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Selection: with tag slope [16 articles] 


Size of wildfires in the Euro-Mediterranean region: observations and theoretical analysis

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 6. (23 June 2015), pp. 1331-1341,


MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite observations of fire size and ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis are used to derive a relationship between burnt area and wind speed over the Mediterranean region and Eastern Europe. The largest wildfire size does not show a strong response with respect to wind speed in Eastern Europe. In the Mediterranean, as intuitively expected, the burnt area associated with the largest wildfires is an increasing function of wind speed for moderate temperature anomalies. In situations of severe heatwaves, ...


Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows: a case study in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22, No. 1. (1 February 2002), pp. 32-39,[0032:fetsdo];2


The spatial distribution of 961 debris flows in the Upper Aragón and Gállego valleys (Central Spanish Pyrenees) was analyzed. Most were located in the Flysch Sector (with a colluvium mantle derived from strongly tectonically modified materials), between 1000 and 1400 m above sea level, on 25?35° gradients with sunny exposure. These gradients were either hillslopes covered by frequently burned scrubland, abandoned fields, or reforested land, confirming the influence of land use and disturbed landscapes on the occurrence of debris flows. ...


The potential predictability of fire danger provided by numerical weather prediction

Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology (5 August 2016),


A global fire danger rating system driven by atmospheric model forcing has been developed with the aim of providing early warning information to civil protection authorities. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting ...


Ecohydrology of an outbreak: mountain pine beetle impacts trees in drier landscape positions first

Ecohydrology, Vol. 6, No. 3. (June 2013), pp. 444-454,


Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here, we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana, with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this ...


Evidences of drought stress as a predisposing factor to Scots pine decline in Valle d’Aosta (Italy)

European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 131, No. 4. (25 October 2012), pp. 989-1000,


Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of many inner Alpine valleys have recently displayed a quick loss of vitality. A decline disease has been suggested as the cause, with drought as the main predisposing factor and the additional contribution of biotic agents inciting tree dieback. This study is focused on Valle d’Aosta, a dry, inner-Alpine region in NW Italy. We inferred vitality changes between years 2000 and 2007 by computing reductions in enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Image differencing was carried ...


Drought triggered tree mortality in mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 218, No. 1-3. (October 2005), pp. 229-244,


Tree mortality is an important process causing forest structural and compositional change. In this study, we investigate the influence of drought and topography on recent patterns of tree mortality in old-growth mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of northern California, USA. The surveyed stands have experienced a century of fire exclusion and are dominated by associations of Pinus ponderosa, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies concolor. The average age of trees in the stands was 88 ...


Determining landscape fine fuel moisture content of the Kilmore East ‘Black Saturday’ wildfire using spatially-extended point-based models

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 40 (February 2013), pp. 98-108,


[Abstract] Fuel moisture is the most dynamic component of bushfire fuels. It varies rapidly both spatially and temporally and plays a significant role in determining the behaviour and spread of bushfires, particularly through combustibility and ease of ignition of dead fine fuels (i.e. particle diameter <6 mm). The Kilmore East fire in Victoria, Australia, on 7 February, 2009 (“Black Saturday”) was the most destructive bushfire in Australia's history. Its behaviour was characterised by mass spotting (the launch, transport and landing of burning ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 33

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   silviculture   similarity   simple-sequence-repeats   simulation   single-nucleotide-polymorphism   sismic-hazard   site-quality   sitka-spruce   situational-awareness   slope   slope-stability   slovakia   slovenia   slovenian-alps   smoke   smooth-transition   smyrnium-perfoliatum   snow   snow-avalances   so2   soc   social-engineering-risk   social-learning   social-media   social-system   society   socratea-exorrhiza   sodium   soft-constraint   soft-systems-approach   softw   software-control   software-engineering   software-errors   software-evolution   software-evolvability   software-libraries   software-patents   software-quality   software-security   software-uncertainty   software-validity   software-verification   soil   soil-carbon   soil-compactation   soil-conditions   soil-erosion   soil-evolution   soil-fertility   soil-food   soil-formation   soil-hydrophobicity   soil-loss   soil-microbial-properties   soil-moisture   soil-pollution   soil-resources   soil-restoration   soil-sealing   soil-stabilization   soils   solanum-dulcamara   solanum-spp   solar-energy   solar-radiation   solid-phase-microextraction   sonneratia-apetala   soot   sophora-chrysophylla   sophora-secundiflora   sophora-spp   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-domestica   sorbus-intermedia   sorbus-spp   sorbus-torminalis   sorex-spp   south-america   south-asia   southeast-asia   southeastern-europe   southern-africa   southern-alps   southern-asia   southern-europe   southern-oscillation   spain   spartium-junceum   spathodea-campanulata   spatial-analysis   spatial-disaggregation   spatial-ecology   spatial-interpolation   spatial-pattern   spatial-prioritization   spatial-resolution   spatial-spread  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Mechanisms of carbon storage in mountainous headwater rivers

Nature Communications, Vol. 3 (11 December 2012), 1263,


Published research emphasizes rapid downstream export of terrestrial carbon from mountainous headwater rivers, but little work focuses on mechanisms that create carbon storage along these rivers, or on the volume of carbon storage. Here we estimate organic carbon stored in diverse valley types of headwater rivers in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA. We show that low-gradient, broad valley bottoms with old-growth forest or active beaver colonies store the great majority of above- and below-ground carbon. These laterally unconfined valley segments ...


