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Selection: with tag review [112 articles] 


Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

Biology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4. (04 April 2018), 20170747,


While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity–forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity using a meta-analysis of 126 case studies established ...


Applied regression and multilevel/hierarchical models



Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models is a comprehensive manual for the applied researcher who wants to perform data analysis using linear and nonlinear regression and multilevel models. The book introduces and demonstrates a wide variety of models, at the same time instructing the reader in how to fit these models using freely available software packages. The book illustrates the concepts by working through scores of real data examples that have arisen in the authors’ own applied research, with programming code provided for each one. Topics ...


Discounting... on stilts

The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 74, No. 1. (2007), pp. 119-138


[Excerpt] Jeremy Bentham famously described the concept of natural rights as “nonsense upon stilts.” This Response argues that cost-benefit analysis (CBA)—a contemporary applied version of Bentham’s utilitarianism for public policy analysis—is also nonsensical in that CBA purports to resolve questions, the answers to which have already been subsumed within the framework’s architecture. In particular, CBA subsumes vital questions of intergenerational equity through its use of an exponential discount factor to adjust future costs and benefits to a present value. This discounting procedure has the practical effect of dramatically diminishing the apparent ...


The limits of cost/benefit analysis when disasters loom

Global Policy, Vol. 7 (May 2016), pp. 56-66,


[Abstract] Advances in estimating the costs and benefits of climate change policies are a welcome development, but a full-scale cost/benefit analysis that seeks to reduce complex value trade-offs to a single metric of net benefit maximization hides many important public policy issues, especially for disasters and catastrophes that are large, discontinuous, irreversible and uncertain. States should obtain public input on such policies. These policies involve value trade-offs that can be informed by technocratic estimates of costs, benefits and risk. However, such analyses ...


The science of value: economic expertise and the valuation of human life in US federal regulatory agencies

Social Studies of Science, Vol. 47, No. 4. (21 March 2017), pp. 441-465,


This article explores efforts to apply economic logic to human life. To do so, it looks at federal regulatory agencies, where government planners and policy makers have spent over a century trying to devise a scientifically sound way to measure the economic value of lives lost or saved by public programs. The methods they have drawn on, however, have changed drastically in the past 40 years, shifting from a ‘human capital’ approach based on models of economic productivity and producing relatively low ...


Deep learning in remote sensing: a review

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 4. (11 Oct 2017), pp. 8-36,


Standing at the paradigm shift towards data-intensive science, machine learning techniques are becoming increasingly important. In particular, as a major breakthrough in the field, deep learning has proven as an extremely powerful tool in many fields. Shall we embrace deep learning as the key to all? Or, should we resist a 'black-box' solution? There are controversial opinions in the remote sensing community. In this article, we analyze the challenges of using deep learning for remote sensing data analysis, review the recent advances, and provide resources to make deep ...


Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  


Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...


  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,

Understanding systems science: a visual and integrative approach

Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 30, No. 5. (September 2013), pp. 580-595,


Systems thinking is considered a much-needed competence to deal better with an increasingly interlinked and complex world. The many streams within systems science have diversified perspectives, theories and methods, but have also complicated the field as a whole. This makes it difficult to understand and master the field. Short introductions to fundamental questions of systems science are rare. This paper is divided into three parts and aims to do the following: (1) to provide a broad overview of the structure and ...


Plant health surveys for the EU territory: an analysis of data quality and methodologies and the resulting uncertainties for pest risk assessment (PERSEUS) CFP/EFSA/PLH/2010/01

EFSA Supporting Publications, Vol. 11, No. 10. (October 2014), 676E,


Plant health surveys are used to control the introduction, establishment and spread of economically injurious organisms within the EU and requirements are set out in statutory obligations. However, the methodologies used to conduct the surveys are not defined and therefore the quality of survey data is seen as a significant potential source of uncertainty. The project has examined ...


Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: a review of approaches, methods and systems

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 1. (2013), 51,


Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software prediction systems use a generalised description of fuels to simplify data collection and entry into various computer programs. There are several major fuel description systems currently ...


Reducing meat consumption in developed and transition countries to counter climate change and biodiversity loss: a review of influence factors

Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 17, No. 5. (2017), pp. 1261-1277,


A dietary shift towards reduced meat consumption is an efficient strategy for countering biodiversity loss and climate change in regions (developed and transition countries) where consumption is already at a very high level or is rapidly expanding (such as China). Biodiversity is being degraded and lost to a considerable extent, with 70 % of the world’s deforestation a result of stripping in order to grow animal feed. Furthermore, about 14.5 % of the world’s anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated ...


A concise review on the role of author self-citations in information science, bibliometrics and science policy

Scientometrics, Vol. 67, No. 2. (2006), pp. 263-277,


The objective of the present study is twofold: (1) to show the aims and means of quantitative interpretation of bibliographic features in bibliometrics and their re-interpretation in research policy, and (2) to summarise the state-of-art in self-citation research. The authors describe three approaches to the role of author self-citations and possible conflicts arising from the different perspectives. From the bibliometric viewpoint we can conclude that that there is no reason for condemning self-citations in general or for removing them from macro ...


Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 69 (April 2013), pp. 94-108,


[Highlights] [::] Receptor models evolve towards tools with refined uncertainty treatment. [::] Positive Matrix Factorization and Chemical Mass Balance are the most used models. [::] Gas-to-particle conversion is the main PM mass and particulate organic carbon source. [::] To abate exceedances, secondary inorganic and traffic are the main sources to target. [::] More long term speciated PM datasets would foster source identification studies. [Abstract] A review was conducted of the published literature on source apportionment of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Europe using receptor ...


A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54,


[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...


Management of risks in natural disasters: a systematic review of the literature on NATECH events

Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 44 (November 2016), pp. 347-359,


NATECH events have produced great impacts in different parts of the world, and have become a matter of great relevance to modern society. Although the probability of such events occurring is low, they have major impacts and a high level of complexity in terms of risk management, because they are the result of cascading events. In this article, a systematic review of the literature on NATECH events is conducted which presents analysis based on a survey of the specific articles on ...



Revista Montes, Vol. 125 (2016), pp. 76-77


[Excerpt] [:Libro blanco del sector de aviones contra incendios forestales] [::Autores] Carles Algué y Aitor Martín [\n] [...] España cuenta con uno de los mejores sistemas de extinción de incendios forestales del mundo, en el que los medios aéreos constituyen un pilar clave. Los aviones anti-incendios operados por empresas privadas cada verano en España representan más de un tercio de la capacidad total de lanzamiento de agua disponible, aunque sólo la décima parte del presupuesto total anual destinado a medios aéreos. [...] [:Flora literaria del ...


Climate change impacts and adaptation in forest management: a review

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 72, No. 2. (2015), pp. 145-167,


[Key message] Adaptation of forest management to climate change requires an understanding of the effects of climate on forests, industries and communities; prediction of how these effects might change over time; and incorporation of this knowledge into management decisions. This requires multiple forms of knowledge and new approaches to forest management decisions. Partnerships that integrate researchers from multiple disciplines with forest managers and local actors can build a shared understanding of future challenges and facilitate improved decision making in the face of ...


Current methods to assess fire danger potential

In Wildland Fire Danger Estimation and Mapping, Vol. 4 (1 September 2003), pp. 21-61,


Abstract A review of the main operational systems for fire risk/danger rating is presented in this chapter. The systems included in the revision are a European proposal based on the Fire Potential Index and a structural risk index, the US National Fire Danger Rating System, the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, the Australian and the New Zealand systems. The basis and different components of these danger rating methods are presented and commented. ...


Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 8, No. 2. (01 April 2015), pp. 126-134,


Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham), respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence of infected trees. During ...


Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 26, No. 13. (15 November 2006), pp. 1741-1757,


The summer of 2003 was characterised by exceptional warm weather in Europe, particularly during the first two weeks of August, when a devastating sequence of large fires was observed, reaching an amount of circa 450 000 ha, the largest figure ever recorded in Portugal in modern times. They were concentrated in two relatively confined regions of Portugal and a considerable proportion of burnt area was due to fires started on the 2nd and 3rd of August. [\n] It is shown that the ...


A review of the European summer heat wave of 2003

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 4. (9 March 2010), pp. 267-306,


This paper reviews the European summer heat wave of 2003, with special emphasis on the first half of August 2003, jointly with its significant societal and environmental impact across Western and Central Europe. We show the pattern of record-breaking temperature anomalies, discuss it in the context of the past, and address the role of the main contributing factors responsible for the occurrence and persistence of this event: blocking episodes, soil moisture deficit, and sea surface temperatures. We show that the anticyclonic ...


Review of the main developments in the analytic hierarchy process

Expert Systems with Applications (May 2011),


[Abstract] In this paper the authors review the developments of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) since its inception. The focus of this paper is a neutral review on the methodological developments rather than reporting its applications that have appeared since its introduction. In particular, we discuss problem modelling, pair-wise comparisons, judgement scales, derivation methods, consistency indices, incomplete matrix, synthesis of the weights, sensitivity analysis and group decisions. All have been important areas of research in AHP. [Highlights] [::] Methodological developments of the analytic hierarchy ...


Fire behaviour knowledge in Australia: a synthesis of disciplinary and stakeholder knowledge on fire spread prediction capability and application



[Executive summary] This project undertook a survey of the fire behaviour knowledge currently used by operational fire behaviour analysts (FBANs) in Australia and New Zealand for the purpose of predicting the behaviour and spread of bushfires. This included a review of the science, applicability and validation of current fire behaviour models, an examination of the fire perimeter propagation software currently being used by FBANs, and a survey of those FBANs to determine current work practices when carrying out fire behaviour predictions. ...


A global review of remote sensing of live fuel moisture content for fire danger assessment: moving towards operational products

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 136 (September 2013), pp. 455-468,


[Highlights] [::] We review satellite LFMC products and their operational use for fire assessment. [::] The literature is dominated by statistical and physical model-based methods. [::] Statistical methods are site-specific. [::] The parameterization of physical models is complex. [::] Challenges: quantifying estimation errors and linking LFMC to fire behavior/risk. [Abstract] One of the primary variables affecting ignition and spread of wildfire is fuel moisture content (FMC). Live FMC (LFMC) is responsive to long term climate and plant adaptations to drought, requiring remote sensing for monitoring of spatial and ...


Visions of sustainability in bioeconomy research

Sustainability, Vol. 6, No. 3. (06 March 2014), pp. 1222-1249,


The rise of the bioeconomy is usually associated with increased sustainability. However, various controversies suggest doubts about this assumed relationship. The objective of this paper is to identify different visions and the current understanding of the relationship between the bioeconomy and sustainability in the scientific literature by means of a systematic review. After a search in several databases, 87 scientific journal articles were selected for review. Results show that visions about the relationship between bioeconomy and sustainability differ substantially. Four different ...


A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2016

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 31, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 44-53,


This paper presents the results of our seventh annual horizon scan, in which we aimed to identify issues that could have substantial effects on global biological diversity in the future, but are not currently widely well known or understood within the conservation community. Fifteen issues were identified by a team that included researchers, practitioners, professional horizon scanners, and journalists. The topics include use of managed bees as transporters of biological control agents, artificial superintelligence, electric pulse trawling, testosterone in the aquatic ...


Update of a database of host plants of Xylella fastidiosa: 20 November 2015

EFSA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2. (1 February 2016), pp. n/a-n/a,


Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was tasked to periodically update its database of host plants of Xylella fastidiosa which was published in April 2015. An extensive literature search approach was used for updating the database in order to catch all new scientific developments published on the topic. Furthermore, the outputs of investigations conducted on host plants affected by X. fastidiosa in the Italian and French outbreaks were included. Literature screening and data extraction were performed using the Distiller ...


