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Selection: with tag runoff [45 articles] 

 

At the nexus of fire, water and society

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0172

Abstract

The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...

 

A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

  
Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22, https://doi.org/10.3390/f7010022

Abstract

Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...

 

Hydrological impact of forest fires and climate change in a Mediterranean basin

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 66, No. 2. (2013), pp. 609-628, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0503-z

Abstract

Forest fire can modify and accelerate the hydrological response of Mediterranean basins submitted to intense rainfall: during the years following a fire, the effects on the hydrological response may be similar to those produced by the growth of impervious areas. Moreover, climate change and global warming in Mediterranean areas can imply consequences on both flash flood and fire hazards, by amplifying these phenomena. Based on historical events and post-fire experience, a methodology to interpret the impacts of forest fire in terms ...

 

Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

  
Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 122 (July 2013), pp. 10-37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.03.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Develop an organizational framework for post-wildfire response in different regions. [::] Soil properties are a critical link between infiltration, runoff, and erosion. [::] Need mathematical relations between burn severity metrics and soil properties. [::] Determine physical-based precipitation metrics that best predict runoff and erosion. [::] Incorporate basin morphology in runoff models for steep, rough channels. [Abstract] Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, ...

 

Wildfire-related debris flow from a hazards perspective

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 363-385, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_15

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Wildland fire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Consumption of the rainfall-intercepting canopy and of the soil-mantling litter and duff, intensive drying of the soil, combustion of soil-binding organic matter, and the enhancement or formation of water-repellent soils can change the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, leading to decreased rainfall infiltration, subsequent significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil (e.g., Swanson, 1981; Spittler, 1995; Doerr et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; ...

 

Comparison between the USLE, the USLE-M and replicate plots to model rainfall erosion on bare fallow areas

  
CATENA, Vol. 145 (October 2016), pp. 39-46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.05.017

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Examines ability of soil losses from a plot to predict those from another [::] Stochastic and systemic variations observed when replicate model used [::] Replicate model tends to perform better that USLE-M when runoff known. [Abstract] It has been proposed that the best physical model of erosion from a plot is provided by a replicate plot (Nearing, 1998). Event data from paired bare fallow plots in the USLE database were used to examine the abilities of replicate plots, the USLE and the USLE-M to ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 31

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   root-growth   root-rot   root-sucker   root-suckers   root-system   rooting-depth   roots   roptrocerus-xylophagorum   rosa-canina   rosa-pendulina   rosa-pimpinellifolia   rosa-rugosa   rosa-spp   rosaceae   rothermel   rough-set   routes   roystonea-regia   rros   rspread   rubik   rubus-caesius   rubus-fruticosus   rubus-idaeus   rubus-spp   ruby   runoff   ruscus-aculeatus   rusle   russia   rwanda   saass   sabal-palmetto   saga   salicaceae   salinization   salix-alba   salix-appendiculata   salix-aurita   salix-babylonica   salix-caprea   salix-cinera   salix-cinerea   salix-daphnoides   salix-elaeagnos   salix-fragilis   salix-glabra   salix-lasiandra   salix-matsudana   salix-myrsinifolia-nigricans   salix-nigricans   salix-pentandra   salix-purpurea   salix-repens   salix-reticulata   salix-rosmarinifolia   salix-salviifolia   salix-scouleriana   salix-smithiana   salix-spp   salix-triandra   salix-viminalis   salt-tolerance   salvage-logging   salzmannii   samanea-saman   sambucus-canadensis   sambucus-nigra   sambucus-racemosa   sambucus-spp   san-francesco-del-deserto   san-lorenzo-di-castello   sand-soil   santalum-album   saperda-scalaris   saproxylic-beetles   sapwood   saraca-asoca   sassafras-albidum   sassafras-spp   satellites   saudi-arabia   savannas   saxony   scalability   scale-free-network   scale-invariance   scale-vs-pixel   scandinavia   scarcity   scenario-analysis   schima-superba   schinopsis-balansae   schinus-molle   schinus-terebinthifolius   scholarly-poor   science-2-0   science-based-decision-making   science-ethics  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

The unusual nature of recent snowpack declines in the North American cordillera

  
Science, Vol. 333, No. 6040. (2011), pp. 332-335, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1201570

Abstract

In western North America, snowpack has declined in recent decades, and further losses are projected through the 21st century. Here, we evaluate the uniqueness of recent declines using snowpack reconstructions from 66 tree-ring chronologies in key runoff-generating areas of the Colorado, Columbia, and Missouri River drainages. Over the past millennium, late 20th century snowpack reductions are almost unprecedented in magnitude across the northern Rocky Mountains and in their north-south synchrony across the cordillera. Both the snowpack declines and their synchrony result ...