Rates and spatial variations of soil erosion in Europe: a study based on erosion plot data

Geomorphology, Vol. 122, No. 1-2. (23 October 2010), pp. 167-177,


An extensive database of short to medium-term erosion rates as measured on erosion plots in Europe under natural rainfall was compiled from the literature. Statistical analysis confirmed the dominant influence of land use and cover on soil erosion rates. Sheet and rill erosion rates are highest on bare soil; vineyards show the second highest soil losses, followed by other arable lands (spring crops, orchards and winter crops). A land with a permanent vegetation cover (shrubs, grassland and forest) is characterised by ...


The influence of wind and topography on precipitation distribution in Sweden: statistical analysis and modelling

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 23, No. 12. (October 2003), pp. 1523-1535,
Keywords: modelling   precipitation   slope   statistics   sweden   wind  


To estimate daily catchment precipitation from point observations there is a need to understand the spatial pattern, particularly in mountainous regions. One of the most important processes occurring there is orographic enhancement, which is affected by, among other things, wind speed and wind direction. The objective of this paper was to investigate whether the relationship between precipitation, airflow and topography could be described by statistical relationships using data easily available in an operational environment. The purpose was to establish a statistical ...


Accelerated sediment fluxes by water and tillage erosion on European agricultural land

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 34, No. 12. (30 September 2009), pp. 1625-1634,


Soil loss on arable agricultural land is typically an order of magnitude higher than under undisturbed native vegetation. Although there have been several recent attempts to quantify these accelerated fluxes at the regional, continental and even global scale, all of these studies have focused on erosion by water and wind and no large scale assessment of the magnitude of tillage erosion has been made, despite growing recognition of its significance on agricultural land. Previous field scale simulations of tillage erosion severity ...


GRASS GIS manual: r.slope.aspect

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2004)


r.slope.aspect - Generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial derivatives from an elevation raster map. Aspect is calculated counterclockwise from east. ...


  1. Horn, B. K. P. (1981). Hill Shading and the Reflectance Map, Proceedings of the IEEE, 69(1):14-47.
  2. Mitasova, H. (1985). Cartographic aspects of computer surface modeling. PhD thesis. Slovak Technical University , Bratislava
  3. Hofierka, J., Mitasova, H., Neteler, M., 2009. Geomorphometry in GRASS GIS. In: Hengl, T. and Reuter, H.I. (Eds), Geomorphometry: Concepts, Software, Applications. Developments in Soil Science, vol. 33, Elsevier, 387-410 pp,

The variation of soil erodibility with slope position in a cultivated canadian prairie landscape

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 17, No. 6. (September 1992), pp. 543-556,


This study examined the variation in soil erodibility along hillslopes in a Prairie landscape. The soil loss produced by simulated rainfall on undisturbed soils was used as an index of relative soil erodibility. Relative erodibility, and several soil properties, were measured at the summit, shoulder, midslope footslope and toeslope of 11 slope transects in an area of cultivated grassland soils on hummocky glacial till. The variation of erodibility with slope position was statistically significant, and slope position explained about 40 per ...


Understanding Earth’s eroding surface with 10Be

GSA Today, Vol. 21, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 4-10,


For more than a century, geologists have sought to measure the distribution of erosion rates on Earth's dynamic surface. Since the mid-1980s, measurements of in situ 10Be, a cosmogenic radionuclide, have been used to estimate outcrop and basin-scale erosion rates at 87 sites around the world. Here, we compile, normalize, and compare published 10Be erosion rate data (n = 1599) in order to understand how, on a globalscale, geologic erosion rates integrated over 103 to 106 years varybetween climate zones, tectonic ...


Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: review and future research directions

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 105, No. 3-4. (20 April 2011), pp. 71-100,


Wildfires increased dramatically in frequency and extent in the European Mediterranean region from the 1960s, aided by a general warming and drying trend, but driven primarily by socio-economic changes, including rural depopulation, land abandonment and afforestation with flammable species. Published research into post-wildfire hydrology and soil erosion, beginning during the 1980s in Spain, has been followed by studies in other European Mediterranean countries together with Israel and has now attained a sufficiently large critical mass to warrant a major review. Although ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.