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Selection: with tag scientific-communication [at least 200 articles] 

 

Preprints could promote confusion and distortion

  
Nature, Vol. 559, No. 7715. (24 July 2018), pp. 445-445, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05789-4

Abstract

The scientific community must take measures to keep preprints from distorting the public’s understanding of science, says Tom Sheldon. [Excerpt] [...] As soon as research is in the public domain, there is nothing to stop a journalist writing about it, and rushing to be the first to do so. Imagine early findings that seem to show that climate change is natural or that a common vaccine is unsafe. Preprints on subjects such as those could, if they become a story that goes ...

 

Digital badges aim to clear up politics of authorship

  
Nature, Vol. 526, No. 7571. (28 September 2015), pp. 145-146, https://doi.org/10.1038/526145a

Abstract

Machine-readable system seeks to clearly explain who did what for a research paper. [Excerpt] An initiative that uses colourful ‘digital badges’ to denote different contributions to research aims to standardize and simplify the often-fraught business of detailing who did what on a scientific paper. [...] The 14 categories come from a related ‘digital taxonomies’ project, which last year brought together journal editors, funders and researchers to classify authors’ contributions as a set of standard roles. [...] ...

 

Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 11. (13 February 2018), pp. 2557-2560, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1715374115

Abstract

In keeping with the growing movement in scientific publishing toward transparency in data and methods, we propose changes to journal authorship policies and procedures to provide insight into which author is responsible for which contributions, better assurance that the list is complete, and clearly articulated standards to justify earning authorship credit. To accomplish these goals, we recommend that journals adopt common and transparent standards for authorship, outline responsibilities for corresponding authors, adopt the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) (docs.casrai.org/CRediT) methodology for attributing ...

 

Transparent author credit

  
Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 961-961, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat4136

Abstract

Authorship on papers is one of the major currencies of the scientific enterprise. Nevertheless, the contributions of different authors to a given paper have remained relatively opaque. Contributions are generally inferred from the order of authors, and implications of position on the authorship list vary between different investigators and scientific fields. A year ago, a group of editors and publishers across a wide range of disciplines met to discuss how to provide a more systemic solution to make author contributions more ...

 

Discounting... on stilts

  
The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 74, No. 1. (2007), pp. 119-138

Abstract

[Excerpt] Jeremy Bentham famously described the concept of natural rights as “nonsense upon stilts.” This Response argues that cost-benefit analysis (CBA)—a contemporary applied version of Bentham’s utilitarianism for public policy analysis—is also nonsensical in that CBA purports to resolve questions, the answers to which have already been subsumed within the framework’s architecture. In particular, CBA subsumes vital questions of intergenerational equity through its use of an exponential discount factor to adjust future costs and benefits to a present value. This discounting procedure has the practical effect of dramatically diminishing the apparent ...

 

The limits of cost/benefit analysis when disasters loom

  
Global Policy, Vol. 7 (May 2016), pp. 56-66, https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12279

Abstract

[Abstract] Advances in estimating the costs and benefits of climate change policies are a welcome development, but a full-scale cost/benefit analysis that seeks to reduce complex value trade-offs to a single metric of net benefit maximization hides many important public policy issues, especially for disasters and catastrophes that are large, discontinuous, irreversible and uncertain. States should obtain public input on such policies. These policies involve value trade-offs that can be informed by technocratic estimates of costs, benefits and risk. However, such analyses ...

 

Beyond ∖newcommand with xparse

  
TUGboat, Vol. 31, No. 1. (2010), pp. 80-83

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The LATEX 2ε \newcommand macro is most LATEX users’ first choice for creating macros. As well as the ‘sanity checks’ it carries out, the ability to define macros with an optional argument is very useful. However, to go beyond using a single optional argument, or to create more complex input syntaxes, LATEX 2ε users have to do things ‘by hand’ using \def or load one of the packages which extend \newcommand (for example twoopt (Oberdiek, 2008)). [\n] As part of the ...

