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Selection: with tag risk-assessment [89 articles] 

 

A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

  
Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22, https://doi.org/10.3390/f7010022

Abstract

Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...

 

Seven myths of risk

  
Risk Management In Risk Management, Vol. 7, No. 2. (01 April 2005), pp. 7-17, https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.rm.8240209

Abstract

Communication between experts and the public has turned out to be unusually difficult in the field of risk research. These difficulties are closely connected to a series of recalcitrant misconceptions of risk and its social preconditions. In this paper, seven of the most pernicious myths of risk are exposed, namely: first, that ‘risk’ must have a single, well-defined meaning; second, that the severity of risks should be judged according to probability-weighted averages of the severity of their outcomes; third, that decisions ...

 

Analyzing spatiotemporal changes in wildfire regime and exposure across a Mediterranean fire-prone area

  
Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 71, No. 3. (2014), pp. 1389-1418, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0951-0

Abstract

We evaluated the spatiotemporal changes in wildfire regime and exposure in a fire-prone Mediterranean area (Sardinia, Italy) in relation to changes in ignition patterns, weather, suppression activities, and land uses. We also used wildfire simulations to identify fine-scale changes in wildfire exposure of important features on the island. Sardinia experienced a sharp reduction in fire number and area burned between the periods 1980–1994 and 1995–2009. Despite this decrease, losses and fatalities from wildfires continue. This suggests that localized areas and seasons ...

 

Risk and resilience lessons from Venice

  
Environment Systems and Decisions, Vol. 34, No. 3. (2014), pp. 378-382, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-014-9511-8

Abstract

In the history of disasters in Venice, there are implications for modern times in terms of complex systems management and emerging threats, in particular from examples of risk management and resilience achieved by the Venetian state during outbreaks of the plague. In fourteenth century Venice, risk assessment the way we practice it today would fail to provide meaningful recommendations to reduce the casualty rate of the plague epidemic because the cause and transmission of the disease was not understood. Instead, a ...

 

Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping

  
Science, Vol. 353, No. 6296. (14 July 2016), pp. 247-252, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad8728

Abstract

Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia ...

 

Estimation of live fuel moisture content from MODIS images for fire danger assessment in Southern Gran Chaco

  
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (2016), pp. 1-11, https://doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2016.2575366

Abstract

Moisture content of live fuels (LFMC) is one of the main factors determining fuel flammability and, therefore, a key indicator of fire danger. In this study, we modeled the relationship between spectral indices derived from satellite imagery and field estimations of LFMC in the Chaco Serrano subregion; then, we analyzed the relationship between fire danger estimations based on LFMC calculations and fire activity. Empirical LFMC models fitted for grasslands, Chaco Serrano forests, and glossy privet forests may be considered very accurate ...

 

Development of a framework for fire risk assessment using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 221, No. 1. (10 January 2010), pp. 46-58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.11.017

Abstract

Forest fires play a critical role in landscape transformation, vegetation succession, soil degradation and air quality. Improvements in fire risk estimation are vital to reduce the negative impacts of fire, either by lessen burn severity or intensity through fuel management, or by aiding the natural vegetation recovery using post-fire treatments. This paper presents the methods to generate the input variables and the risk integration developed within the Firemap project (funded under the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology) to map wildland ...

 

Human-caused wildfire risk rating for prevention planning in Spain

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, No. 2. (February 2009), pp. 1241-1252, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.005

Abstract

This paper identifies human factors associated with high forest fire risk in Spain and analyses the spatial distribution of fire occurrence in the country. The spatial units were 6,066 municipalities of the Spanish peninsular territory and Balearic Islands. The study covered a 13-year series of fire occurrence data. One hundred and eight variables were generated and input to a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) to model different factors related to fire ignition. After exploratory analysis, 29 were selected to build a ...

