract] Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to ...

 

Wildfire effects on soil erodibility of woodlands in NW Spain

  
Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 21, No. 2. (March 2010), pp. 75-82, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.896

Abstract

Knowledge of soil erodibility following wildfire is of crucial importance for prioritisation of post-fire restoration practices for soil erosion mitigation. The present work therefore aims to determine the effect of wildfire on soil erodibility for common woodlands in Galicia, NW Spain. This is done by comparing selected topsoil properties of 28 pairs of recently wildfire-burned and neighbouring unburned sites on different geologic substrates. The soil properties were selected for their supposed importance in erodibility, and include aggregate size distribution and water ...

 

Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: a review

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 599-600 (December 2017), pp. 1740-1755, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.096

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Forest catchment supply high quality water to a number of communities around the world. [::] Forest fire release sequestered metals from soil organic matter and vegetation. [::] Post-fire erosion rapidly transports these metals to downstream soil and water bodies. [::] Their deposition in the water bodies affects the water quality and aquatic biota. [::] This metal contamination may reach to human being as a consumer. [Abstract] One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of ...

 

Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620503114

Abstract

[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...

 

The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

  
CATENA, Vol. 38, No. 4. (February 2000), pp. 279-300, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0341-8162(99)00078-8

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of logging on landslide activity in Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A total of 1004 landslides were documented in order to test the hypothesis that areas affected by logging activities show different density, frequency and magnitude characteristics of landsliding than areas unaffected by logging. The frequency of landslides in logged terrain was found to be nine times higher than in undisturbed forest. An exponential increase ...

 

Soil erosion assessment - Mind the gap

  
Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 43, No. 24. (28 December 2016), 2016GL071480, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016gl071480

Abstract

Accurate assessment of erosion rates remains an elusive problem because soil loss is strongly nonunique with respect to the main drivers. In addressing the mechanistic causes of erosion responses, we discriminate between macroscale effects of external factors—long studied and referred to as “geomorphic external variability”, and microscale effects, introduced as “geomorphic internal variability.” The latter source of erosion variations represents the knowledge gap, an overlooked but vital element of geomorphic response, significantly impacting the low predictability skill of deterministic models at ...

 

Methodological approach for the assessment of environmental effects of agroforestry at the landscape scale

  
Ecological Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 4. (April 2007), pp. 450-462, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.09.016

Abstract

Silvoarable agroforestry, the deliberate combined use of trees and arable crops on the same area of land, has been proposed in order to improve the environmental performance of agricultural systems in Europe. Based on existing models and algorithms, we developed a method to predict the environmental effects of SAF at a farm and landscape scale. The method is comprised of an assessment of soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration, and landscape diversity and allowed the comparison of the environmental performance of ...

 

Fire effects on soils: the human dimension

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (05 June 2016), 20150171, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0171

Abstract

Soils are among the most valuable non-renewable resources on the Earth. They support natural vegetation and human agro-ecosystems, represent the largest terrestrial organic carbon stock, and act as stores and filters for water. Mankind has impacted on soils from its early days in many different ways, with burning being the first human perturbation at landscape scales. Fire has long been used as a tool to fertilize soils and control plant growth, but it can also substantially change vegetation, enhance soil erosion ...

 

Modelling the effects of fire and rainfall regimes on extreme erosion events in forested landscapes

  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Vol. 28, No. 8. (2014), pp. 2015-2025, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-014-0891-6

Abstract

Existing models of post-fire erosion have focused primarily on using empirical or deterministic approaches to predict the magnitude of response from catchments given some initial rainfall and burn conditions. These models are concerned with reducing uncertainties associated with hydro-geomorphic transfer processes and typically operate at event timescales. There have been relatively few attempts at modelling the stochastic interplay between fire disturbance and rainfall as factors which determine the frequency and severity with which catchments are conditioned (or primed) for a hazardous ...

 

Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

  
Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 122 (July 2013), pp. 10-37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.03.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Develop an organizational framework for post-wildfire response in different regions. [::] Soil properties are a critical link between infiltration, runoff, and erosion. [::] Need mathematical relations between burn severity metrics and soil properties. [::] Determine physical-based precipitation metrics that best predict runoff and erosion. [::] Incorporate basin morphology in runoff models for steep, rough channels. [Abstract] Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, ...