 

Software engineering for computational science: past, present, future

  
Computing in Science & Engineering (2018), pp. 1-1, https://doi.org/10.1109/mcse.2018.108162940

Abstract

While the importance of in silico experiments for the scientific discovery process increases, state-of-the-art software engineering practices are rarely adopted in computational science. To understand the underlying causes for this situation and to identify ways for improving the current situation, we conduct a literature survey on software engineering practices in computational science. As a result of our survey, we identified 13 recurring key characteristics of scientific software development that can be divided into three groups: characteristics that results (1) from the ...

 

Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

  
Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  

Abstract

Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...

References

  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. https://w3id.org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01/e015b50 .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,
 

To be a responsible researcher, reach out and listen

  

Abstract

[Excerpt] Vietnam’s Red River is a lifeblood of the country’s economy. But managing its delta region—which is home to 17 million people; hosts the capital city Hanoi, as well as extensive industrial, agricultural, and navigational activities; and provides crucial environmental services—is also a source of conflict between local stakeholders, each with different needs and priorities. [\n] Rodolfo Soncini-Sessa isn’t a local himself—he’s a professor of natural resources management a continent away, at the Polytechnic University of Milan in Italy. But after he ...

 

2017 hurricanes and aerosols simulation

  
In Scientific Visualization Studio (November 2017), 12772

Abstract

[Excerpt] Tracking aerosols over land and water from August 1 to November 1, 2017. Hurricanes and tropical storms are obvious from the large amounts of sea salt particles caught up in their swirling winds. The dust blowing off the Sahara, however, gets caught by water droplets and is rained out of the storm system. Smoke from the massive fires in the Pacific Northwest region of North America are blown across the Atlantic to the UK and Europe. This visualization is a ...

 

Europe’s Joint Research Centre, although improving, must think bigger

  
Nature, Vol. 550, No. 7674. (3 October 2017), pp. 8-8, https://doi.org/10.1038/550008a

Abstract

External report criticizes lack of exploratory research. [Excerpt] The European Union’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) uses the label EU Science Hub now. Whether the rebranding will increase its profile is one question. What science gets done inside this hub is another. In response to that query, there is some positive news. It is doing what it should be, and doing it well: collecting scientific and technical evidence in support of EU policies. That’s according to the report of an external evaluation released ...

 

Climatological risk: wildfires

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 294-305

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] There is a vast amount of information on wildfires at local, regional and global scales. However, problems remain at different scales in terms of harmonising or standardising practices for the assessment and management of wildfire risk. [\n] Resilience theory is providing a suitable framework by which to explain abrupt changes in socioecological systems. The importance of community participation and building social capital through collective learning and governance mechanisms has been highlighted as a required basis for building disaster resilience (Aldunce et al., 2015; Aldunce et al., 2016; Montiel and Kraus, 2010; O’Brien et al., ...

References

  1. SCION, 2009. Fire behavioiur app. https://www.scionresearch.com/research/forest-science/rural-fire-research/tools/fire-behaviour-smartphone-apps .
  2. NFPA, 2016 Firewise Communities Program. http://www.firewise.org/ .
  3. GOV.UK, n.d. LH1: Management of lowland heathlandhttps://www.gov.uk/countryside-stewardship-grants/management-of-lowland-heathland-lh1 .
  4. KWFW, 2014. Wildfire Threat Analysis (WTA):NERC-funded scoping project with Forestry Commission. http://www.kfwf.org.uk/_assets/documents/Wildfire_Threat_Analysis_post-project_report.pdf .
  5. HM Tresaury, 2013. Orange book: management of risk - principles and concepts. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/orange-book .
  6. Cabinet Office, 2015. National Risk
 

Meteorological risk: extra-tropical cyclones, tropical cyclones and convective storms

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 246-256

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] [::Partnership] Collaboration between forecast providers and end users in real time is essential during DRM, since the interpretation of the available information, the uncertainty associated with it and how this changes as new information becomes available should be made in consultation with qualified meteorologists and National Meteorological Services in particular. Information sharing, particularly observational, impact and warning data across national boundaries in real time, is of key importance. Improvements in forecasts will in part be driven by the interaction between fundamental atmosphere and ocean science with operational forecasting, so continued collaboration between forecasting centres and universities and ...