 

Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 23, No. 5. (2014), 606, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf12052

Abstract

Fire risk assessment should take into account the most relevant components associated to fire occurrence. To estimate when and where the fire will produce undesired effects, we need to model both (a) fire ignition and propagation potential and (b) fire vulnerability. Following these ideas, a comprehensive fire risk assessment system is proposed in this paper, which makes extensive use of geographic information technologies to offer a spatially explicit evaluation of fire risk conditions. The paper first describes the conceptual model, then ...

 

A global review of remote sensing of live fuel moisture content for fire danger assessment: moving towards operational products

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 136 (September 2013), pp. 455-468, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2013.05.029

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We review satellite LFMC products and their operational use for fire assessment. [::] The literature is dominated by statistical and physical model-based methods. [::] Statistical methods are site-specific. [::] The parameterization of physical models is complex. [::] Challenges: quantifying estimation errors and linking LFMC to fire behavior/risk. [Abstract] One of the primary variables affecting ignition and spread of wildfire is fuel moisture content (FMC). Live FMC (LFMC) is responsive to long term climate and plant adaptations to drought, requiring remote sensing for monitoring of spatial and ...

 

The Australian flammability monitoring system

  
In Brisbane 2016: annual conference (2016)

Abstract

Live fuel moisture content (LFMC) is one of the primary variables affecting bushfire flammability. We have developed the first Australia-wide flammability monitoring system for operational prediction of LFMC and flammability using satellite data. [Excerpt: Conclusion and future work] [::] We developed the prototype of the first Australia-wide Flammability Monitoring System for operational prediction of LFMC and flammability using satellite observations. [::] LFMC is not the only variable that is related to fire occurrence, and therefore the importance of other factors (e.g. fire weather and ...

 

Increased wind erosion from forest wildfire: implications for contaminant-related risks

  
Journal of Environment Quality, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2 February 2006), pp. 468-478, https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0112

Abstract

Assessments of contaminant-related human and ecological risk require estimation of transport rates, but few data exist on wind-driven transport rates in nonagricultural systems, particularly in response to ecosystem disturbances such as forest wildfire and also relative to water-driven transport. The Cerro Grande wildfire in May of 2000 burned across ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P.&C. Lawson var. scopulorum Englem.) forest within Los Alamos National Laboratory in northern New Mexico, where contaminant transport and associated post-fire inhalation risks are of concern. ...

 

The International Plant Sentinel Network: a tool for regional and national plant protection organizations

  
EPPO Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 1. (April 2016), pp. 156-162, https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12283

Abstract

[Excerpt:Introduction] A 2011 global survey of botanic gardens and arboreta, which included 204 respondents from 146 institutes, revealed that the botanic garden community has the potential to play a significant role in safeguarding plant health. However, responding institutes cited a lack of available training, resources and coordination to support any such work (Kramer & Hird 2011). Since its launch in November 2013, the International Plant Sentinel Network (IPSN) has been working to provide this support and illustrate the usefulness of such a ...

 

A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2016

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 31, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 44-53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.11.007

Abstract

This paper presents the results of our seventh annual horizon scan, in which we aimed to identify issues that could have substantial effects on global biological diversity in the future, but are not currently widely well known or understood within the conservation community. Fifteen issues were identified by a team that included researchers, practitioners, professional horizon scanners, and journalists. The topics include use of managed bees as transporters of biological control agents, artificial superintelligence, electric pulse trawling, testosterone in the aquatic ...

 

Assessing and managing the current and future pest risk from water hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an invasive aquatic plant threatening the environment and water security

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 8. (11 August 2016), e0120054, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120054

Abstract

Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. ...

 

Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9216-9221, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601611113

Abstract

[Significance] Ethnic divides play a major role in many armed conflicts around the world and might serve as predetermined conflict lines following rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. We find evidence in global datasets that risk of armed-conflict outbreak is enhanced by climate-related disaster occurrence in ethnically fractionalized countries. Although we find no indications that environmental disasters directly trigger armed conflicts, our results imply that disasters might act as a threat multiplier in several of the world’s ...

