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Selection: with tag resilience [49 articles] 

 

Natural climate solutions

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (16 October 2017), 201710465, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710465114

Abstract

[Significance] Most nations recently agreed to hold global average temperature rise to well below 2 °C. We examine how much climate mitigation nature can contribute to this goal with a comprehensive analysis of “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and/or improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We show that NCS can provide over one-third of the cost-effective climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize ...

 

Scaling up the diversity-resilience relationship with trait databases and remote sensing data: the recovery of productivity after wildfire

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2016), pp. 1421-1432, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13174

Abstract

Understanding the mechanisms underlying ecosystem resilience – why some systems have an irreversible response to disturbances while others recover – is critical for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function in the face of global change. Despite the widespread acceptance of a positive relationship between biodiversity and resilience, empirical evidence for this relationship remains fairly limited in scope and localized in scale. Assessing resilience at the large landscape and regional scales most relevant to land management and conservation practices has been limited by ...

 

Ecological stability of mixed-species forests

  
In Mixed-Species Forests (2017), pp. 337-382, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54553-9_7

Abstract

In many parts of the world, forests are likely to face novel disturbance regimes as a result of global change processes, and there is concern that the capacity of forest ecosystems to withstand, recover from, or adapt to these novel disturbance regimes may decline. Creation and maintenance of species-diverse forests is seen as an important option to adapt forests to uncertain future disturbances. However, it is not known whether benefits of mixed-species forests consist mainly of risk spreading among tree species ...

 

Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

  
Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale, Vol. 14, No. 4. (31 August 2017), pp. 202-205, https://doi.org/10.3832/efor2537-014

Abstract

Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, ...

 

Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 197, No. 1. (January 2013), pp. 19-35, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12001

Abstract

[Summary] Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ...

 

Resistance and resilience to changing climate and fire regime depend on plant functional traits

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 102, No. 6. (November 2014), pp. 1572-1581, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12306

Abstract

[Summary] [::] Changing disturbance–climate interactions will drive shifts in plant communities: these effects are not adequately quantified by environmental niche models used to predict future species distributions. We quantified the effects of more frequent fire and lower rainfall – as projected to occur under a warming and drying climate – on population responses of shrub species in biodiverse Mediterranean-climate type shrublands near Eneabba, southwestern Australia. [::] Using experimental fires, we measured the density of all shrub species for four dominant plant functional groups ...

 

Little evidence for fire-adapted plant traits in Mediterranean climate regions

  
Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 2. (20 February 2011), pp. 69-76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2010.10.007

Abstract

As climate change increases vegetation combustibility, humans are impacted by wildfires through loss of lives and property, leading to an increased emphasis on prescribed burning practices to reduce hazards. A key and pervading concept accepted by most environmental managers is that combustible ecosystems have traditionally burnt because plants are fire adapted. In this opinion article, we explore the concept of plant traits adapted to fire in Mediterranean climates. In the light of major threats to biodiversity conservation, we recommend caution in ...

 

Recurrent wildfires constrain long-term reproduction ability in Pinus halepensis Mill.

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 17, No. 5. (2008), 579, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf07078

Abstract

Increasing fire recurrence is a major problem threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Moreover, this pattern is predicted to increase owing to global change. Although a reduction in the density and growth of post-fire regeneration is usually observed in recurrently burnt areas, the potential effects on reproductive ability have seldom been explored. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether structural changes induced by fire recurrence may constrain reproduction ability of Pinus halepensis forests. We conducted the current study in Catalonia (NE ...

 

Behavioral self-organization underlies the resilience of a coastal ecosystem

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 8035-8040, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619203114

Abstract

[Significance] Theoretical models suggest that spatial self-organization enhances the resistance of ecosystems to disturbance. However, experiments investigating this important prediction are lacking. Our paper provides clear experimental evidence that spatial self-organization profoundly increases the ability of ecosystems to persist in the face of disturbance. The mechanisms underlying this positive impact of self-organization are driven by the combination of ecological and behavioral processes. Specifically, large-scale banded patterns in mussel beds created by ecological feedback processes facilitate fast behavioral aggregation of individual mussels into ...

 

Regular patterns link individual behavior to population persistence

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 7747-7749, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1709063114

Abstract

[Excerpt] Resisting and recovering from disturbances is a necessity for most species. The strategy is sometimes collective, depending on the aggregation of interacting individuals into regular patterns. However, relating patterns of abundance across scales to both individual behavior and population persistence remains a major challenge for ecology. Such patterns are found in many ecosystems, ranging from microbes to forests, with their regularity taking the form of evenly sized and spaced bands and patches of aggregated individuals. Regular patterns are said to ...