References

  1. AIR Worldwide, 2015. Preparing for Europe's Winter Storm Season with a Look Back at Niklas and Kyrill. http://www.air-worldwide.com/Publications/AIR-Currents/2015/Preparing-for-Europe-s-Winter-Storm-Season-with-a-Look-Back-at-Niklas-and-Kyrill/ .
  2. Anderson, G., Klugmann, D., 2014. A European lightning density analysis using 5 years of ATDnet data. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 14(4), 815-829.
  3. Antonescu, B., Schultz, D.M., Lomas, F., Kühne, T., 2016. Tornadoes in Europe: Synthesis of the observational datasets. Monthly Weather Review.
  4. Bauer, P., Thorpe,
 

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins

  
Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7665. (1 August 2017), pp. 15-16, https://doi.org/10.1038/548015a

Abstract

Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review. ...

 

Opinion: on being an advisor to today’s junior scientists

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 21. (23 May 2017), pp. 5321-5323, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704511114

Abstract

[Excerpt] Young scientists often have the same long-term goal: use one’s smarts and drive to gain insights into a problem of interest. Typically, these scientists draw upon a long-standing and time-tested scientific process: formulate a hypothesis, design experiments to test this hypothesis, collect data, interpret the data, revisit and modify the hypothesis, and so on. [\n] Unfortunately, the reality isn’t quite so straightforward. The hours are long and the rewards short. And the challenges for fledgling scientists seem to be growing. Attractive ...

 

Escape from the impact factor

  
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2008), pp. 5-7

Abstract

As Editor-in-Chief of the journal Nature, I am concerned by the tendency within academic administrations to focus on a journal’s impact factor when judging the worth of scientific contributions by researchers, affecting promotions, recruitment and, in some countries, financial bonuses for each paper. Our own internal research demonstrates how a high journal impact factor can be the skewed result of many citations of a few papers rather than the average level of the majority, reducing its value as an objective measure ...

 

A concise review on the role of author self-citations in information science, bibliometrics and science policy

  
Scientometrics, Vol. 67, No. 2. (2006), pp. 263-277, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-006-0098-9

Abstract

The objective of the present study is twofold: (1) to show the aims and means of quantitative interpretation of bibliographic features in bibliometrics and their re-interpretation in research policy, and (2) to summarise the state-of-art in self-citation research. The authors describe three approaches to the role of author self-citations and possible conflicts arising from the different perspectives. From the bibliometric viewpoint we can conclude that that there is no reason for condemning self-citations in general or for removing them from macro ...

 

A climate policy pathway for near- and long-term benefits

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6337. (05 May 2017), pp. 493-494, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aak9521

Abstract

The Paris Climate Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) explicitly links the world's long-term climate and near-term sustainable development and poverty eradication agendas. Urgent action is needed, but there are many paths toward the agreement's long-term, end-of-century, 1.5° to 2°C climate target. We propose that reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) enough to slow projected global warming by 0.5°C over the next 25 years be adopted as a near-term goal, with many potential benefits toward achieving Sustainable ...

 

Unmask temporal trade-offs in climate policy debates

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6337. (04 May 2017), pp. 492-493, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj2350

Abstract

Global warming potentials (GWPs) have become an essential element of climate policy and are built into legal structures that regulate greenhouse gas emissions. This is in spite of a well-known shortcoming: GWP hides trade-offs between short- and long-term policy objectives inside a single time scale of 100 or 20 years (1). The most common form, GWP100, focuses on the climate impact of a pulse emission over 100 years, diluting near-term effects and misleadingly implying that short-lived climate pollutants exert forcings in ...