 

The potential predictability of fire danger provided by numerical weather prediction

  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology (5 August 2016), https://doi.org/10.1175/jamc-d-15-0297.1

Abstract

A global fire danger rating system driven by atmospheric model forcing has been developed with the aim of providing early warning information to civil protection authorities. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting ...

 

Estimation of live fuel moisture content from MODIS images for fire risk assessment

  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 148, No. 4. (April 2008), pp. 523-536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.12.005

Abstract

This paper presents a method to estimate fuel moisture content (FMC) of Mediterranean vegetation species from satellite images in the context of fire risk assessment. The relationship between satellite images and field collected FMC data was based on two methodologies: empirical relations and statistical models based on simulated reflectances derived from radiative transfer models (RTM). Both models were applied to the same validation data set to compare their performance. FMC of grassland and shrublands were estimated using a 5-year time series ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 30

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   receptivity   record-to-update-or-delete   red-list   redd   redistributable-scientific-information   reference-manual   reforestation   refugia   regeneration   regional-climate   regional-climate-models   regional-scale   regression   regression-tree-analysis   regulating-services   reinforcement   reinforcement-learning   reinventing-weels   reiteration   relative-distance-similarity   relative-distance-similarity-ancillary   remote-sensing   renewable-energy   renewable-energy-directive   repeatability   repellent-species   replicability   reporting   representative-concentration-pathways   reproducibility   reproducible-research   reproduction   reproductive-effort   resampling   research-funding   research-funding-vs-public-outcome   research-management   research-metrics   research-team-size   reservoir-management   reservoir-services   resilience   resin   resistance   resources-exploitation   respiration   restoration   resurvey-of-semi-permanent   retraction   review   review-publication   review-scopus-european-biodiversity-indicators   revision-control-system   rewarding-best-research-practices   rhamnus-cathartica   rhamnus-catharticus   rhamnus-frangula   rhamnus-saxatilis   rhamnus-spp   rhizophora-apiculata   rhizophora-mangle   rhododendron   rhododendron-arboreum   rhododendron-ferrugineum   rhododendron-periclymenoides   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-spp   rhododendron-viscosum   rhopalicus-tutela   rhus-spp   rhus-typhina   rhyacionia-buoliana   rhyacionia-frustrana   rhyssa-persuasoria   rhytisma   ribes-alpinum   ribes-rubrum   ribes-uva-crispa   ring-analysis   ring-width-chronologies   ringspot-virus   riparian-ecosystem   riparian-forest   riparian-zones   risk-analysis   risk-assessment   risk-reduction   river-flow   river-networks   river-restoration   roads   robert-hooke   robinia-pseudoacacia   robinia-spp   robust-modelling   rockfalls   rodent   romania   root-deterioration  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Killer landslides: the lasting legacy of Nepal's quake

  
Nature, Vol. 532, No. 7600. (25 April 2016), pp. 428-431, https://doi.org/10.1038/532428a

Abstract

A year after a devastating earthquake triggered killer avalanches and rock falls in Nepal, scientists are wiring up mountainsides to forecast hazards. [Excerpt] [...] “It’s a real problem for reconstruction,” says Tara Nidhi Bhattarai, a geologist at Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu and chief scientist of Nepal’s National Reconstruction Authority — an agency established last year to manage the recovery efforts. “What are the safe places to rebuild, in a landscape that is evolving?” [\n] To answer that, geoscientists are wiring up the mountains ...

 

A multicriteria risk analysis to evaluate impacts of forest management alternatives on forest health in Europe

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 17, No. 4. (2012), https://doi.org/10.5751/es-04897-170452

Abstract

Due to climate change, forests are likely to face new hazards, which may require adaptation of our existing silvicultural practices. However, it is difficult to imagine a forest management approach that can simultaneously minimize all risks of damage. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been developed to help decision makers choose between actions that require reaching a compromise among criteria of different weights. We adapted this method and produced a multicriteria risk analysis (MCRA) to compare the risk of damage associated with ...