 

The state and fate of Himalayan glaciers

  
Science, Vol. 336, No. 6079. (2012), pp. 310-314, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1215828

Abstract

Himalayan glaciers are a focus of public and scientific debate. Prevailing uncertainties are of major concern because some projections of their future have serious implications for water resources. Most Himalayan glaciers are losing mass at rates similar to glaciers elsewhere, except for emerging indications of stability or mass gain in the Karakoram. A poor understanding of the processes affecting them, combined with the diversity of climatic conditions and the extremes of topographical relief within the region, makes projections speculative. Nevertheless, it ...

 

Adjustment of forest management strategies to changing climate

  
In Forest Management and the Water Cycle, Vol. 212 (2011), pp. 313-329, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9834-4_17

Abstract

Research work on the influence of global warming on forests predicts a rise in air temperature and changes in precipitation for a large part of Europe. Climate change has been forecast to increase runoff and nutrient leaching from the boreal catchments. Windiness, cloudiness and more frequent extreme-weather events are expected in the temperate region. The Mediterranean region is expected to suffer considerable impacts because of increased drought conditions. The need to understand and control the hydrological role of forests is rising, ...

 

Modeling spatial patterns of saturated areas: a comparison of the topographic wetness index and a dynamic distributed model

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 373, No. 1-2. (June 2009), pp. 15-23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.03.031

Abstract

Topography is often one of the major controls on the spatial pattern of saturated areas, which in turn is a key to understanding much of the variability in soils, hydrological processes, and stream water quality. The topographic wetness index (TWI) has become a widely used tool to describe wetness conditions at the catchment scale. With this index, however, it is assumed that groundwater gradients always equal surface gradients. To overcome this limitation, we suggest deriving wetness indices based on simulations of ...

 

Soil characteristics and landcover relationships on soil hydraulic conductivity at a hillslope scale: a view towards local flood management

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 497 (August 2013), pp. 208-222, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.05.043

Abstract

We evaluate woodland/grassland cover and soil types to reduce local flooding. We measured field saturated hydraulic conductivity under grassland and woodland. Established broadleaf woodland had significantly higher infiltration rates than grassland. 1 in 10 year storm events would cause infiltration-excess overland flow on grassland. We suggest deciduous shelterbelts upslope could locally reduce overland flow. There are surprisingly few studies in humid temperate forests which provide reliable evidence that soil permeability is enhanced under forests. This work addresses this research gap through a ...

 

Rainfall infiltration and soil hydrological characteristics below ancient forest, planted forest and grassland in a temperate northern climate

  
Ecohydrology (2015), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1658

Abstract

How rainfall infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics develop over time under forests of different ages in temperate regions is poorly understood. In this study, infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics were investigated under forests of different ages and under grassland. Soil hydraulic characteristics were measured at different scales under a 250-year-old grazed grassland (GL), 6-year-old (6yr) and 48-year-old (48yr) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantations, remnant 300-year-old individual Scots pine (OT) and a 4000-year-old Caledonian Forest (AF). In situ field-saturated hydraulic ...

 

Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction

  
The ISME Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1. (12 September 2013), pp. 226-244, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.141

Abstract

Soil compaction is a major disturbance associated with logging, but we lack a fundamental understanding of how this affects the soil microbiome. We assessed the structural resistance and resilience of the microbiome using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach in differently compacted soils at two forest sites and correlated these findings with changes in soil physical properties and functions. Alterations in soil porosity after compaction strongly limited the air and water conductivity. Compaction significantly reduced abundance, increased diversity, and persistently altered the structure ...

 

Geomorphology and vegetation on hillslopes: Interactions, dependencies, and feedback loops

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 116, No. 3-4. (01 April 2010), pp. 206-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.09.028

Abstract

The linkages between vegetation and hillslope geomorphology have been the subject of serious study for years, but traditionally, ecologists and geomorphologists have viewed these interactions as unidirectional. On the one hand, botanists and landscape ecologists have examined the effects of hillslope features, processes, and materials on vegetation structure, composition, and dynamics. Focus has been placed on the effects of topography (elevation, slope angle, slope aspect), edaphic factors, rock type, and geomorphic disturbance (mass movement, snow avalanches, land surface erosion). On the ...