 

Increased wind erosion from forest wildfire: implications for contaminant-related risks

  
Journal of Environment Quality, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2 February 2006), pp. 468-478, https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0112

Abstract

Assessments of contaminant-related human and ecological risk require estimation of transport rates, but few data exist on wind-driven transport rates in nonagricultural systems, particularly in response to ecosystem disturbances such as forest wildfire and also relative to water-driven transport. The Cerro Grande wildfire in May of 2000 burned across ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P.&C. Lawson var. scopulorum Englem.) forest within Los Alamos National Laboratory in northern New Mexico, where contaminant transport and associated post-fire inhalation risks are of concern. ...

 

Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...

References

  1. ARPA Lombardia. Servizio Idrografico. http://idro.arpalombardia.it/pmapper-4.0/map.phtml .
  2. ASR Lombardia (2014). Valori medi dei terreni agricoli in Provincia di Cremona - Regione agraria. http://www.asr-lombardia.it/ASR/lombardia-e-province/agricoltura/produzione-agricola-zootecnia-e-risultati-economici/tavole/890/2014/ .
  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). http://www.adbpo.it/on-multi/ADBPO/Home/Pianificazione/Pianistralcioapprovati/PianostralcioperlAssettoIdrogeologicoPAI.html .
  5. Autorità di bacino del
 

Soil erosion modelling

  
In Landform Dynamics and Evolution in Romania (2017), pp. 397-423, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32589-7_17

Abstract

Surface soil erosion modelling has benefited and continues to benefit from the progress in information technology area and statistical and mathematical processing of spatial data. In Romania, quantitative studies concerning soil erosion have a tradition of over 70 years, beginning with the establishment of experimental runoff plots. An important step in the history of soil erosion research in Romania is the adaptation of the universal soil loss equation (USLE) to the specific environmental and anthropogenic conditions form our country (ROMSEM). This ...

 

Wildfire-related debris flow from a hazards perspective

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 363-385, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_15

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Wildland fire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Consumption of the rainfall-intercepting canopy and of the soil-mantling litter and duff, intensive drying of the soil, combustion of soil-binding organic matter, and the enhancement or formation of water-repellent soils can change the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, leading to decreased rainfall infiltration, subsequent significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil (e.g., Swanson, 1981; Spittler, 1995; Doerr et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; ...

 

Estimate of the (R)USLE rainfall erosivity factor from monthly precipitation data in mainland Spain

  
Journal of Iberian Geology, Vol. 42, No. 1. (07 June 2016), https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_jige.2016.v42.n1.49120

Abstract

The need for continuous recording rain gauges makes it difficult to determine the rainfall erosivity factor (R-factor) of the (R)USLE model in areas without good temporal data coverage. In mainland Spain, the Nature Conservation Institute (ICONA) determined the R-factor at few selected pluviographs, so simple estimates of the R-factor are definitely of great interest. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify a readily available estimate of the R-factor for mainland Spain; (2) to discuss the applicability of a single ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 33

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   silviculture   similarity   simple-sequence-repeats   simulation   single-nucleotide-polymorphism   sismic-hazard   site-quality   sitka-spruce   situational-awareness   slope   slope-stability   slovakia   slovenia   slovenian-alps   smoke   smooth-transition   smyrnium-perfoliatum   snow   snow-avalances   so2   soc   social-engineering-risk   social-learning   social-media   social-system   society   socratea-exorrhiza   sodium   soft-constraint   soft-systems-approach   softw   software-control   software-engineering   software-errors   software-evolution   software-evolvability   software-libraries   software-patents   software-quality   software-security   software-uncertainty   software-validity   software-verification   soil   soil-carbon   soil-compactation   soil-conditions   soil-erosion   soil-evolution   soil-fertility   soil-food   soil-formation   soil-hydrophobicity   soil-loss   soil-microbial-properties   soil-moisture   soil-pollution   soil-resources   soil-restoration   soil-sealing   soil-stabilization   soils   solanum-dulcamara   solanum-spp   solar-energy   solar-radiation   solid-phase-microextraction   sonneratia-apetala   soot   sophora-chrysophylla   sophora-secundiflora   sophora-spp   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-domestica   sorbus-intermedia   sorbus-spp   sorbus-torminalis   sorex-spp   south-america   south-asia   southeast-asia   southeastern-europe   southern-africa   southern-alps   southern-asia   southern-europe   southern-oscillation   spain   spartium-junceum   spathodea-campanulata   spatial-analysis   spatial-disaggregation   spatial-ecology   spatial-interpolation   spatial-pattern   spatial-prioritization   spatial-resolution   spatial-spread  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Sustainable land use in the European Union