 

Response to scientific and technical information provided by an NGO on Xylella fastidiosa

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4. (2015), 4082, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4082

Abstract

Following the publication of the Scientific Opinion by EFSA’s PLH Panel which assessed the risk to plant health posed by Xylella fastidiosa in the EU territory and evaluated risk reduction options, EFSA received a request for an urgent response to scientific and technical information provided by an Italian non-governmental organisation (NGO). The NGO claimed that X. fastidiosa is not the cause of olive tree decline in Lecce Province in Southern Italy, but only an endogenous element present in the trees that ...

 

Towards a cross-domain interoperable framework for natural hazards and disaster risk reduction information

  
Natural Hazards (2015), pp. 1-19, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1786-7

Abstract

According to the United Nations’ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, “natural hazards are processes or phenomena that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage”. They are at the interface between human and natural systems. From this perspective, natural hazards are a multidimensional domain including environmental issues, the private and public sector and citizens and governance ranging from local to supranational. The vast amount of ...

 

Landslide hazard assessment: summary review and new perspectives

  
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol. 58, No. 1. (1999), pp. 21-44, https://doi.org/10.1007/s100640050066

Abstract

This paper deals with several aspects of the assessment of hazard and risk of landsliding. In recent years the interest in this topic has increased greatly and there are many technical papers dealing with this subject in the literature. This article presents a summary review and a classification of the main approaches that have been developed world-wide. The first step is the subdivision between qualitative and quantitative methods. The first group is mainly based on the site-specific experience of experts with ...

 

An analysis of pest risk from an Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) to hardwood trees in the European community

  
Crop Protection, Vol. 21, No. 8. (September 2002), pp. 635-645, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-2194(02)00016-9

Abstract

The risk posed by the wood-boring pest, Anoplophora glabripennis, to hardwood tree species in the EC was assessed using an internationally developed pest risk assessment scheme. The assessment reviewed information concerning the current distribution, biology and economic impact of A. glabripennis in Asia and North America together with recent European interceptions. Hosts grow across much of Europe and, using the computer program CLIMEX, southern regions of Europe were highlighted as areas where climate is most suitable for the pest's establishment. There ...

 

Weather in the Canadian forest fire danger rating system. A user guide to national standards and practices

  
No. BC-X-177. (1978)

Abstract

Weather elements affecting the calculation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) are described. How to choose an adequate weather station site for fire danger rating observations, how to expose each weather instrument correctly, and the consequences of errors in weather data on the FWI are outlined. Weather instrument standards of accuracy and required precision in taking fire weather readings are described. Adjustment procedures are provided to users for such things as anemometers exposed in clearings too small to give representative ...

 

Evaluating the effects of changes in landscape structure on soil erosion by water and tillage

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 15, No. 6. (2000), pp. 577-589, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1008198215674

Abstract

Landscape structure, or the spatial organization of different land units, has an impact on erosion and sedimentation on agricultural land. However, current erosion models emphasize the temporal, and less the spatial, variability of relevant parameters so that the effects of changes in landscape structure have hitherto not been studied in detail. Therefore, a spatially distributed water and tillage erosion model that allows the incorporation of landscape structure is presented. The model is applied to three study sites in the Belgian Loam ...

 

Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Xylella fastidiosa in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1. (January 2015), 3989, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.3989

Abstract

[Abstract] The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment and an evaluation of risk reduction options for Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa has been detected in olive in the EU with a distribution restricted to the region of Apulia in Italy and is under official control. X. fastidiosa has a very broad host range, including many common cultivated and wild plants. All xylem fluid-feeding insects in Europe are considered to be potential vectors. Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae), a polyphagous ...

 

Science for Disaster Risk Reduction - JRC thematic report

  

Abstract

This report aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the work of the Commission’s in-house science service, the Joint Research Centre (JRC), in relation to disaster risk reduction and response. The JRC develops tools and methodologies to help in all phases of disaster management, from preparedness and risk assessment to recovery and reconstruction through to forecasting and early warning. ...