 

Building confidence in climate model projections: an analysis of inferences from fit

  
WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 8, No. 3. (1 May 2017), n/a, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.454

Abstract

Climate model projections are used to inform policy decisions and constitute a major focus of climate research. Confidence in climate projections relies on the adequacy of climate models for those projections. The question of how to argue for the adequacy of models for climate projections has not gotten sufficient attention in the climate modeling community. The most common way to evaluate a climate model is to assess in a quantitative way degrees of ‘model fit’; that is, how well model results ...

 

The importance of free and open source software and open standards in modern scientific publishing

  
Publications, Vol. 1, No. 2. (26 June 2013), pp. 49-55, https://doi.org/10.3390/publications1020049

Abstract

In this paper we outline the reasons why we believe a reliance on the use of proprietary computer software and proprietary file formats in scientific publication have negative implications for the conduct and reporting of science. There is increasing awareness and interest in the scientific community about the benefits offered by free and open source software. We discuss the present state of scientific publishing and the merits of advocating for a wider adoption of open standards in science, particularly where it ...

 

Good colour maps: how to design them

  
(12 Sep 2015)

Abstract

Many colour maps provided by vendors have highly uneven perceptual contrast over their range. It is not uncommon for colour maps to have perceptual flat spots that can hide a feature as large as one tenth of the total data range. Colour maps may also have perceptual discontinuities that induce the appearance of false features. Previous work in the design of perceptually uniform colour maps has mostly failed to recognise that CIELAB space is only designed to be perceptually uniform at very low spatial frequencies. The most ...

 

Why we use bad color maps and what you can do about it

  
Electronic Imaging (February 2016), pp. 1-6, https://doi.org/10.2352/issn.2470-1173.2016.16.hvei-133

Abstract

We know the rainbow color map is terrible, and it is emphatically reviled by the visualization community, yet its use continues to persist. Why do we continue to use a this perceptual encoding with so many known flaws? Instead of focusing on why we should not use rainbow colors, this position statement explores the rational for why we do pick these colors despite their flaws. Often the decision is influenced by a lack of knowledge, but even experts that know better ...

 

Diverging color maps for scientific visualization

  
In Advances in Visual Computing, Vol. 5876 (2009), pp. 92-103, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-10520-3_9

Abstract

One of the most fundamental features of scientific visualization is the process of mapping scalar values to colors. This process allows us to view scalar fields by coloring surfaces and volumes. Unfortunately, the majority of scientific visualization tools still use a color map that is famous for its ineffectiveness: the rainbow color map. This color map, which naïvely sweeps through the most saturated colors, is well known for its ability to obscure data, introduce artifacts, and confuse users. Although many alternate ...

 

Colour schemes

  
SRON Technical Note, No. 2.2. (December 2012), SRON/EPS/TN/09-002

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Graphics with scientific data become clearer when the colours are chosen carefully. It is convenient to have a good default scheme ready for each type of data, with colours that are distinct for all readers, including colour-blind people. This document shows such schemes as a function of the number of colours needed, with some examples. It also gives a conversion of colour coordinates to simulate approximately how any colour is seen if you are colour-blind. [\n] [...] ...

 

Post-normal institutional identities: quality assurance, reflexivity and ethos of care

  

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Given the current crises of legitimacy and quality in mainstream science, institutions that produce and govern science and those that provide scientific advice to policy need to change their modus operandis; we advocate for an ethos of care. [::] Post-normal science and other frameworks of scientific knowledge production may inspire trustfulness in institutions that provide scientific advice to policy. [::] In Europe, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has the necessary scaffolding to advise policy in view of public interest, ...

 

Communication: science censorship is a global issue

  
Nature, Vol. 542, No. 7640. (08 February 2017), pp. 165-165, https://doi.org/10.1038/542165b

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Regrettably, suppression of public scientific information is already the norm, or is being attempted, in many countries [...]. We fear that such gagging orders could encourage senior bureaucrats to use funding as a tool with which to rein in academic freedoms. [...] The response of scientists to this type of coercion has been to share scientific information widely and openly using such legal means as social media to defend facts and transparency [...] ...