  
CULTIVAR Cadernos de Análise e Prospetiva, Vol. 2 (2015), pp. 13-20

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Soil is defined as the top layer of the earth’s crust. It is formed by mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms. In fact, soil is an extremely complex, variable and living medium. It can be considered essentially as a non-renewable resource since soil formation is an extremely slow process. Soil provides us with food, biomass and raw materials. It serves as a platform for human activities and landscape. It is also an archive of heritage and plays ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2006. Commission staff working document - Document accompanying the Communication from the Commission to the Council, The European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection - Impact assessment of the thematic strategy on soil protection. Commission Staff Working Document 2006 (SEC/2006/0620).
  2. Fenn, T., Fleet, D., Garrett, L., Daly, E., Elding, C., Hartman, M., Udo, J., 2014. Study on Economic and
 

European atlas of forest tree species

  
Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  

Abstract

[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...

 

Green paper on forest protection and information in the EU: preparing forests for climate change

  
COM Documents, Vol. 2010, No. COM/2010/0066 final. (1 March 2010)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The purpose of this Green Paper is to launch the debate on options for a European Union (EU) approach to forest protection and information in the framework of the EU Forest Action Plan, as announced by the Commission in the White Paper "Adapting to Climate Change: towards a European Framework for action"[1]. The Council conclusions of 25 June 2009 on this White Paper underlined that climate change has had and will have an impact, inter alia, on forests. As these ...

 

Commission staff working document - impact assessment, Part 1 accompanying the document: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change

  
Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0132 final. (16 April 2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Climate change and the need for adaptation] The increase in global surface temperature is the most obvious aspect of anthropogenic climate change. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the preindustrial average, which makes the increase over Europe faster than the global average. Moreover, significant economic losses[6] and human fatalities associated with extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts and heavy precipitation, have been registered. [\n] Climate change will continue for ...

 

Adjustment of forest management strategies to changing climate

  
In Forest Management and the Water Cycle, Vol. 212 (2011), pp. 313-329, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9834-4_17

Abstract

Research work on the influence of global warming on forests predicts a rise in air temperature and changes in precipitation for a large part of Europe. Climate change has been forecast to increase runoff and nutrient leaching from the boreal catchments. Windiness, cloudiness and more frequent extreme-weather events are expected in the temperate region. The Mediterranean region is expected to suffer considerable impacts because of increased drought conditions. The need to understand and control the hydrological role of forests is rising, ...

 

Ecological mitigation of hillslope instability: ten key issues facing researchers and practitioners

  
Plant and Soil, Vol. 377, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 1-23, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-014-2044-6

Abstract

[Background] Plants alter their environment in a number of ways. With correct management, plant communities can positively impact soil degradation processes such as surface erosion and shallow landslides. However, there are major gaps in our understanding of physical and ecological processes on hillslopes, and the application of research to restoration and engineering projects. [Scope] To identify the key issues of concern to researchers and practitioners involved in designing and implementing projects to mitigate hillslope instability, we organized a discussion during the Third International Conference ...

 

Landform classification for site evaluation and forest planning: integration between scientific approach and traditional concept

  
Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 43, No. 3. (2014), pp. 349-358

Abstract

In this paper, we present an automated classification method of landform elements using an application of SAGA GIS software. The spatial assessment was done on the Yambaru forest area (YFA) in the northernmost part of Okinawa Island, Japan. This task is performed through the detailed elevation grid analyses from DTM of YFA with a spatial scale of 10 × 10 m2 supported by The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. The classification has ten classes; high ridges, midslope ridges, upland drainage, upper ...

 

Corrigendum to "Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility" published in Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.,15, 225-245, 2015

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 2. (16 February 2015), pp. 291-291, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-291-2015

Abstract

[Excerpt] Two editorial mistakes were found in the article. Both refer to Eq. (2), p. 231 (whose correct version was published in the discussion paper, p. 2652). [\n] The first mistake is related to the operator Ω, which was wrongly rendered with a summation operator (Σ). The editorial notation mistake is also evident by considering the semantics of the RDS (relative distance similarity) statistics. As explained in de Rigo et al. (2013) and Bosco et al. (2013), RDS is defined in [0, 1]. Therefore, a summation operator whose arguments are quantities ...

 

Working with four villages to end soil erosion in an entire river basin

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt] The entire catchment area of a river and its tributaries is a large, complex, interaction of ecosystems. In Albania, the Drini River basin is a Key Biodiversity Area that provides multiple services to the inhabitants of northern Albania. But currently rain is washing bare soil away into the river, and all of the beneficial ecosystem services along with it – like nutrients to provide crop fertility, water storage by forests, fresh water filtration and flood protection. [Soil erosion is a big problem ...