 

Estimating the effects of water-induced shallow landslides on soil erosion

  
IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 7, No. 2. (November 2014), 910137, https://doi.org/10.1101/011965

Abstract

Rainfall-induced landslides and soil erosion are part of a complex system of multiple interacting processes, and both are capable of significantly affecting sediment budgets. These sediment mass movements also have the potential to significantly impact on a broad network of ecosystems, in terms of their health, functionality and the services they provide. To support the integrated assessment of these processes it is necessary to develop reliable modelling architectures. This paper proposes a semi-quantitative integrated methodology for a robust assessment of soil ...

References

  1. W.J. van Asch, "Water erosion on slopes and landsliding in a Mediterranean landscape," Ph.D dissertation, Utrecht Univ., 1980
  2. P.H. Van Beek, "Assessment of the Influence of Changes in Landuse and Climate on Landslide Activity in a Mediterranean Environment," Ph.D dissertation, Utrecht Univ., Utrecht, 200
  3. A. Cochrane, and Acharya, G., "Changes in sediment delivery from hillslopes affected by shallow landslides and soil armouring," Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand), vol. 50, no. 1,
 

Critical slowing down as early warning for the onset of collapse in mutualistic communities

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (09 December 2014), pp. 17546-17551, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1406326111

Abstract

[Significance] Little is known on whether structurally diverse ecological networks may respond abruptly to anthropogenic stress and even less on our ability to detect such responses in advance. By simulating mutualistic communities en route to a tipping point, we show how critical slowing-down indicators may be used as early warnings for the collapse of ecological networks. Our findings not only confirm the existence of the generic dynamical signatures of tipping points in ecological networks but also suggest a promising way for identifying ...

 

Dealing with femtorisks in international relations

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (09 December 2014), pp. 17356-17362, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400229111

Abstract

The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential “actors” take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. ...

 

Strong influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on flood risk around the world

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 44. (04 November 2014), pp. 15659-15664, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1409822111

Abstract

[Significance] El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects hydrological processes around the globe. However, little is known about its influence on the socioeconomic impacts of flooding (i.e., flood risk). We present, to our knowledge, the first global assessment of ENSO’s influence on flood risk in terms of economic damage and exposed population and gross domestic product. We show that reliable flood risk anomalies exist during ENSO years in basins spanning almost half of Earth’s surface. These results are significant for flood-risk management. ...

 

Managing the risks of organizational accidents

  
(1997)

Abstract

This is a practical book aimed at those whose daily task it is to think about and manage or regulate the risks of hazardous technologies. The book is not targeted at any one domain, but attempts to identify general tools and principles that are applicable to all organizations facing dangers of one sort or another. This could include banks and building societies just as much as nuclear power plants, oil exploration and production, chemical process plants, and air, sea and rail ...

 

Risk assessment of Gibberella circinata for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 6. (2010), 1620, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1620

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health was asked to provide a risk assessment for Gibberella circinata Nirenberg and O’Donnell, for the EU territory, and to identify and evaluate effectiveness of risk management options in reducing the risk posed by the organism. G. circinata is presently not listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Outbreaks of the organism have been reported in EU (in Spain, Italy, France and Portugal). The risk assessment indicates that, in parts of the European Union, there is risk of pitch ...

 

Evaluation of a pest risk analysis on Thaumetopoea processionea L., the oak processionary moth, prepared by the UK and extension of its scope to the EU territory

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 7, No. 6. (2009), 1195, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1195

Abstract

This opinion, published on 26th August 2009, replaces the previous version published on 29th June 2009 [2]. Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on a pest risk analysis for Thaumetopoea processionea L. prepared by the UK. The Panel was also asked to consider in its opinion the plant health risk of T. processionea to the whole EU territory. The oak processionary moth, Thaumetopoea processionea, is established in Europe and feeds ...