 

Effects of network modularity on the spread of perturbation impact in experimental metapopulations

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6347. (14 July 2017), pp. 199-201, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal4122

Abstract

[Modularity limits disturbance effects] The networks that form natural, social, and technological systems are vulnerable to the spreading impacts of perturbations. Theory predicts that networks with a clustered or modular structure—where nodes within a module interact more frequently than they do with nodes in other modules—might contain a perturbation, preventing it from spreading to the entire network. Gilarranz et al. conducted experiments with networked populations of springtail (Folsomia candida) microarthropods to show that modularity limits the impact of a local extinction on ...

 

At the nexus of fire, water and society

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0172

Abstract

The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...

 

Stressing mental health

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), pp. 878-878, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.356.6340.878

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Stress is an ingrained and unavoidable aspect of scientific practice. In some unfortunate cases, lab culture can make it worse. In many others, however, it is simply the nature of research. Deadlines, tight funding, and the pressure to “publish or perish” all create chronic stress. There is no avoiding these issues. [...] Personally, I realized that self-imposed deadlines and goals created much of the stress I was feeling, and that tempering my expectations was an easy way to reduce ...

 

Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change

  
Global Change Biology (March 2017), https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13679

Abstract

As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different ...

 

Managing alpine forests in a changing climate

  
In Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks (28 August 2013), pp. 369-383, https://doi.org/10.5772/56272
edited by Gillian Cerbu

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] There is mounting evidence that Alpine forest ecosystems will not be able to fully absorb the changes in site factors associated with climate change, such as higher temperatures, more intensive drought stress and associated biotic impacts since these changes exceed the adaptive capacity of the trees. The projected changes in temperature by 2.2 to 5.1 K from 1980 to 1999 to 2080 to 2099, for the A1B scenario in southern Europe [1], correspond to an altitudinal shift of 300 to ...

Visual summary

 

Forest resilience and tipping points at different spatio-temporal scales: approaches and challenges

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 5-15, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12337

Abstract

[::] Anthropogenic global change compromises forest resilience, with profound impacts to ecosystem functions and services. This synthesis paper reflects on the current understanding of forest resilience and potential tipping points under environmental change and explores challenges to assessing responses using experiments, observations and models. [::] Forests are changing over a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, but it is often unclear whether these changes reduce resilience or represent a tipping point. Tipping points may arise from interactions across scales, as processes such as ...

 

Resilience as a universal criterion of health

  
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 95, No. 3. (1 February 2015), pp. 455-465, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6539

Abstract

To promote and maintain health in agricultural and food systems, appropriate criteria are needed for the description and assessment of the health of soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems. Here we identify the concept of resilience as a universally applicable and fundamentally important criterion of health in all relevant areas of agriculture. We discuss definitions of resilience for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems, and explore ways in which resilience can be applied as a criterion of health in different agricultural ...

 

Keep it complex

  
Nature, Vol. 468, No. 7327. (23 December 2010), pp. 1029-1031, https://doi.org/10.1038/4681029a

Abstract

When knowledge is uncertain, experts should avoid pressures to simplify their advice. Render decision-makers accountable for decisions, says Andy Stirling. ...

 

Stakeholder participation in building resilience to disasters in a changing climate

  
Environmental Hazards, Vol. 15, No. 1. (2 January 2016), pp. 58-73, https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2015.1134427

Abstract

The resilience perspective has emerged as a plausible approach to confront the increasingly devastating impacts of disasters; and the challenges and uncertainty climate change poses through an expected rise in frequency and magnitude of hazards. Stakeholder participation is posited as pivotal for building resilience, and resilience is not passive; rather, stakeholders are actively involved in the process of building resilience. Who is involved and how they are involved are crucial aspects for developing resilience in practice. Nevertheless, there are few empirical ...

 

Forest value: more than commercial - Response

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6319. (23 December 2016), pp. 1541-1542, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal2612

Abstract

[Excerpt] Paul and Knoke address the commercial value and profitability of forest biodiversity, which differs fundamentally from the economic value that we outlined in our Research Article. [...] Our estimates pertain to the sole contribution of tree species diversity, as it exists today, to global forest productivity, from which the economic value accrues. Our analysis—which includes nonmarket values not commonly captured in commercial forestry but excludes the contribution of forest biodiversity to carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, and aesthetic and cultural values—reflects ...