 

Rainfall erosivity over the Calabrian region

  
Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 42, No. 1. (1 February 1997), pp. 35-48, https://doi.org/10.1080/02626669709492004

Abstract

Following the results of a study carried out for the neighbouring Sicilian region, this paper reports a study of the applicability of the annual value, Faj, of the Arnouldus index to represent the erosion risk in Calabrian region. Firstly, By using 214 values of the mean annual value of the erosivity index, FF, and a Kriging interpolation method, an isoerosivity map is plotted. Then, in order to predict the erosion risk for an event of any return period, the probability distribution ...

 

Cover crops in organic field vegetable production

  
Scientia Horticulturae (December 2015), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.12.029

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Various aspects of cover crop usage in organic vegetable production are presented. [::] Cover crops can reduce the use of external inputs. [::] Cover crops suppress weeds as well as improve and maintain soil fertility. [::] Examples of their effects to pest populations and diseases are included in review. [Abstract] Environmental protection and human health have recently become important factors when selecting food production systems. The wide usages of pesticides and synthetic fertilisers in conventional production cause environmental pollution and degradation. Cover crops can reduce ...

 

Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction

  
The ISME Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1. (12 September 2013), pp. 226-244, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.141

Abstract

Soil compaction is a major disturbance associated with logging, but we lack a fundamental understanding of how this affects the soil microbiome. We assessed the structural resistance and resilience of the microbiome using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach in differently compacted soils at two forest sites and correlated these findings with changes in soil physical properties and functions. Alterations in soil porosity after compaction strongly limited the air and water conductivity. Compaction significantly reduced abundance, increased diversity, and persistently altered the structure ...

 

Water-quality impacts from climate-induced forest die-off

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 3. (28 October 2012), pp. 218-222, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1724

Abstract

Increased ecosystem susceptibility to pests and other stressors has been attributed to climate change, resulting in unprecedented tree mortality from insect infestations. In turn, large-scale tree die-off alters physical and biogeochemical processes, such as organic matter decay and hydrologic flow paths, that could enhance leaching of natural organic matter to soil and surface waters and increase potential formation of harmful drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). Whereas previous studies have investigated water-quantity alterations due to climate-induced, forest die-off, impacts on water quality ...

 

Snow forces on forest plants due to creep and glide

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 257, No. 2. (January 2009), pp. 546-552, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.035

Abstract

Snow forces impede afforestation in the subalpine region; in particular juvenescent trees can be damaged by extraction from the ground. Such forces are mainly triggered by intense snow gliding which is a frequent phenomenon on slopes with a smooth ground surface. In this article we have investigated the effects of snow gliding processes on forest plants. The study area was situated on a south-facing slope (altitude 1900 m, inclination 30°) in the Stubai valley, Tyrol, Austria. The site is characterized by a ...

 

Debris-flow mitigation measures

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 445-487, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_18

Abstract

[Excerpt] Integrated risk management is a tool to prevent, intervent, and avoid natural hazards (Amman, 2001). This includes a combination of land use planning and technical and bioengineering measures to guarantee an optimal cost-benefit ratio. An essential aspect of risk management is the design of mitigation measures which reduce the existing risk to an accepted level of residual risk. Two types of mitigation measures can be distinguished (Zollinger, 1985): active measures and passive measures. Active measures focus on the hazard, while passive measures focus on the potential damage (Huebl ...

 

How are riparian plants distributed along the riverbank topographic gradient in Mediterranean rivers? Application to minimally altered river stretches in Southern Spain

  
Limnetica, Vol. 33, No. 1. (2014), pp. 121-137

Abstract

Species structure and composition in Mediterranean riparian forests are determined by hydrological features, longitudinal zonation, and riverbank topography. This study assesses the distribution of four native riparian plants along the riverbank topographic gradient in three river stretches in southern Spain, with special emphasis on the occupation of adult and young feet of each species. The studied stretches suffered minimal human disturbances, displayed semi-arid conditions, and had wide riparian areas to allow the development of the target species: black alder (Alnus glutinosa), ...

 

Erosion and suspended sediment transfer in river catchments: environmental controls, processes and problems

  
Geography, Vol. 82, No. 4. (1997), pp. 353-376

Abstract

This article discusses some of the environmental problems caused by soil erosion and suspended sediment transfer in a range of environments across the world. The principal controls on water erosion and global patterns of sediment yield are briefly outlined and a series of examples are used to highlight the nature of fine sediment transfer and storage in river catchments. Land use change may trigger large increases in soil erosion and declines in soil fertility. Major economic losses may follow as downstream ...

