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Selection: with tag short-term-vs-long-term [8 articles] 


Science of preparedness

Science, Vol. 357, No. 6356. (14 September 2017), pp. 1073-1073,


Our hearts go out to those affected by hurricanes Harvey and Irma and by earlier monsoons across South Asia. These events are compelling reminders of the important role that science must play in preparing for disasters. But preparation is challenging, as reflected in the many facets of the “science of preparedness.” Certainly, modeling and forecasting storms are critical, but so are analyses of how agencies, communities, and individuals interact to understand and implement preparedness initiatives. [Excerpt] [...] Long-range estimates of the number ...


Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 36. (05 September 2017), pp. 9552-9557,


[Significance] Fire is a key ecological process affecting ecosystem dynamics and services, driven primarily by variations in fuel amount and condition, ignition patterns, and climate. In the Southern Hemisphere, current warming conditions are linked to the upward trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) due to ozone depletion. Here we use tree ring fire scar data obtained from diverse biomes ranging from subtropical dry woodlands to sub-Antarctic rainforests to assess the effect of the SAM on regional fire activity over the past ...


Maryam Mirzakhani (1977–2017)

Science, Vol. 357, No. 6353. (25 August 2017), pp. 758-758,


On 14 July, Maryam Mirzakhani, a luminary in pure mathematics, died of cancer at the age of 40. Her achievements had been most recently honored in 2014 by the Fields Medal, the most prestigious award in mathematics. [Excerpt] [...] There are many possible uniformly curved shapes into which the surface can be bent. These shapes are called hyperbolic metrics and exhibit the non-Euclidean geometry discovered in the 1800s after 2000 years of attempts to prove its nonexistence. The plethora of all possible ...


Reviewers are blinkered by bibliometrics

Nature, Vol. 544, No. 7651. (26 April 2017), pp. 411-412,


[Excerpt] [...] Although journal impact factors (JIFs) were developed to assess journals and say little about any individual paper, reviewers routinely justify their evaluations on the basis of where candidates have published. [...] As economists who study science and innovation, we see engrained processes working against cherished goals. Scientists we interview routinely say that they dare not propose bold projects for funding in part because of expectations that they will produce a steady stream of papers in journals with high impact ...


Stressing mental health

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), pp. 878-878,


[Excerpt] [...] Stress is an ingrained and unavoidable aspect of scientific practice. In some unfortunate cases, lab culture can make it worse. In many others, however, it is simply the nature of research. Deadlines, tight funding, and the pressure to “publish or perish” all create chronic stress. There is no avoiding these issues. [...] Personally, I realized that self-imposed deadlines and goals created much of the stress I was feeling, and that tempering my expectations was an easy way to reduce ...


A climate policy pathway for near- and long-term benefits

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6337. (05 May 2017), pp. 493-494,


The Paris Climate Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) explicitly links the world's long-term climate and near-term sustainable development and poverty eradication agendas. Urgent action is needed, but there are many paths toward the agreement's long-term, end-of-century, 1.5° to 2°C climate target. We propose that reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) enough to slow projected global warming by 0.5°C over the next 25 years be adopted as a near-term goal, with many potential benefits toward achieving Sustainable ...


Repression of competition and the evolution of cooperation

Evolution, Vol. 57, No. 4. (April 2003), pp. 693-705,


Repression of competition within groups joins kin selection as the second major force in the history of life shaping the evolution of cooperation. When opportunities for competition against neighbors are limited within groups, individuals can increase their own success only by enhancing the efficiency and productivity of their group. Thus, characters that repress competition within groups promote cooperation and enhance group success. Leigh first expressed this idea in the context of fair meiosis, in which each chromosome has an equal chance ...


Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 35. (30 August 2016), pp. 9769-9773,


[Significance] Decisions we make every day about how to invest our time have crucial personal and societal consequences. Most theories of motivation propose that our daily choices of activities aim to maximize positive affective states but fail to explain when people decide to engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. We tracked the activities and moods of over 28,000 people in real time and demonstrated that people seek mood-enhancing activities when they feel bad and unpleasant activities when they feel good. These findings ...

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