 

Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece

  
Environmental Management In Environmental Management, Vol. 47, No. 3. (4 February 2011), pp. 384-397, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9614-7

Abstract

Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system’s post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are ...

 

System crash as dynamics of complex networks

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11726-11731, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612094113

Abstract

[Significance] System crash, as an essential part of system evolution, sometimes happens in peculiar manners: Weakened systems may survive for a surprisingly long time before suddenly meeting their final ends, whereas seemingly unbeatable giants may drastically crash to virtual nonexistence. We propose a model that describes system crash as a consequence of some relatively simple local information-based individual behaviors: Individuals leave networks according to some most straightforward assessment of current and future benefits/risks. Of note, such a simple rule may enable a ...

 

Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 11. (15 March 2016), pp. 2982-2987, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518798113

Abstract

[Significance] The remarkable ecological success of the human species has been attributed to our capacity to overcome environmental challenges through the development of complex technologies. Complex technologies are typically beyond the inventive capacities of individuals and result from a population process by which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present an experiment demonstrating that partially connected groups ...

 

Human-caused climate change is now a key driver of forest fire activity in the western United States

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (10 October 2016), 201612926, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612926113

Abstract

[Excerpt] Effects of climate warming on natural and human systems are becoming increasingly visible across the globe. For example, the shattering of past yearly records for global high temperatures seems to be a near-annual event, with the five hottest years since 1880 all occurring since 2005. Not coincidentally, the single hottest year on record, 2015, also broke records for area burned by wildfire in the United States [...], eclipsing the previous high mark set just one decade prior. Scientists have known ...

 

Risk and resilience lessons from Venice

  
Environment Systems and Decisions, Vol. 34, No. 3. (2014), pp. 378-382, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-014-9511-8

Abstract

In the history of disasters in Venice, there are implications for modern times in terms of complex systems management and emerging threats, in particular from examples of risk management and resilience achieved by the Venetian state during outbreaks of the plague. In fourteenth century Venice, risk assessment the way we practice it today would fail to provide meaningful recommendations to reduce the casualty rate of the plague epidemic because the cause and transmission of the disease was not understood. Instead, a ...

 

Changing the resilience paradigm

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 6. (28 May 2014), pp. 407-409, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2227

Abstract

Resilience management goes beyond risk management to address the complexities of large integrated systems and the uncertainty of future threats, especially those associated with climate change. [Excerpt] In summary, risk analysis and risk management based on probabilistic quantitative methods have been widely adopted and have been useful for dealing with foreseeable and calculable stress situations. Benchmarks and thresholds for risk analysis are built into the regulations and policies of organizations and nations; however, this approach is no longer sufficient to address the ...

 

The sixth mass coextinction: are most endangered species parasites and mutualists?

  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 276, No. 1670. (07 September 2009), pp. 3037-3045, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.0413

Abstract

The effects of species declines and extinction on biotic interactions remain poorly understood. The loss of a species is expected to result in the loss of other species that depend on it (coextinction), leading to cascading effects across trophic levels. Such effects are likely to be most severe in mutualistic and parasitic interactions. Indeed, models suggest that coextinction may be the most common form of biodiversity loss. Paradoxically, few historical or contemporary coextinction events have actually been recorded. We review the ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 30

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   receptivity   record-to-update-or-delete   red-list   redd   redistributable-scientific-information   reference-manual   reforestation   refugia   regeneration   regional-climate   regional-climate-models   regional-scale   regression   regression-tree-analysis   regulating-services   reinforcement   reinforcement-learning   reinventing-weels   reiteration   relative-distance-similarity   relative-distance-similarity-ancillary   remote-sensing   renewable-energy   renewable-energy-directive   repeatability   repellent-species   replicability   reporting   representative-concentration-pathways   reproducibility   reproducible-research   reproduction   reproductive-effort   resampling   research-funding   research-funding-vs-public-outcome   research-management   research-metrics   research-team-size   reservoir-management   reservoir-services   resilience   resin   resistance   resources-exploitation   respiration   restoration   resurvey-of-semi-permanent   retraction   review   review-publication   review-scopus-european-biodiversity-indicators   revision-control-system   rewarding-best-research-practices   rhamnus-cathartica   rhamnus-catharticus   rhamnus-frangula   rhamnus-saxatilis   rhamnus-spp   rhizophora-apiculata   rhizophora-mangle   rhododendron   rhododendron-arboreum   rhododendron-ferrugineum   rhododendron-periclymenoides   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-spp   rhododendron-viscosum   rhopalicus-tutela   rhus-spp   rhus-typhina   rhyacionia-buoliana   rhyacionia-frustrana   rhyssa-persuasoria   rhytisma   ribes-alpinum   ribes-rubrum   ribes-uva-crispa   ring-analysis   ring-width-chronologies   ringspot-virus   riparian-ecosystem   riparian-forest   riparian-zones   risk-analysis   risk-assessment   risk-reduction   river-flow   river-networks   river-restoration   roads   robert-hooke   robinia-pseudoacacia   robinia-spp   robust-modelling   rockfalls   rodent   romania   root-deterioration  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Climate change impacts on global food security