 

Ecological perspective on water quality goals

  
Environmental Management In Environmental Management, Vol. 5, No. 1. (1 January 1981), pp. 55-68, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01866609

Abstract

The central assumption of nonpoint source pollution control efforts in agricultural watersheds is that traditional erosion control programs are sufficient to insure high quality water resources. We outline the inadequacies of that assumption, especially as they relate to the goal of attaining ecological integrity. The declining biotic integrity of our water resources over the past two decades is not exclusively due to water quality (physical/chemical) degradation. Improvement in many aspects of the quality of our water resources must be approached with ...

 

Causes and consequences of fire-induced soil water repellency

  
Hydrol. Process., Vol. 15, No. 15. (30 October 2001), pp. 2867-2875, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.378
Keywords: fire   runoff   soil  

Abstract

A wettable surface layer overlying a water-repellent layer is commonly observed following a fire on a watershed. High surface temperatures ‘burn’ off organic materials and create vapours that move downward in response to a temperature gradient and then condense on soil particles causing them to become water repellent. Water-repellent soils have a positive water entry pressure hp that must be exceeded or all the water will runoff. Water ponding depths ho that exceeds hp will cause infiltration, but the profile is ...

 

Effects of land use on annual runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean

  
Progress in Physical Geography, Vol. 36, No. 5. (01 October 2012), pp. 599-653, https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133312451303

Abstract

The largest currently compiled database of plot runoff and soil loss data in Europe and the Mediterranean was analysed to investigate effects of land use on annual soil loss (SL), annual runoff (R) and annual runoff coefficient (RC). This database comprises 227 plot-measuring sites in Europe and the Mediterranean, with SL for 1056 plots (PL) representing 7024 plot-years (PY) and R for 804 PL representing 5327 PY. Despite large data variability, continental-wide trends are observed. Construction sites have the highest mean ...

 

Rates and spatial variations of soil erosion in Europe: a study based on erosion plot data

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 122, No. 1-2. (23 October 2010), pp. 167-177, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.06.011

Abstract

An extensive database of short to medium-term erosion rates as measured on erosion plots in Europe under natural rainfall was compiled from the literature. Statistical analysis confirmed the dominant influence of land use and cover on soil erosion rates. Sheet and rill erosion rates are highest on bare soil; vineyards show the second highest soil losses, followed by other arable lands (spring crops, orchards and winter crops). A land with a permanent vegetation cover (shrubs, grassland and forest) is characterised by ...

 

Investigations on the runoff generation at the profile and plot scales, Swiss Emmental

  
Hydrological Processes, Vol. 20, No. 2. (15 February 2006), pp. 377-394, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6056

Abstract

This article describes an investigation on runoff generation at different scales in the forested catchment of the Sperbelgraben in the Emmental region (Swiss Prealps) where studies in the field of forest hydrology have a history of 100 years. It focuses on the analysis of soil profiles and the subsequent sprinkling experiments above them (1 m2), as well as on surface runoff measurements on larger plots (50 to 110 m2). In the Sperbelgraben investigation area, two very distinct runoff reactions could be ...

 

Modelling of stream run-off and sediment output for erosion hazard assessment in Lesser Himalaya: need for sustainable land use plan using remote sensing and GIS: a case study

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 59, No. 3. (11 May 2011), pp. 1277-1297, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9833-5

Abstract

Assessment and inventory on soil erosion hazard are essential for the formulation of successful hazard mitigation plans and sustainable development. The objective of this study was to assess and map soil erosion hazard in Lesser Himalaya with a case study. The Dabka watershed constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in the Lesser Himalaya, India, in district Nainital has been selected for the case illustration. The average rate of erosion hazard is 0.68 mm/year or 224 tons/km2/year. Anthropogenic and geo-environmental factors have together ...