The SmartH2O project and the role of social computing in promoting efficient residential water use: a first analysis

In Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA (2014)


SmartH2O is an EU funded project which aims at creating a virtuous feedback cycle between water users and the utilities, providing users information on their consumption in quasi real time, and thus enabling water utilities to plan and implement strategies to reduce/reallocate water consumption. Traditional metering data, usually gathered twice a year, can be used to model consumers’ behaviour at an aggregate level, but the motivations and individual attitudes of consumers are hidden. The advent of smart water meters allows gathering high frequency consumption data that ...


Site-based and remote sensing methods for monitoring indicators of vegetation condition: an Australian review

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 60 (January 2016), pp. 1273-1283,


We review attributes and methods of vegetation condition monitoring within Australia. Site-based and remote sensing approaches both offer important information about vegetation condition. Integration of the two approaches opens up new avenues for monitoring vegetation condition across a range of scales. Consequently we recommend a number of key areas for future research in order to improve vegetation condition assessment for the purposes of evidence-based decision making. Native vegetation around the world is under threat from historical and ongoing clearance, overgrazing, invasive ...


Seven shortfalls that beset large-scale knowledge of biodiversity

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 46, No. 1. (2015), pp. 523-549,


Ecologists and evolutionary biologists are increasingly using big-data approaches to tackle questions at large spatial, taxonomic, and temporal scales. However, despite recent efforts to gather two centuries of biodiversity inventories into comprehensive databases, many crucial research questions remain unanswered. Here, we update the concept of knowledge shortfalls and review the tradeoffs between generality and uncertainty. We present seven key shortfalls of current biodiversity data. Four previously proposed shortfalls pinpoint knowledge gaps for species taxonomy (Linnean), distribution (Wallacean), abundance (Prestonian), and evolutionary ...


An overview of 21 global and 43 regional land-cover mapping products

International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 36, No. 21. (2 November 2015), pp. 5309-5335,


Land-cover (LC) products, especially at the regional and global scales, comprise essential data for a wide range of environmental studies affecting biodiversity, climate, and human health. This review builds on previous compartmentalized efforts by summarizing 23 global and 41 regional LC products. Characteristics related to spatial resolution, overall accuracy, time of data acquisition, sensor used, classification scheme and method, support for LC change detection, download location, and key corresponding references are provided. Operational limitations and uncertainties are discussed, mostly as a ...


A review of drought concepts

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 391, No. 1-2. (September 2010), pp. 202-216,


Owing to the rise in water demand and looming climate change, recent years have witnessed much focus on global drought scenarios. As a natural hazard, drought is best characterized by multiple climatological and hydrological parameters. An understanding of the relationships between these two sets of parameters is necessary to develop measures for mitigating the impacts of droughts. Beginning with a discussion of drought definitions, this paper attempts to provide a review of fundamental concepts of drought, classification of droughts, drought indices, ...


Drought under global warming: a review

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 45-65,


This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 to 2008. Projected future aridity is presented based on recent studies and our analysis of model simulations. Dry periods lasting for years to decades have occurred many times during the last millennium over, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs), with La Niña-like SST anomalies leading ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 34