 

Architecture of Environmental Risk Modelling: for a faster and more robust response to natural disasters

  
In 3rd Conference of Computational Interdisciplinary Sciences (2014), pp. 46-57

Abstract

Demands on the disaster response capacity of the European Union are likely to increase, as the impacts of disasters continue to grow both in size and frequency. This has resulted in intensive research on issues concerning spatially-explicit information and modelling and their multiple sources of uncertainty. Geospatial support is one of the forms of assistance frequently required by emergency response centres along with hazard forecast and event management assessment. Robust modelling of natural hazards requires dynamic simulations under an array of ...

Visual summary

 

Transgenic crops: Mexican GM maize rift is not so simple

  
Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7513. (13 August 2014), pp. 136-136, https://doi.org/10.1038/512136c

Abstract

Excerpt] You rightly point out that the issue of genetically modified (GM) maize (corn) is more sensitive and complex in Mexico than in other countries (Nature511, 1617; 201410.1038/511016a), but you owe readers a more in-depth and balanced view. The rift in Mexico's scientific community over GM maize is [...] a result of the commercial push to plant GM maize before the benefits and risks, and the costs to Mexican society, have been fully assessed. The possibility of producing maize that is tolerant to ...

 

Decision Evaluation of Response Strategies in Emergency Management Using Imprecise Assessments

  
Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, Vol. 7, No. 1. (1 January 2010), https://doi.org/10.2202/1547-7355.1646

Abstract

This paper focuses on the decision evaluation of different response strategies in emergency management utilizing decision analysis with imprecise information. A method for the selection of response strategies in emergency management, as well as a model for the representation of catastrophic consequences, are proposed. In emergency management decision problems, the available estimates of probabilities, utilities, costs, and priority weights are often subject to large degrees of uncertainty and imprecision. When uncertainty prevails in the input data and large societal values are ...

 

Reducing the risks posed by natural hazards and climate change: the need for a participatory dialogue between the scientific community and policy makers

  
Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 14, No. 7. (22 November 2011), pp. 730-733, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2010.12.010

Abstract

In the last two decades we witnessed a progressive shift in the approach towards the reduction of the impact of natural hazards. From a general reactive approach, focusing on strengthening disaster response mechanisms, we have moved to proactive approaches. There has been recognition that each element of society, from public institutions to private sector, from community-based organizations to every single individual, can make a difference by acting before disasters strike to reduce the associated risks of human and economic losses. This ...

 

A new approach to risk: the implications of E3

  
Risk Management, Vol. 11, No. 1. (February 2009), pp. 30-43, https://doi.org/10.1057/rm.2008.12

Abstract

The fundamental thesis of this paper is that no matter how much physical science and technology are involved in complex systems, no system is ever purely or solely physical or technical. Certainly no system of which we are aware is purely scientific or technical in its operation or management. Furthermore, while research on and the modeling of complex systems usually rely heavily on the consideration of technological variables and processes, they typically fail to consider the contributions of individual psychological, organizational ...

 

Environmental risk and assessment modelling - Scientific needs and expected advancements

  
In Air, Water and Soil Quality Modelling for Risk and Impact Assessment (2007), pp. 29-44, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5877-6_3

Abstract

Environmental risk and impact assessment and prediction modelling is one of the most important instruments in the environmental security management and preparedness, and it needs further development in the quickly changing world and society. Most of the previous studies in this field considered, as a rule, only separate aspects of the risk and impact assessments. New realities and problems in the environmental security, supercomputer facilities, request a new generation of the assessments and prediction tools for the risk and impact assessments. ...

 

Remote Sensing and GIS for Natural Hazards Assessment and Disaster Risk Management

  
In Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology, Vol. 3 (2013), pp. 259-298, https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-374739-6.00051-8

Abstract

The world has experienced an increasing impact of disasters in the past decades. Many regions are exposed to natural hazards, each with unique characteristics. The main causes for this increase can be attributed to a higher frequency of extreme hydro-meteorological events, most probably related to climate change and an increase in a vulnerable population. To reduce disaster losses, more efforts should be applied toward disaster-risk management, with a focus on hazard assessment, elements-at-risk mapping, and vulnerability and risk assessment, all of ...