 

Keep it complex

  
Nature, Vol. 468, No. 7327. (23 December 2010), pp. 1029-1031, https://doi.org/10.1038/4681029a

Abstract

When knowledge is uncertain, experts should avoid pressures to simplify their advice. Render decision-makers accountable for decisions, says Andy Stirling. ...

 

When a preprint becomes the final paper

  

Abstract

A geneticist's decision not to publish his finalized preprint in a journal gets support from scientists online. [Excerpt] Preprint papers posted on servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv are designed to get research results out for discussion before they are formally peer reviewed and published in journals. But for some scientists, the term is now a misnomer — their preprint papers will never be submitted for formal publication. [...] One of the major services of traditional journals is that papers are peer ...

 

Model-based uncertainty in species range prediction

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 33, No. 10. (October 2006), pp. 1704-1711, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01460.x

Abstract

[Aim]  Many attempts to predict the potential range of species rely on environmental niche (or ‘bioclimate envelope’) modelling, yet the effects of using different niche-based methodologies require further investigation. Here we investigate the impact that the choice of model can have on predictions, identify key reasons why model output may differ and discuss the implications that model uncertainty has for policy-guiding applications. [Location]  The Western Cape of South Africa. [Methods]  We applied nine of the most widely used modelling techniques to model potential ...

 

Five selfish reasons to work reproducibly

  
Genome Biology, Vol. 16, No. 1. (8 December 2015), 274, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-015-0850-7

Abstract

And so, my fellow scientists: ask not what you can do for reproducibility; ask what reproducibility can do for you! Here, I present five reasons why working reproducibly pays off in the long run and is in the self-interest of every ambitious, career-oriented scientist. [Excerpt] [::Reproducibility: what's in it for me?] In this article, I present five reasons why working reproducibly pays off in the long run and is in the self-interest of every ambitious, career-oriented scientist. [::] Reason number 1: reproducibility helps to avoid ...

 

The mismeasurement of science

  
Current Biology, Vol. 17, No. 15. (07 August 2007), pp. R583-R585, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2007.06.014

Abstract

[Excerpt:Impact factors and citations] Crucially, impact factors are distorted by positive feedback — many citations are not based on reading the paper but by reading other papers, particularly reviews. One study even suggested that, of cited articles, only some 20% had actually been read. [...] Nevertheless, citations are now being used to make quantitative comparisons between scientists. [...] [Changes in behaviour] Unfortunately, the use of these measures is having damaging effects on perceptions and on behaviour; these I list below. Please note that ...

 

Is grey literature ever used? Using citation analysis to measure the impact of GESAMP, an international Marine scientific advisory body

  
Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, Vol. 28, No. 1. (2004), pp. 45-65

Abstract

Citation analysis was used to measure the impact of GESAMP, the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, which since 1969 has published reports for the United Nations and seven of its agencies. Web of Science was used to search for citations to 114 publications, of which 15 are journal articles or books. Citations to grey literature can be difficult to locate and interpret, but two-thirds of the 1436 citations, in 1178 citing papers, are to ...

 

Statistical analysis

  
In Science: editorial policies (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Statistical analysis] Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. [::] Data pre-processing steps such as transformations, re-coding, re-scaling, normalization, truncation, and handling of below detectable level readings and outliers should be fully described; any removal or modification of data values must be fully acknowledged and justified. [::] [...] [::] The number of sampled units, N, upon which each reported statistic is based must be stated. [::] For continuous ...

 

Rainbow color map critiques: an overview and annotated bibliography

  
MathWorks Technical Articles and Newsletters, Vol. 25 (2014), 92238v00

Abstract

A rainbow color map is based on the order of colors in the spectrum of visible light—the same colors that appear in a rainbow. Rainbow color maps commonly appear in data visualizations in many different scientific and engineering communities, and technical computing software often provides a rainbow color map as the default choice. Although rainbow color maps remain popular, they have a number of weaknesses when used for scientific visualization, and have been widely criticized. [\n] This paper summarizes the criticisms of ...