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   record-to-update-or-delete   recreation   red-list   redd   redistributable-scientific-information   reference-manual   reforestation   refugia   regeneration   regime-shift   regional-climate   regional-climate-models   regional-scale   regression   regression-tree-analysis   regulating-services   reinforcement   reinforcement-learning   reinventing-weels   reiteration   relative-distance-similarity   relative-distance-similarity-ancillary   remote-sensing   renewable-energy   renewable-energy-directive   repeatability   repellent-species   replicability   reporting   representative-concentration-pathways   reproducibility   reproducible-research   reproduction   reproductive-effort   reptiles   resampling   research-funding   research-funding-vs-public-outcome   research-management   research-metrics   research-team-size   reservoir-management   reservoir-services   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   resilience-vs-risk-management   resin   resistance   resources-exploitation   respiration   restoration   resurvey-of-semi-permanent   retraction   review   review-publication   review-scopus-european-biodiversity-indicators   revision-control-system   rewarding-best-research-practices   rhamnus-cathartica   rhamnus-catharticus   rhamnus-frangula   rhamnus-imeretina   rhamnus-saxatilis   rhamnus-spp   rhizophagus-grandis   rhizophora-apiculata   rhizophora-mangle   rhododendron-arboreum   rhododendron-caucasicum   rhododendron-ferrugineum   rhododendron-periclymenoides   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-smirnowii   rhododendron-spp   rhododendron-ungernii   rhododendron-viscosum   rhopalicus-tutela   rhus-spp   rhus-typhina   rhyacionia-bouliana   rhyacionia-buoliana   rhyacionia-frustrana   rhynchophorus-ferrugineus   rhyssa-persuasoria   rhytisma   ribes-alpinum   ribes-rubrum   ribes-uva-crispa   rice   ring-analysis   ring-width-chronologies   ringspot-virus   riparian-ecosystem   riparian-forest   riparian-zones   risk-analysis   risk-assessment   risk-management   risk-reduction  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


The use of system dynamics simulation in water resources management

Water Resources Management In Water Resources Management, Vol. 23, No. 7. (1 May 2009), pp. 1301-1323,


In this paper we discuss the use of system dynamics as a methodology with which to address dynamically complex problems in water resources management. Problems in regional planning and river basin management, urban water management, flooding and irrigation exhibit important short-term and long-term effects, and are often contentious issues with high potential for conflict. We argue that system dynamics combined with stakeholder involvement provides an appropriate methodology to address these issues effectively. We trace the theoretical and practical evolution of system ...


Hidden killers: human fungal infections

Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 165. (2012), pp. 165rv13-165rv13,
Keywords: fungi   human-health   review  


Although fungal infections contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality, the impact of these diseases on human health is not widely appreciated. Moreover, despite the urgent need for efficient diagnostic tests and safe and effective new drugs and vaccines, research into the pathophysiology of human fungal infections lags behind that of diseases caused by other pathogens. In this Review, we highlight the importance of fungi as human pathogens and discuss the challenges we face in combating the devastating invasive infections caused ...


Humanity's unsustainable environmental footprint

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6188. (2014), pp. 1114-1117,


Within the context of Earth’s limited natural resources and assimilation capacity, the current environmental footprint of humankind is not sustainable. Assessing land, water, energy, material, and other footprints along supply chains is paramount in understanding the sustainability, efficiency, and equity of resource use from the perspective of producers, consumers, and government. We review current footprints and relate those to maximum sustainable levels, highlighting the need for future work on combining footprints, assessing trade-offs between them, improving computational techniques, estimating maximum sustainable ...


A quantitative review of relationships between ecosystem services

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 66 (July 2016), pp. 340-351,


[Highlights] [::] Relationships between ecosystem services (ES) were analyzed across case studies. [::] For many pairs of ES a dominant relationship was identified. [::] These relationships were not significantly moderated by scale or by land system. [::] Methods used to identify the relationship influenced the result. [::] Descriptive methods showed a higher probability to identify trade-off relationships. [Abstract] Ecosystems provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) to society. Ignoring the multi-functionality of land systems in natural resource management generates potential trade-offs with respect to the provisioning of ES. Understanding relationships ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Biodiversity impacts of bioenergy crop production: a state-of-the-art review

GCB Bioenergy, Vol. 6, No. 3. (1 May 2014), pp. 183-209,


The use of biomass as feedstock for energy is often associated with increased claims on land, competition with food production and impacts on other ecosystem services. Studies on sustainability aspects of bioenergy production often indicate biodiversity as a key concern. This article presents a first comprehensive review of published impacts of bioenergy crop production on biodiversity, evaluates the drivers and pressures of biodiversity change and summarizes current trends and impacts. The review provides insight into the types of biodiversity indicators applied ...


