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Selection: with tag social-system [26 articles] 

 

Specific reduction in cortisol stress reactivity after social but not attention-based mental training

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 10. (04 October 2017), e1700495, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700495

Abstract

Psychosocial stress is a public health burden in modern societies. Chronic stress–induced disease processes are, in large part, mediated via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. We asked whether the contemplative mental training of different practice types targeting attentional, socio-affective (for example, compassion), or socio-cognitive abilities (for example, perspective-taking) in the context of a 9-month longitudinal training study offers an effective means for psychosocial stress reduction. Using a multimethod approach including subjective, endocrine, autonomic, and immune ...

 

Structural plasticity of the social brain: differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 10. (04 October 2017), e1700489, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700489

Abstract

Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and ...

 

When the appeal of a dominant leader is greater than a prestige leader

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. 6734-6739, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617711114

Abstract

[Significance] We examine why dominant/authoritarian leaders attract support despite the presence of other admired/respected candidates. Although evolutionary psychology supports both dominance and prestige as viable routes for attaining influential leadership positions, extant research lacks theoretical clarity explaining when and why dominant leaders are preferred. Across three large-scale studies we provide robust evidence showing how economic uncertainty affects individuals’ psychological feelings of lack of personal control, resulting in a greater preference for dominant leaders. This research offers important theoretical explanations for why, around ...

 

Research on a razor's edge

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6342. (09 June 2017), pp. 1094-1094, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.356.6342.1094

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Scientists in the United States face a shortage of tenure-track faculty jobs and fierce competition for a shrinking pool of grants. These dimming prospects reflect decades of underinvestment in the sciences. The current administration threatens to make things worse. We are all doing research on a razor's edge. [\n] It's no surprise that American scientists are becoming increasingly curious about opportunities elsewhere in the world. U.S. spending on research and development still ranks among the highest, but those who are ...

 

How to fight corruption

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (26 May 2017), pp. 803-804, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan0815

Abstract

Anticorruption initiatives are often put forth as solutions to problems of waste and inefficiency in government programs. It's easy to see why. So often, somewhere along the chain that links the many participants in public service provision or other government activities, funds may get stolen or misdirected, bribes exchanged for preferential treatment, or genuine consumers of public services supplemented by “ghost” users. As a result, corruption reduces economic growth and leaves citizens disillusioned and distrustful of government (1). It is tempting ...

 

A concise review on the role of author self-citations in information science, bibliometrics and science policy

  
Scientometrics, Vol. 67, No. 2. (2006), pp. 263-277, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-006-0098-9

Abstract

The objective of the present study is twofold: (1) to show the aims and means of quantitative interpretation of bibliographic features in bibliometrics and their re-interpretation in research policy, and (2) to summarise the state-of-art in self-citation research. The authors describe three approaches to the role of author self-citations and possible conflicts arising from the different perspectives. From the bibliometric viewpoint we can conclude that that there is no reason for condemning self-citations in general or for removing them from macro ...

 

Integrating social science research into wildland fire management

  
Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4. (29 July 2014), pp. 381-394, https://doi.org/10.1108/dpm-10-2013-0193

Abstract

Purpose – Social science research is used to support the formulation of natural resource management decisions with accurate and timely information. Due to risk and potential impacts, this is important in wildland fire management. The purpose of this paper is to identify the respondent perceptions of a natural disturbance agent's impact on fire management in Colorado and Wyoming. Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology included a self-administered questionnaire completed by a random sample of respondents in three study locations adjacent to national forests. A quantitative ...

 

Post-truth: a guide for the perplexed

  
Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7631. (28 November 2016), pp. 9-9, https://doi.org/10.1038/540009a

Abstract

If politicians can lie without condemnation, what are scientists to do? Kathleen Higgins offers some explanation. [Excerpt] The Oxford Dictionaries named ‘post-truth’ as their 2016 Word of the Year. It must sound alien to scientists. Science’s quest for knowledge about reality presupposes the importance of truth, both as an end in itself and as a means of resolving problems. How could truth become passé? [\n] [...] [\n] Post-truth refers to blatant lies being routine across society, and it means that politicians can lie without ...

 

Social status alters immune regulation and response to infection in macaques

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6315. (25 November 2016), pp. 1041-1045, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah3580

Abstract

[Status alters immune function in macaques] Rhesus macaques experience variable levels of stress on the basis of their position in the social hierarchy. To examine how stress affects immune function, Snyder-Mackler et al. manipulated the social status of individual macaques (see the Perspective by Sapolsky). Social status influenced the immune system at multiple levels, from immune cell numbers to gene expression, and altered signaling pathways in a model of response to infection. Macaques possess a plastic and adaptive immune response wherein social ...