 

Progress and directions in rainfall-runoff modelling

  
In Modelling Change in Environmental Systems (1993), pp. 101-132
 

Sediment-yield prediction with Universal Equation using runoff energy factor

  
In Present and Prospective Technology for Predicting Sediment Yield and Sources, Vol. ARS-S-40 (1975), pp. 244-252
Keywords: energy   modelling   runoff   sediment-yield   usle  

Abstract

[Excerpt] The universal soil loss equation was developed for predicting field soil loss as a guide to conservation farm planning, but it can be used to predict sediment yield from watersheds when a delivery ratio is applied. Delivery ratios (the sediment yield at any point along a channel divided by the source erosion above that point) have been computed for some physiographic areas and related to watershed characteristics. However, the few areas studied represent only a small portion of the United ...

 

Evaluation of WEPP runoff and soil loss predictions using natural runoff plot data

  
Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 39, No. 3. (1996), pp. 855-863, https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.27570
Keywords: accuracy   runoff   soil-erosion   soil-resources   wepp  

Abstract

Model testing and evaluation are critical to the acceptance of any new prediction tool. This study was conducted to evaluate the overall performance of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) hillslope model in predicting runoff and soil loss under cropped conditions. Natural runoff plot data, including 4,124 selected events 556 plot years, and 34 cropping scenarios, from eight locations were selected. The average length of record for the cropping scenarios was about nine years. Several common crops and tillage systems were ...

 

Coping with the curse of freshwater variability

  
Science, Vol. 346, No. 6208. (24 October 2014), pp. 429-430, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1257890

Abstract

Coping with variable and unpredictable freshwater resources represents a profound challenge to climate adaptation. Rainfall, snowmelt, soil moisture, and runoff can vary from zero to large quantities, over a range of time scales and in ways not well predicted by climate models. Extreme floods and droughts are the most obvious manifestations, but hydrologic variability can also have chronic impacts. Water security involves managing these risks so that they do not place an intolerable burden on society and the economy (1). We ...

 

Increased evaporation following widespread tree mortality limits streamflow response

  
Water Resources Research, Vol. 50, No. 7. (1 July 2014), pp. 5395-5409, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013wr014994

Abstract

A North American epidemic of mountain pine beetle (MPB) has disturbed over 5 million ha of forest containing headwater catchments crucial to water resources. However, there are limited observations of MPB effects on partitioning of precipitation between vapor loss and streamflow, and to our knowledge these fluxes have not been observed simultaneously following disturbance. We combined eddy covariance vapor loss (V), catchment streamflow (Q), and stable isotope indicators of evaporation (E) to quantify hydrologic partitioning over 3 years in MPB-impacted and ...

 

A compilation of data on European flash floods

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 367, No. 1-2. (March 2009), pp. 70-78, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.12.028

Abstract

Flash floods are one of the most significant natural hazards in Europe, causing serious risk to life and destruction of buildings and infrastructure. This type of flood, often affecting ungauged watersheds, remains nevertheless a poorly documented phenomenon. To address the gap in available information, and particularly to assess the possible ranges for peak discharges on watersheds with area smaller than 500 km2 and to describe the geography of the hazard across Europe, an intensive data compilation has been carried out for ...

 

Characterisation of selected extreme flash floods in Europe and implications for flood risk management

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 394, No. 1-2. (17 November 2010), pp. 118-133, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.07.017

Abstract

High-resolution data enabling identification and analysis of the hydrometeorological causative processes of flash floods have been collected and analysed for 25 extreme flash floods (60 drainage basins, ranging in area from 9.5 to 1856 km2) across Europe. Most of the selected floods are located in a geographical belt crossing Europe from western Mediterranean (Catalunia and southwestern France) to Black Sea, covering northern Italy, Slovenia, Austria, Slovakia and Romania. Criteria for flood selection were high intensity of triggering rainfall and flood response and ...

 

Climate effects on soil erodibility

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 33, No. 7. (1 June 2008), pp. 1082-1097, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1604

Abstract

Soil erodibility data, calculated using measured soil loss from standard runoff plots, collected over at least one year and applying the standard requirements for calculating the soil erodibility factor (K) of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), have been analysed to investigate whether climate affects the susceptibility of soils to water erosion. In total, more than 300 K-values extracted from the literature have been analysed. Due to the limited availability of data related to the characteristics of the soil and the ...

 

Climate change impacts on hydropower in the Swiss and Italian Alps

  
Science of The Total Environment (November 2013), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.012

Abstract

This paper provides a synthesis and comparison of methodologies and results obtained in several studies devoted to the impact of climate change on hydropower. By putting into perspective various case studies, we provide a broader context and improved understanding of climate changes on energy production. We also underline the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches used as far as technical, physical and economical aspects are concerned. Although the catchments under investigation are located close to each other in geographic terms (Swiss ...