Tolerance to shade, drought, and waterlogging of temperate northern hemisphere trees and shrubs

Ecological Monographs, Vol. 76, No. 4. (November 2006), pp. 521-547,[0521:ttsdaw];2


Lack of information on ecological characteristics of species across different continents hinders development of general world-scale quantitative vegetation dynamic models. We constructed common scales of shade, drought, and waterlogging tolerance for 806 North American, European/West Asian, and East Asian temperate shrubs and trees representing about 40% of the extant natural Northern Hemisphere species pool. These scales were used to test the hypotheses that shade tolerance is negatively related to drought and waterlogging tolerances, and that these correlations vary among continents and ...


Leaching of nitrate from temperate forests effects of air pollution and forest management

Environmental Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 1. (1 March 2006), pp. 1-57,


We compiled regional and continental data on inorganic nitrogen (N) in seepage and surface water from temperate forests. Currently, N concentrations in forest waters are usually well below water quality standards. But elevated concentrations are frequently found in regions with chronic N input from deposition (>8?10?kg?ha?1 a?1). We synthesized the current understanding of factors controlling N leaching in relation to three primary causes of N cycle disruption: (i) Increased N input (air pollution, fertilization, N2 fixing plants). In European forests, elevated ...


Planted forests and water in perspective

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 251, No. 1-2. (October 2007), pp. 1-9,


Afforestation is increasingly considered as a land use activity that threatens water resources security. At the same time, it is advocated for a wide range of other water-related benefits. We review the contributions to this special issue and the wider literature, intended as a contribution towards a framework for predicting the impact on water resources and other water-related issues of afforestation in agricultural landscapes. Current evidence suggests that afforestation will typically reduce local average water yield as well as low flows. ...


Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe

Conservation Biology, Vol. 24, No. 1. (February 2010), pp. 101-112,


Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use), however, have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 published papers containing 120 individual comparisons of species ...


The role of European forests in the global carbon cycle - A review

Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 13, No. 6. (January 1997), pp. 345-358,


The first part of this paper presents an overview of national forest carbon balance studies that have been carried out in Europe. Based on these national assessments, an estimate is made of the present role of European forests in the global carbon cycle. Differences in the methodologies applied are discussed. At present, 15 European countries have assessed a national forest and/or forest sector carbon balance. Together, these studies cover 104 million ha and present the average situation in the mid-1980s. Most ...


Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores

Global Change Biology, Vol. 8, No. 1. (1 January 2002), pp. 1-16,
Keywords: climate-change   herbivory   insects   review   warming  


This review examines the direct effects of climate change on insect herbivores. Temperature is identified as the dominant abiotic factor directly affecting herbivorous insects. There is little evidence of any direct effects of CO2 or UVB. Direct impacts of precipitation have been largely neglected in current research on climate change. Temperature directly affects development, survival, range and abundance. Species with a large geographical range will tend to be less affected. The main effect of temperature in temperate regions is to influence ...


Suitability of North American tree species to gypsy moth: a summary of field and laboratory tests

No. NE-211. (1995)


As the gypsy moth expands its range into new portions of the United States, there is a need to predict which tree species will be attacked by this defoliating insect. There have been several studies describing feeding preferences of the gypsy moth, but these results have not been summarized in a single list. We report and summarize all of the major tests of foliage suitability to gypsy moth for tree species that are found in the United States. Foliage suitability to ...


The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion control with a focus on root system architecture: a review

Trees In Trees, Vol. 21, No. 4. (July 2007), pp. 385-402,
Keywords: review   roots   slope-stability   soil-erosion  

Palaeobiogeography of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco in the north-western Mediterranean Basin: A review based on macroremains

Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Vol. 194 (July 2013), pp. 1-11,

Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 3, No. 1. (15 April 2007), 17,


This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. ...

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