 

Welcome to postnormal times

  
Futures, Vol. 42, No. 5. (20 June 2010), pp. 435-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2009.11.028

Abstract

All that was ‘normal’ has now evaporated; we have entered postnormal times, the in-between period where old orthodoxies are dying, new ones have not yet emerged, and nothing really makes sense. To have any notion of a viable future, we must grasp the significance of this period of transition which is characterised by three c's: complexity, chaos and contradictions. These forces propel and sustain postnormal times leading to uncertainty and different types of ignorance that make decision-making problematic and increase risks ...

 

Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection

  
Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1 March 2007), pp. 415-432, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01258.x

Abstract

From an evolutionary perspective, social behaviours are those which have fitness consequences for both the individual that performs the behaviour, and another individual. Over the last 43 years, a huge theoretical and empirical literature has developed on this topic. However, progress is often hindered by poor communication between scientists, with different people using the same term to mean different things, or different terms to mean the same thing. This can obscure what is biologically important, and what is not. The potential for ...

 

Repression of competition and the evolution of cooperation

  
Evolution, Vol. 57, No. 4. (April 2003), pp. 693-705, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00283.x

Abstract

Repression of competition within groups joins kin selection as the second major force in the history of life shaping the evolution of cooperation. When opportunities for competition against neighbors are limited within groups, individuals can increase their own success only by enhancing the efficiency and productivity of their group. Thus, characters that repress competition within groups promote cooperation and enhance group success. Leigh first expressed this idea in the context of fair meiosis, in which each chromosome has an equal chance ...

 

How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 36. (06 September 2016), pp. 10215-10220, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1611826113

Abstract

[Significance] Competitive tendencies may make it hard for members of a group to cooperate with each other. Humans use many different “enforcement” strategies to keep competition in check and favor cooperation. To test whether one of our closest relatives uses similar strategies, we gave a group of chimpanzees a cooperative problem that required joint action by two or three individuals. The open-group set-up allowed the chimpanzees a choice between cooperation and competitive behavior like freeloading. The chimpanzees used a combination of partner ...

 

Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 31. (02 August 2016), pp. 8664-8668, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1608207113

Abstract

[Significance] This study is the first, to our knowledge, to show that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) reliably predicts achievement across a national sample of students, including virtually all of the schools and socioeconomic strata in Chile. It also explores the relationship between income and mindset for the first time, to our knowledge, finding that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers but that ...

 

Extraordinary intelligence and the care of infants

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6874-6879, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1506752113

Abstract

[Significance] One mystery of human evolution is why our cognition differs qualitatively from our closest evolutionary relatives. Here we show how natural selection for large brains may lead to premature newborns, which themselves require more intelligence to raise, and thus may select for even larger brains. As we show, these dynamics can be self-reinforcing and lead to runaway selection for extremely high intelligence and helpless newborns. We test a prediction of this account: the helplessness of a primate’s newborns should strongly predict ...

 

Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 6 (1 June 2016), 26889, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep26889

Abstract

Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 33

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   silviculture   similarity   simple-sequence-repeats   simulation   single-nucleotide-polymorphism   sismic-hazard   site-quality   sitka-spruce   situational-awareness   slope   slope-stability   slovakia   slovenia   slovenian-alps   smoke   smooth-transition   smyrnium-perfoliatum   snow   snow-avalances   so2   soc   social-engineering-risk   social-learning   social-media   social-system   society   socratea-exorrhiza   sodium   soft-constraint   soft-systems-approach   softw   software-control   software-engineering   software-errors   software-evolution   software-evolvability   software-libraries   software-patents   software-quality   software-security   software-uncertainty   software-validity   software-verification   soil   soil-carbon   soil-compactation   soil-conditions   soil-erosion   soil-evolution   soil-fertility   soil-food   soil-formation   soil-hydrophobicity   soil-loss   soil-microbial-properties   soil-moisture   soil-pollution   soil-resources   soil-restoration   soil-sealing   soil-stabilization   soils   solanum-dulcamara   solanum-spp   solar-energy   solar-radiation   solid-phase-microextraction   sonneratia-apetala   soot   sophora-chrysophylla   sophora-secundiflora   sophora-spp   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-domestica   sorbus-intermedia   sorbus-spp   sorbus-torminalis   sorex-spp   south-america   south-asia   southeast-asia   southeastern-europe   southern-africa   southern-alps   southern-asia   southern-europe   southern-oscillation   spain   spartium-junceum   spathodea-campanulata   spatial-analysis   spatial-disaggregation   spatial-ecology   spatial-interpolation   spatial-pattern   spatial-prioritization   spatial-resolution   spatial-spread  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Can Tweets Predict Citations? Metrics of Social Impact Based on Twitter and Correlation with Traditional Metrics of Scientific Impact

  
Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 13, No. 4. (16 December 2011), e123, https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2012

Abstract

[Background] Citations in peer-reviewed articles and the impact factor are generally accepted measures of scientific impact. Web 2.0 tools such as Twitter, blogs or social bookmarking tools provide the possibility to construct innovative article-level or journal-level metrics to gauge impact and influence. However, the relationship of the these new metrics to traditional metrics such as citations is not known. [Objective] (1) To explore the feasibility of measuring social impact of and public attention to scholarly articles by analyzing buzz in social media, ...