 

Modelling runoff and soil erosion in logged forests: Scope and application of some existing models

  
CATENA, Vol. 67, No. 1. (August 2006), pp. 35-49, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2006.01.006

Abstract

Predictive erosion models are useful tools for evaluating the impact of land-use practices on soil and water properties, and as often used by environmental protection authorities, for setting guidelines and standards for regulation purposes. This study examines the application of three erosion models of varying complexity and design for predicting runoff and soil erosion from logged forest compartments in south eastern Australia. These are: the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), and TOPOG, a physically based ...

 

Soil-erosion and runoff prevention by plant covers: a review

  
In Sustainable Agriculture (2009), pp. 785-811, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2666-8_48

Abstract

Soil erosion is a critical environmental problem throughout the world’s terrestrial ecosystems. Erosion inflicts multiple, serious damages in managed ecosystems such as crops, pastures, or forests as well as in natural ecosystems. In particular, erosion reduces the water-holding capacity because of rapid water runoff, and reduces soil organic matter. As a result, nutrients and valuable soil biota are transported. At the same time, species diversity of plants, animals, and microbes is significantly reduced. One of the most effective measures for erosion ...

 

Climate and surface properties: hydrological response of small arid and semi-arid watersheds

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 42, No. 1-2. (January 2002), pp. 43-57, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-555x(01)00072-1

Abstract

A positive relationship between annual rainfall and geomorphic processes (runoff and erosion rates) and environmental factors (water regime, soil and vegetation cover) is often assumed for arid and semi-arid areas with an annual rainfall in the range of 100-300 mm. This assumption disregards the fact that changes along a climatic gradient, at desert margins, are not limited to purely climatic factors. They are often accompanied by a parallel change in surface properties; especially the relative extent of rocky or soil covered ...

 

Erosion processes in steep terrain - Truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 224, No. 1-2. (15 March 2006), pp. 199-225, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.019

Abstract

To assess the effects of forest management on soil erosion in Southeast Asia, clear distinctions must be made between surface erosion and landslide processes. Although surface erosion is a natural process, it is exacerbated by surface disturbance and compaction that reduce the soil hydraulic conductivity and break down soil aggregates. Management practices and attributes such as roads and trails, agricultural cultivation, fire, land clearing, and recreation all accelerate surface erosion processes due to their disturbance, compaction, and connectivity along hillslopes. Agroforestry ...

 

Sensitivity of runoff and soil erosion to climate change in two Mediterranean watersheds. Part II: assessing impacts from changes in storm rainfall, soil moisture and vegetation cover

  
Hydrological Processes, Vol. 23, No. 8. (15 April 2009), pp. 1212-1220, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7250

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on storm runoff and erosion in Mediterranean watersheds are difficult to assess due to the expected increase in storm frequency coupled with a decrease in total rainfall and soil moisture, added to positive or negative changes to different types of vegetation cover. This report, the second part of a two-part article, addresses this issue by analysing the sensitivity of runoff and erosion to incremental degrees of change (from a -20 to +20%) to storm rainfall, pre-storm ...

 

Event soil loss, runoff and the Universal Soil Loss Equation family of models: a review

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 385, No. 1-4. (07 May 2010), pp. 384-397, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.01.024

Abstract

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is the most widely used and misused prediction equation in the world. Although it was designed to predict long-term average annual soil loss, it has the capacity to predict event soil losses reasonably well at some geographic locations and not well at others. Its lack of capacity to predict event erosion is highly influenced by the fact the event rainfall–runoff factor used in the USLE and its revisions (RUSLE, RUSLE2) does not consider runoff explicitly. ...

 

The effects of wildfire on soil wettability and hydrological behaviour of an afforested catchment

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 121, No. 1-4. (December 1990), pp. 239-256, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(90)90234-o

Abstract

A wildfire in February 1986 destroyed most of an afforested research catchment in the southwestern Cape region of South Africa. The hydrological consequences of the fire were quantified using monitored pre-fire and post-fire stream flow and sediment data from the burned catchment and a nearby control catchment. Soil loss and soil wettability were also measured. In the first year after the fire, weekly stream flow totals increased by 12%, quick flow volumes increased by 201%, peak flow rates increased by 290% ...