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6145. (2013), pp. 508-513, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402

Abstract

Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable ...

 

Domesticated nature: shaping landscapes and ecosystems for human welfare

  
Science, Vol. 316, No. 5833. (2007), pp. 1866-1869, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1140170

Abstract

Like all species, humans have exercised their impulse to perpetuate and propagate themselves. In doing so, we have domesticated landscapes and ecosystems in ways that enhance our food supplies, reduce exposure to predators and natural dangers, and promote commerce. On average, the net benefits to humankind of domesticated nature have been positive. We have, of course, made mistakes, causing unforeseen changes in ecosystem attributes, while leaving few, if any, truly wild places on Earth. Going into the future, scientists can help ...

 

Deep uncertainty

  
In Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science (2013), pp. 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1153-7_1140

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The notion of uncertainty has taken different meanings and emphases in various fields, including the physical sciences, engineering, statistics, economics, finance, insurance, philosophy, and psychology. Analyzing the notion in each discipline can provide a specific historical context and scope in terms of problem domain, relevant theory, methods, and tools for handling uncertainty. Such analyses are given by Agusdinata (2008), van Asselt (2000), Morgan and Henrion (1990), and Smithson (1989). [\n] In general, uncertainty can be defined as limited knowledge about ...

Visual summary

 

Resilience and reactivity of global food security

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 22. (02 June 2015), pp. 6902-6907, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1507366112

Abstract

[Significance] The past few decades have seen an intensification of international food trade and the increase in the number of countries that depend on food imports. As an effect of the associated globalization of food, local shocks in food production, combined with the adoption of new national or regional energy and trade policies, have recently led to global food crises. Here we develop a framework to investigate the coupled global food–population dynamics, and evaluate the effect of international trade on global food ...

 

Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (1 March 2015), pp. 281-295, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12354

Abstract

[Summary] [::] The resilience, diversity and stability of mountain ecosystems are threatened by climatic as well as land-use changes, but the combined effects of these drivers are only poorly understood. [::] We combine two high-resolution sediment records from Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) and Lauenensee (1382 m a.s.l.) at different elevations in the Northern Swiss Alps to provide a detailed history of vegetational changes during the period of first pastoralism (ca. 7000–5000 cal. BP, 5000–3000 BC) in order to understand ongoing and future changes ...

 

Organ-dependent induction of systemic resistance and systemic susceptibility in Pinus nigra inoculated with Sphaeropsis sapinea and Diplodia scrobiculata

  
Tree Physiology, Vol. 27, No. 4. (2007), pp. 511-517

Abstract

Systemic induced resistance (SIR) is a well-known host defense mechanism against pathogen attack in herbaceous plants, but SIR has only recently been documented in conifers. We tested if inoculation of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) with Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.:Fr.) Dyko and Sutton or Diplodia scrobiculata de Wet, Slippers and Wingfield results in SIR or systemic induced susceptibility (SIS) to subsequent colonization by S. sapinea. Induction at the stem base resulted in significant (P < 0.01) SIR in the upper stem, and ...

 

Evolutionary tipping points in the capacity to adapt to environmental change

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 1. (06 January 2015), pp. 184-189, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408589111

Abstract

[Significance] Environmental variation is becoming more frequent and unpredictable as a consequence of climate change, yet we currently lack the tools to evaluate the extent to which organisms may adapt to this phenomenon. Here we develop a model that explores these issues and use it to study how changes in the timescale and predictability of environmental variation may ultimately affect population viability. Our model indicates that, although populations can often cope with fairly large changes in these environmental parameters, on occasion they ...