 

A decline in prosocial language helps explain public disapproval of the US Congress

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 21. (26 May 2015), pp. 6591-6594, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1500355112

Abstract

[Significance] Past laboratory research has shown that talking about helping others can make a positive impression upon a listener. We tested whether this basic social-cognitive phenomenon can help explain how governments gain the confidence of the public they serve. A computerized text analysis of the debates of the US Congress over the past 20 y found that the density of prosocial language strongly predicted public approval ratings 6 mo later. These results suggest that both individuals and governments can gain social approval ...

 

Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry

  
Nature, Vol. 516, No. 7529. (19 November 2014), pp. 86-89, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13977

Abstract

Trust in others' honesty is a key component of the long-term performance of firms, industries, and even whole countries. However, in recent years, numerous scandals involving fraud have undermined confidence in the financial industry. Contemporary commentators have attributed these scandals to the financial sector's business culture, but no scientific evidence supports this claim. Here we show that employees of a large, international bank behave, on average, honestly in a control condition. However, when their professional identity as bank employees is rendered ...

 

The potential of transdisciplinary research for sustaining and extending linkages between the health and social sciences

  
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 11. (December 1992), pp. 1343-1357, https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(92)90038-r

Abstract

The last decade of the twentieth century is witnessing a profusion of projects drawing together social and health scientists to study and recommend solutions for a wide range of health problems. The process—practices in both developed and developing countries—is usually called multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary research. Its historical precedents are briefly reviewed in this paper along with the types of problems addressed. From a review and discussion of a sample of projects selected from two major proponents of this approach to research, ...

 

Putting humans in the loop: Social computing for Water Resources Management

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 37 (November 2012), pp. 68-77, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.03.002

Abstract

The advent of online services, social networks, crowdsourcing, and serious Web games has promoted the emergence of a novel computation paradigm, where complex tasks are solved by exploiting the capacity of human beings and computer platforms in an integrated way. Water Resources Management systems can take advantage of human and social computation in several ways: collecting and validating data, complementing the analytic knowledge embodied in models with tacit knowledge from individuals and communities, using human sensors to monitor the variation of ...

 

The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 5 (27 August 2014), 4747, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5747

Abstract

Proactive, that is, unsolicited, prosociality is a key component of our hyper-cooperation, which in turn has enabled the emergence of various uniquely human traits, including complex cognition, morality and cumulative culture and technology. However, the evolutionary foundation of the human prosocial sentiment remains poorly understood, largely because primate data from numerous, often incommensurable testing paradigms do not provide an adequate basis for formal tests of the various functional hypotheses. We therefore present the results of standardized prosociality experiments in 24 groups ...

 

Spatial Computing and Social Media in the Context of Disaster Management

  
Intelligent Systems, IEEE, Vol. 27, No. 6. (November 2012), pp. 90-96, https://doi.org/10.1109/mis.2012.113

Abstract

The growing trend of using smartphones and other GPS-enabled devices has provided new opportunities for developing spatial computing applications and technologies in unanticipated and unprecedented ways. Some capabilities of today's smartphones highlight the potential of citizen sensors to enable the next generation of geoinformatics. One promising application area for this is social media and its application to disaster management. Dynamic, real-time incident information collected from onsite human responders about the extent of damage, the evolution of the event, the community's needs, ...

 

Managing complex adaptive systems - A co-evolutionary perspective on natural resource management

  
Ecological Economics, Vol. 63, No. 1. (15 June 2007), pp. 9-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.12.014

Abstract

The overexploitation of natural resources and the increasing number of social conflicts following from their unsustainable use point to a wide gap between the objectives of sustainability and current resource management practices. One of the reasons for the difficulties to close this gap is that for evolving complex systems like natural and socio-economic systems, sustainability cannot be a static objective. Instead sustainable development is an open evolutionary process of improving the management of social-ecological systems, through better understanding and knowledge. Therefore, ...

 

High-performance computing tools for the integrated assessment and modelling of social–ecological systems

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 39 (January 2013), pp. 295-303, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.02.006

Abstract

[Abstract] Integrated spatio-temporal assessment and modelling of complex social–ecological systems is required to address global environmental challenges. However, the computational demands of this modelling are unlikely to be met by traditional Geographic Information System (GIS) tools anytime soon. I evaluated the potential of a range of high-performance computing (HPC) hardware and software tools to overcome these computational barriers. Performance advantages were quantified using a synthetic model. Four tests were compared, using: a) an Arc Macro Language (AML) GIS script on a ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/social-system

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.