 

Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Management Methodologies Review: Europe

  
In Sustainable Cities and Military Installations (2014), pp. 329-358, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7161-1_16
edited by Igor Linkov

Abstract

In the last decade, Europe-wide natural hazards have accounted for large numbers of the most serious causes of mortality; this death toll accompanies several billions of euros in damages. These facts support the need to reduce natural hazard impacts on the European territory in which, by in large, are going to augment in the future primarily due to climatic change and inappropriate land use management. In this context risk assessment and management through appropriate prevention and protection measures play fundamental roles ...

 

Timing of erosion and satellite data: a multi-resolution approach to soil erosion risk mapping

  
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 10, No. 3. (September 2008), pp. 267-281, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2007.10.009

Abstract

Erosion reduces soil productivity and causes negative downstream impacts. Erosion processes occur on areas with erodible soils and sloping terrain when high-intensity rainfall coincides with limited vegetation cover. Timing of erosion events has implications on the selection of satellite imagery, used to describe spatial patterns of protective vegetation cover. This study proposes a method for erosion risk mapping with multi-temporal and multi-resolution satellite data. The specific objectives of the study are: (1) to determine when during the year erosion risk is ...

 

Increasing stress on disaster-risk finance due to large floods

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 4. (2 March 2014), pp. 264-268, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2124

Abstract

Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously1, 2, 3, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms4, 5, 6. So far, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions7, 8 and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales1, 9. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes5 and public adaptation funds10, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts9, ...

 

Rapid Evolutionary Changes in a Globally Invading Fungal Pathogen (Dutch Elm Disease)

  
Biological Invasions In Biological Invasions, Vol. 3, No. 3. (2001), pp. 223-233, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1015248819864

Abstract

Two enormously destructive pandemics of Dutch elm disease occurred in the 20th century, resulting in the death of a majority of mature elms across much of the northern hemisphere. The first pandemic, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi, occurred as this pathogen spread across Europe, North America and Southwest and Central Asia during the 1920s–1940s. The current pandemic is caused by another Ophiostoma species, O. novo-ulmi. Since the 1940s, O. novo-ulmi has been spreading into the regions previously affected by O. ulmi. It ...

 

Risk management in a dynamic society: a modelling problem

  
Safety Science, Vol. 27, No. 2-3. (November 1997), pp. 183-213, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0925-7535(97)00052-0

Abstract

In spite of all efforts to design safer systems, we still witness severe, large-scale accidents. A basic question is: Do we actually have adequate models of accident causation in the present dynamic society? The socio-technical system involved in risk management includes several levels ranging from legislators, over managers and work planners, to system operators. This system is presently stressed by a fast pace of technological change, by an increasingly aggressive, competitive environment, and by changing regulatory practices and public pressure. Traditionally, ...

 

Methodology for risk assessment of flash flood events due to climate and land-use changes: application to the Llobregat basin

  
Journal of Water and Climate Change, Vol. 5, No. 2. (June 2014), 204, https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2014.027

Abstract

Global change, including climate, land-use and socio-economic changes, is expected to increase the stress on the entire water cycle. In the Mediterranean region, extreme events are likely to increase due to climate change. This work, framed in the EC Seventh Framework Programme project IMPRINTS, presents a methodology to obtain future flood risk maps using climate and land-use scenarios, identifying the new potential risk zones. The implementation of this methodology is applied to the Llobregat river basin case study. Two different special ...

 

Environmental risk analysis and management - Quantifying the impacts of erosion

  
No. SS2014-3.1. (2014)

Abstract

Soil erosion is a time dependent natural process that is important for soil formation. When it comes to human activities, these processes are often accelerated and with it, problems occur that need further attention due to its threats to human and environment. Most severe nowadays is the loss of topsoil especially in the Mediterranean region but also the less obvious northern part of Europe has to be considered appropriately. Due to the fact that soil erosion, mostly caused by inappropriate agricultural ...

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