 

Effects of fire severity and burn patchiness on hillslope-scale surface runoff, erosion and hydrologic connectivity in a prescribed burn

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 310 (December 2013), pp. 219-233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.016

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Sediment loads were ∼1000 times higher on burnt compared with unburnt hillslopes. [::] Runoff and erosion rates were relatively similar on low and high fire severity hillslopes. [::] Unburnt patches reduced sediment loads from upslope burnt areas by 1.3–99.9%. [::] Wider unburnt patches (5–10 m wide) limited hydrologic connectivity most effectively. [::] Unburnt patches (>10 m wide) should be retained in prescribed burns to limit erosion. [Abstract] Fire severity and burn patchiness are frequently cited as important to post-fire surface runoff and erosion, yet few studies ...

 

Event erosivity factor and errors in erosion predictions by some empirical models

  
Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 41, No. 5. (2003), pp. 991-1003, https://doi.org/10.1071/sr02123

Abstract

Analyses undertaken in this paper show that the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) tends to overestimate low values of soil loss when the soil surface has a high capacity to infiltrate rainfall, but the degree of overestimation falls as the capacity of the soil to produce runoff increases. The USLE-M, a version of the USLE that uses the product of the runoff ratio and the EI30 as the event erosivity index, is more efficient in estimating soil loss because runoff is ...

 

Hydrologic response of upland catchments to wildfires

  
Advances in Water Resources, Vol. 30, No. 10. (October 2007), pp. 2072-2086, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2006.10.012

Abstract

To which extent do wildfires affect runoff production, soil erosion and sediment transport in upland catchments? This transient effect is investigated here by combining data of long term precipitation, sediment yield and wildfire records with a fine resolution spatially distributed modeling approach to flow generation and surface erosion. The model accounts for changes in the structure and properties of soil and vegetation cover by combining the tube-flux approach to topographic watershed partition with a parsimonious parametrization of hydrologic processes. This model ...

 

Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire

  
Hydrological Processes, Vol. 22, No. 13. (30 June 2008), pp. 2063-2074, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6806
Keywords: floods   precipitation   runoff   wildfires  

Abstract

Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the burn severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, ...

 

Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently burned areas in southwestern Colorado and southern California

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 96, No. 3-4. (April 2008), pp. 250-269, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.03.019

Abstract

Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently burned areas have destroyed lives and property throughout the Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in Colorado and southern California, we document the rainfall conditions that have triggered post-fire debris flows and develop empirical rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for the occurrence of debris flows and ...

 

Effects of wildfire on soils and watershed processes

  
Journal of Forestry, Vol. 102, No. 6. (September 2004), pp. 16-20

Abstract

Wildfire can cause water repellency and consume plant canopy, surface plants and litter, and structure-enhancing organics within soil. Changes in soil moisture, structure, and infiltration can accelerate surface runoff, erosion, sediment transport, and deposition. Intense rainfall and some soil and terrain conditions can contribute to overland runoff and in-channel debris torrents. Mineralization of organic matter, interruption of root uptake, and loss of shade can further impact water quality by increasing stream temperatures and nutrient concentrations. Where wildfires are unnaturally large and ...

 

Effects of afforestation on water yield: a global synthesis with implications for policy

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 10. (October 2005), pp. 1565-1576, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01011.x

Abstract

Carbon sequestration programs, including afforestation and reforestation, are gaining attention globally and will alter many ecosystem processes, including water yield. Some previous analyses have addressed deforestation and water yield, while the effects of afforestation on water yield have been considered for some regions. However, to our knowledge no systematic global analysis of the effects of afforestation on water yield has been undertaken. To assess and predict these effects globally, we analyzed 26 catchment data sets with 504 observations, including annual runoff ...

 

Application of a distributed large basin runoff model in the Great Lakes basin

  
Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 15, No. 8. (August 2007), pp. 1001-1011, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2007.01.011
Keywords: gis   modelling   runoff   water-resources  

Abstract

This paper analyzes the application of a spatially distributed large basin runoff model (DLBRM) in the Great Lakes Basin of the United Stats and Canada and discusses four essential components of operational hydrologic model development: model structure, model input, model calibration, and Geographical Information System (GIS)-model interface. The results indicate that large scale operational hydrologic models that are based on mass continuity equations and include land surface, soil zones, and groundwater components require fewer parameters, are less data demanding, and are ...

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