 

Take the time and effort to correct misinformation

  
Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7632. (6 December 2016), pp. 171-171, https://doi.org/10.1038/540171a

Abstract

Scientists should challenge online falsehoods and inaccuracies — and harness the collective power of the Internet to fight back, argues Phil Williamson. [Excerpt] [...] Most researchers who have tried to engage online with ill-informed journalists or pseudoscientists will be familiar with Brandolini’s law (also known as the Bullshit Asymmetry Principle): the amount of energy needed to refute bullshit is an order of magnitude bigger than that needed to produce it. Is it really worth taking the time and effort to challenge, correct and clarify ...

 

Theory of citing

  
In Handbook of Optimization in Complex Networks, Vol. 57 (11 Sep 2012), pp. 463-505, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0754-6_16

Abstract

We present empirical data on misprints in citations to twelve high-profile papers. The great majority of misprints are identical to misprints in articles that earlier cited the same paper. The distribution of the numbers of misprint repetitions follows a power law. We develop a stochastic model of the citation process, which explains these findings and shows that about 70-90% of scientific citations are copied from the lists of references used in other papers. Citation copying can explain not only why some misprints become popular, but also why some ...

 

Editorial: evidence-based guidelines for avoiding the most prevalent and serious APA error in journal article submissions - The citation error

  
Research in the Schools, Vol. 17, No. 2. (2010), pp. i-xxiv

Abstract

In a previous editorial, Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, and Frels (2010) discussed the findings of Combs, Onwuegbuzie, and Frels (2010), who identified the 60 most common American Psychological Association (APA) errors—with the most common error being incorrect use of numbers that was committed by 57.3% of authors. However, they did not analyze citation errors, which stem from a failure “to make certain that each source referenced appears in both places [text and reference list] and that the text citation and reference list ...

 

Errors in bibliographic citations: a continuing problem

  
The Library Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 4. (1 October 1989), pp. 291-304, https://doi.org/10.1086/602160

Abstract

Bibliographic references are an accepted part of scholarly publication. As such, they have been used for information retrieval, studies of scientific communication, collection development decisions, and even determination of salary raises, as well as for their primary purpose of documentation of authors' claims. However, there appears to be a high percentage of errors in these citations, seen in evidence from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Such errors can be traced to a lack of standardization in citation formats, misunderstanding of ...

 

Accuracy of cited references: the role of citation databases

  
College & Research Libraries, Vol. 67, No. 4. (01 July 2006), pp. 292-303, https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.67.4.292

Abstract

The nature and extent of errors made by Science Citation Index ExpandedTM (SCIE) and SciFinder® ScholarTM (SFS) during data entry have been characterized by analysis of more than 5,400 cited articles from 204 randomly selected cited-article lists published in three core chemistry journals. Failure to map cited articles to target-source articles was due to transcription errors, target-source article errors, omitted cited articles, and reason unknown. Mapping error rates ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 percent. SCIE and SFS also were found to ...

 

Characteristics of doctoral students who commit citation errors

  
Library Review, Vol. 55, No. 3. (March 2006), pp. 195-208, https://doi.org/10.1108/00242530610655993

Abstract

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the citation error rate and quality of reference lists in doctoral dissertation proposals. This research also sought to examine the relationship between perfectionism and frequency of citation errors and the adherence of the reference list to the fidelity of the chosen citation style among doctoral students. Also of interest was to determine which demographic variables predict citation errors and quality of the reference list. [Design/methodology/approach] Participants were 64 doctoral students from various disciplines enrolled in ...