 

Making forestry decisions with multiple criteria: a review and an assessment

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 8-9. (May 2008), pp. 3222-3241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.038

Abstract

This paper provides a survey of the literature on multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) applications to forestry problems undertaken in the last 30 years or so. More than 250 references regarding 9 forestry topics and 9 different MCDM approaches have been categorized and evaluated. This provides a unified source of references that could be useful for forest management students, researchers and practitioners. The paper ends with an assessment of the literature presented, aiming to reach some conclusions, as well as indicate future ...

 

Soil carbon stocks under present and future climate with specific reference to European ecoregions

  
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 81, No. 2. (1 June 2008), pp. 113-127, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-007-9147-x

Abstract

World soils and terrestrial ecosystems have been a source of atmospheric abundance of CO2 ever since settled agriculture began about 10–13 millennia ago. The amount of CO2-C emitted into the atmosphere is estimated at 136 ± 55 Pg from terrestrial ecosystems, of which emission from world soils is estimated at 78 ± 12 Pg. Conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems decreases soil organic carbon (SOC) pool by 30–50% over 50–100 years in temperate regions, and 50–75% over 20–50 years in tropical climates. The projected global warming, with estimated increase in ...

 

Runoff production and erosion processes on a dehesa in Western Spain

  
Geographical Review, Vol. 92, No. 3. (2002), pp. 333-353, https://doi.org/10.2307/4140914

Abstract

Runoff generation and soil erosion were investigated at the Guadalperalon experimental watershed (western Spain), within the land-use system known as dehesa, or open, managed evergreen forests. Season and type of surface were found to control runoff and soil-loss rates. Five soil units were selected as representative of surface types found in the study area: hillslope grass, bottom grass, tree cover, sheep trails, and shrub cover. Measurements were made in various conditions with simulated rainfall to gain an idea of the annual ...

 

Effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 29, No. 9. (August 2004), pp. 1161-1169, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1108

Abstract

Vegetation barriers can be effective in trapping eroded sediment, but little knowledge exists on the characteristics of vegetation barriers efficient in trapping all sediments from an eroded zone upslope. The objective of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping. Relationships between eroded zones and vegetation barriers – composed of low vegetation, that is to say herbaceous and under-shrub layers – located downslope and sufficient to stop all the sediments eroded above, have been studied ...

 

Influence of vegetation distribution on sediment yield in forested marly gullies

  
CATENA, Vol. 50, No. 2-4. (January 2003), pp. 549-562, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0341-8162(02)00121-2

Abstract

The cover provided by forest vegetation makes it possible to fight erosion efficiently. Furthermore, vegetation barriers can also play a major role by trapping eroded sediments and thus vegetation located downslope of a gully can be important. The objective of this study is to highlight the role of vegetation distribution in a marly gully in reducing sediment loss at the outlet. To do this, sediment yield in gullies with similar geological and geomorphological components, but with different vegetation cover and distribution, ...

 

Impact of plant roots on the resistance of soils to erosion by water: a review

  
Progress in Physical Geography, Vol. 29, No. 2. (01 June 2005), pp. 189-217, https://doi.org/10.1191/0309133305pp443ra
Keywords: plant   resistance   roots   soil-erosion   water  

Abstract

Vegetation controls soil erosion rates significantly. The decrease of water erosion rates with increasing vegetation cover is exponential. This review reveals that the decrease in water erosion rates with increasing root mass is also exponential, according to the equation SEP e b RP where SEP is a soil erosion parameter (e.g., interrill or rill erosion rates relative to erosion rates of bare topsoils without roots), RP is a root parameter (e.g., root density or root length density) and b is a ...

 

The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion control with a focus on root system architecture: a review

  
Trees In Trees, Vol. 21, No. 4. (July 2007), pp. 385-402, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-007-0132-4
Keywords: review   roots   slope-stability   soil-erosion  
 

Soil erosion assessment and its verification using the Universal Soil Loss Equation and geographic information system: a case study at Boun, Korea

  
In Environmental Geology, Vol. 45, No. 4. (2004), pp. 457-465, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-003-0897-8

Abstract

This study is aimed at the evaluation of the hazard of soil erosion and its verification at Boun, Korea, using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. Precipitation, topographic, soil, and land use data were collected, processed, and constructed into a spatial database using GIS and remote sensing data. Areas that had suffered soil erosion were analysed and mapped using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The factors that influence soil erosion are rainfall erosivitiy (R) from the precipitation database, ...