Visual summary

  • Figure:65%: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/1/184/F2.large.jpg
  • Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/1/184/F2.expansion.html
  • Caption: Evolutionary response to environmental variation under different levels of predictability (P) and relative timescale of environmental variation (R). At each parameter combination in A, the 100 mean population reaction norms that evolved at generation 50,000 in different replicate simulations are depicted [...] with environmental cues on the x axis and the resulting insulation phenotypes on the
 

Dealing with femtorisks in international relations

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (09 December 2014), pp. 17356-17362, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400229111

Abstract

The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential “actors” take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. ...

 

Integrating selected ecological effects of mixed European beech - Norway spruce stands in bioeconomic modelling

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 210, No. 4. (February 2008), pp. 487-498, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.08.011

Abstract

The simplicity of many bioeconomic models has been criticised several times, due to their lack of realism resulting from a deterministic nature and a single-species focus. In this context it was interesting to test the financial sensitivity of bioeconomic modelling against fairly well documented ecological effects in mixed forests. For this purpose our study linked existing results of ecological research with bioeconomic modelling. The presented methodological approach could not only show the importance of considering ecological effects in bioeconomic models; it ...

 

Climate change and forest diseases

  
Plant Pathology, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 February 2011), pp. 133-149, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02406.x
Keywords: abies-nephrolepis   adaptation   alnus-incana   armillaria-spp   betula-spp   biscogniauxia-atropunctata   biscogniauxia-mediterranea   botryosphaeria-spp   bursaphelenchus-xylophilus   chamaecyparis-nootkatensis   climate-change   cronartium-ribicola   cylindrocladium-quinqueseptatum   dendroctonus-ponderosae   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   fusarium-circinatum   ips-confusus   larix-gmelinii   larix-kaempferi   larix-spp   notholithocarpus-densiflorus   phaeocryptopus-gaeumannii   phytophthora-cinnamomi   phytophthora-ramorum   picea-jazoensis   picea-spp   pinus-albicaulis   pinus-contorta   pinus-edulis   pinus-monticola   pinus-nigra   pinus-radiata   pinus-spp   pinus-strobus   plant-diseases   populus-tremuloides   pseudotsuga-menziesii   quercus-agrifolia   quercus-cerris   quercus-falcata   quercus-rubra   quercus-suber   resilience   septoria-musiva   sphaeropsis-sapinea   tree-diseases   tsuga-heterophylla   tsuga-spp   valsa-melanodiscus  

Abstract

As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and minimize the undesirable effects of expected increases in tree mortality. We discuss four types of forest and disease management tactics – monitoring, forecasting, planning ...

 

Architecture of Environmental Risk Modelling: for a faster and more robust response to natural disasters

  
In 3rd Conference of Computational Interdisciplinary Sciences (2014), pp. 46-57

Abstract

Demands on the disaster response capacity of the European Union are likely to increase, as the impacts of disasters continue to grow both in size and frequency. This has resulted in intensive research on issues concerning spatially-explicit information and modelling and their multiple sources of uncertainty. Geospatial support is one of the forms of assistance frequently required by emergency response centres along with hazard forecast and event management assessment. Robust modelling of natural hazards requires dynamic simulations under an array of ...

Visual summary

 

Academic urban legends

  
Social Studies of Science, Vol. 44, No. 4. (1 August 2014), pp. 638-654, https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312714535679

Abstract

Many of the messages presented in respectable scientific publications are, in fact, based on various forms of rumors. Some of these rumors appear so frequently, and in such complex, colorful, and entertaining ways that we can think of them as academic urban legends. The explanation for this phenomenon is usually that authors have lazily, sloppily, or fraudulently employed sources, and peer reviewers and editors have not discovered these weaknesses in the manuscripts during evaluation. To illustrate this phenomenon, I draw upon ...

 

Addressing deep uncertainty using adaptive policies: introduction to section 2

  
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 77, No. 6. (05 July 2010), pp. 917-923, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2010.04.004

Abstract

[Excerpt] In a broad sense, uncertainty can be simply defined as missing knowledge; i.e., the absence of information. With respect to policymaking, uncertainty refers to the gap between available knowledge and the knowledge policymakers would need in order to make the best policy choice. This uncertainty clearly involves subjectivity, since it is related to satisfaction with existing knowledge, which is colored by the underlying values and perspectives of the policymaker (and the various actors involved in the policymaking process). Uncertainty can ...