 

Copyright contradictions in scholarly publishing

  
First Monday, Vol. 7, No. 11. (04 November 2002), 1006, https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v7i11.1006

Abstract

This paper examines contradictions in how copyright works with the publishing of scholarly journals. These contradictions have to do with the protection of the authors’ interest and have become apparent with the rise of open access publishing as an alternative to the traditional commercial model of selling journal subscriptions. Authors may well be better served, as may the public which supports research, by open access journals because of its wider readership and early indications of greater scholarly impact. This paper reviews ...

 

Ethics among scholars in academic publishing

  
In 2012 Proceedings of the Information Systems Educators Conference (2012), 1948

Abstract

This paper offers a survey of the contemporary and common-place ethical breaches concerning authorship, research, and publishing in today’s scholarly production, as juxtaposed with some of the predominant standards and guidelines that have been developed to direct academic publishing practices. While the paper may suggest the need for an updated and comprehensive set of guidelines for multiple discipline areas, the purpose here is to prepare the theoretical framework for a future computing discipline-specific study of ethical authorship and related concepts in ...

 

Programmers, professors, and parasites: credit and co-authorship in computer science

  
Science and Engineering Ethics In Science and Engineering Ethics, Vol. 15, No. 4. (2009), pp. 467-489, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-009-9119-4

Abstract

This article presents an in-depth analysis of past and present publishing practices in academic computer science to suggest the establishment of a more consistent publishing standard. Historical precedent for academic publishing in computer science is established through the study of anecdotes as well as statistics collected from databases of published computer science papers. After examining these facts alongside information about analogous publishing situations and standards in other scientific fields, the article concludes with a list of basic principles that should be ...

 

Post-truth: a guide for the perplexed

  
Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7631. (28 November 2016), pp. 9-9, https://doi.org/10.1038/540009a

Abstract

If politicians can lie without condemnation, what are scientists to do? Kathleen Higgins offers some explanation. [Excerpt] The Oxford Dictionaries named ‘post-truth’ as their 2016 Word of the Year. It must sound alien to scientists. Science’s quest for knowledge about reality presupposes the importance of truth, both as an end in itself and as a means of resolving problems. How could truth become passé? [\n] [...] [\n] Post-truth refers to blatant lies being routine across society, and it means that politicians can lie without ...

 

The false academy: predatory publishing in science and bioethics

  
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (2016), pp. 1-8, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-016-9740-3

Abstract

This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon ‘predatory publishing’, in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path. It is noted that bioethics as a discipline does not stand unaffected by this trend. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects ...

 

ePiX tutorial and reference manual

  
(2008)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] ePiX, a collection of batch utilities, creates mathematically accurate figures, plots, and animations containing LATEX typography. The input syntax is easy to learn, and the user interface resembles that of LATEX itself: You prepare a scene description in a text editor, then “compile” the input file into a picture. LATEX- and web-compatible output types include a LATEX picture-like environment written with PSTricks, tikz, or eepic macros; vector images (eps, ps, and pdf); and bitmapped images and movies (png, mng, and gif). [\n] ePiX’s strengths include: [::] Quality of ...

 

JRC data policy

  
Vol. 27163 EN (2015), https://doi.org/10.2788/607378

Abstract

[Executive summary] The work on the JRC Data Policy followed the task identified in the JRC Management Plan 2014 to develop a dedicated data policy to complement the JRC Policy on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Supporting Guidance, and to promote open access to research data in the context of Horizon 2020. [\n] Important policy commitments and the relevant regulatory basis within the European Union and the European Commission include: the Commission Decision on the reuse of Commission documents, Commission ...

 

Encourage governments to heed scientific advice

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7622. (28 September 2016), pp. 587-587, https://doi.org/10.1038/537587a

Abstract

To stop evidence-based policy losing its clout, researchers need to engage with policymakers and understand their needs, says Bill Colglazier. [Excerpt] [...] Most governments do want to consider and harness science, technology and innovation. [...] Why, then, is science losing its clout in the current political debates? In my view, the explanation is relatively simple. In the short term, politics, or more precisely value judgements, trump science. This is especially true when there are scientific uncertainties. [\n] Value judgements come in three varieties. ...

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