 

Soil erosion in Europe: major processes, causes and consequences

  
In Soil Erosion in Europe (2006), pp. 477-487, https://doi.org/10.1002/0470859202.ch36
Keywords: europe   soil-erosion   soil-resources  

Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: [::] Introduction [::] Functions of Soils and the Threat of Soil Erosion [::] The Physical and Shifting Human Geography of Europe as a Basis to Understanding Major Soil Erosion Processes and Controlling Factors [::] Is Soil Erosion a New Problem in Europe? [::] Overview of Major Soil Erosion Processes, their Spatial Extent, Major Controlling Factors and Consequences [::] Conclusions [::] Acknowledgements [::] References ...

 

The crop productivity-erosion relationship: an analysis based on experimental work

  
CATENA, Vol. 57, No. 1. (June 2004), pp. 55-76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2003.07.002

Abstract

Much research has been undertaken that seeks to understand the crop productivity response to soil erosion. Reported effects appear to be inconsistent with respect to both the magnitude of the response and shape of the response curve. This study was conducted to examine whether general patterns emerge when the results of experimental studies on soil loss are combined and compared. Results from a number of studies that relate crop productivity to erosion were collected and quantified. Important variables of a methodological or ...

 

Linking plant morphological traits to uprooting resistance in eroded marly lands (Southern Alps, France)

  
Plant and Soil In Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 31-42, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9920-5

Abstract

In marly catchments of the French Southern Alps, soils are subjected to harsh water erosion that can result in concentrated flows uprooting small plants. Evaluating and predicting plant resistance to uprooting from simple plant traits is therefore highly important so that the most efficient plant strategy for future restoration of eroded slopes can be defined. Twelve species growing on marly land were studied. For each species, in-situ lateral uprooting tests were conducted and morphological plant traits were measured on small plants ...

 

An analysis of forest restoration 120 years after reforestation on badlands in the Southwestern Alps

  
Restoration Ecology, Vol. 10, No. 1. (March 2002), pp. 16-26, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100x.2002.10102.x

Abstract

We report the results of descriptive and functional analyses of a representative forest and watershed in the southwestern Alps, where the Forest Service has attempted reforestation of badlands for erosion control since 1860, relying on the non-native Pinus nigra ssp. nigra (Austrian black pine). One hundred twenty years after the first tree plantings, the plant communities are still early seral assemblages for the most part, with Austrian black pine occurring alone in the canopy. In contrast, most of the marly soils ...

 

A review of the mechanical effects of plant roots on concentrated flow erosion rates

  
Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 150 (November 2015), pp. 666-678, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.011

Abstract

Living plant roots modify both mechanical and hydrological characteristics of the soil matrix (e.g. soil aggregate stability by root exudates, soil cohesion, infiltration rate, soil moisture content, soil organic matter) and negatively influence the soil erodibility. During the last two decades several studies reported on the effects of plant roots in controlling concentrated flow erosion rates. However a global analysis of the now available data on root effects is still lacking. Yet, a meta-data analysis will contribute to a better understanding ...

 

Target regions for silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

  
Ecological Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 4. (April 2007), pp. 401-418, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.09.020

Abstract

Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) has recently been proposed as an alternative land-use system for Europe. Data on soil, climate, topography, and land cover were integrated in a geographic information system (GIS) to identify agroforestry target regions where (i) productive growth of trees (Juglans spp., Prunus avium, Populus spp., Pinus pinea, and Quercus ilex) in SAF systems could be expected and where (ii) SAF systems could potentially reduce the risk of soil erosion, nitrate leaching and increase landscape diversity. The analysis shows that the ...

 

Predicting soil erosion with RUSLE in Mediterranean agricultural systems at catchment scale

  
Soil Science, Vol. 174, No. 5. (May 2009), pp. 272-282, https://doi.org/10.1097/ss.0b013e3181a4bf50

Abstract

Accurate assessment of soil loss is essential for sustainable agricultural production, management, and conservation planning, especially in productive rain-fed agroecosystems and protected areas. The European Union considers soil as a nonrenewable resource and identifies that soil degradation has strong impacts on soil and water resources. In this work, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model was applied within a geographic information system in the Estaña catchment (Spanish pre-Pyrenees) as representative of a Mediterranean agroecosystem to elaborate a map of soil erosion ...

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