 

Ecology of elms in Romania

  
Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2004), pp. 29-35

Abstract

The resistance of indigenous elm species to Dutch Elm Disease (DED) has been studied since 1991 with emphasis on natural forests. The situation varies with altitude, local conditions, species and with stand origin. The variability in morphological characteristics is important and some varieties are described. The taxonomy of elms in Romania, as in the whole of Europe, seems to be confusing (Ulmus ambigua was described in 1952 by Beldie in Flora of Romania). Natural hybrids between field elm and mountain elm ...

 

Canopy recovery after drought dieback in holm-oak Mediterranean forests of Catalonia (NE Spain)

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 10, No. 12. (December 2004), pp. 2092-2099, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00870.x

Abstract

Climate change is likely to produce more frequent and longer droughts in the Mediterranean region, like that of 1994, which produced important changes in the Quercus ilex forests, with up to 76% of the trees showing complete canopy dieback. At the landscape level, a mosaic of responses to the drought was observed, linked to the distribution of lithological substrates. Damage to the dominant tree species (Q. ilex) and the most common understorey shrub (Erica arborea) was more noticeable on the compact ...

 

Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics

  
Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 46, No. 5. (October 2009), pp. 964-969, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01695.x

Abstract

The challenge of climate change forces us to re-examine the assumptions underlying conservation planning. [\n] Increasing ‘connectivity’ has emerged as the most favoured option for conservation in the face of climate change. [\n] We argue that the importance of connectivity is being overemphasized: quantifying the benefits of connectivity per se is plagued with uncertainty, and connectivity can be co-incidentally improved by targeting more concrete metrics: habitat area and habitat quality. [::Synthesis and applications] Before investing in connectivity projects, conservation practitioners should ...

 

Evaluating flood resilience strategies for coastal megacities

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6183. (02 May 2014), pp. 473-475, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1248222

Abstract

Recent flood disasters in the United States (2005, 2008, 2012); the Philippines (2012, 2013); and Britain (2014) illustrate how vulnerable coastal cities are to storm surge flooding (1). Floods caused the largest portion of insured losses among all catastrophes around the world in 2013 (2). Population density in flood-prone coastal zones and megacities is expected to grow by 25% by 2050; projected climate change and sea level rise may further increase the frequency and/or severity of large-scale floods (3–7). ...

 

Contrasting views of complexity and their implications for network-centric infrastructures

  
Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 40, No. 4. (July 2010), pp. 839-852, https://doi.org/10.1109/tsmca.2010.2048027

Abstract

There exists a widely recognized need to better understand and manage complex “systems of systems,” ranging from biology, ecology, and medicine to network-centric technologies. This is motivating the search for universal laws of highly evolved systems and driving demand for new mathematics and methods that are consistent, integrative, and predictive. However, the theoretical frameworks available today are not merely fragmented but sometimes contradictory and incompatible. We argue that complexity arises in highly evolved biological and technological systems primarily to provide mechanisms ...

 

The consequence of tree pests and diseases for ecosystem services

  
Science, Vol. 342, No. 6160. (15 November 2013), 1235773, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235773

Abstract

[Structured Abstract] [::Background] Trees are major components of many terrestrial ecosystems and are grown in managed plantations and orchards to provide a variety of economically important products, including timber, pulp, fiber, and food. They are subject to a wide range of pests and diseases, of which the most important causative agents are viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and insect herbivores. Research on tree pests and diseases has had a historical focus on trees of direct economic importance. However, some epidemics and infestations have damaged ...

 

Building Resilience: Integrating climate and disaster risk into development - Lessons from World Bank Group experience

  
(2013)

Abstract

This report presents the World Bank Group's experience in climate and disaster resilient development and contends that it is essential to eliminate extreme poverty and achieve shared prosperity by 2030. The report argues for closer collaboration between the climate resilience and disaster risk management communities through the incorporation of climate and disaster resilience into broader development processes. Selected case studies are used to illustrate promising approaches, lessons learned, and remaining challenges all in contribution to the loss and damage discussions under ...

 

Forest resilience, biodiversity, and climate change: a synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems

  
Vol. 43 (2009)

Abstract

[Summary for Policy-makers] [::] Resilience is the capacity of a forest to withstand (absorb) external pressures and return, over time, to its pre-disturbance state. When viewed over an appropriate time span, a resilient forest ecosystem is able to maintain its ‘identity’ in terms of taxonomic composition, structure, ecological functions, and process rates. [::] The available scientific evidence strongly supports the conclusion that the capacity of forests to resist change, or recover following disturbance, is dependent on biodiversity at multiple scales. [::] Maintaining ...

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