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Selection: with tag quercus-petraea [59 articles] 


Pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2. (February 2018), e05185,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the ...


  1. Ambourn, A.K., Juzwik, J., Moon, R.D., 2005. Seasonal dispersal of the oak wilt fungus by Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi in Minnesota. Plant Disease 89, 1067–1076.
  2. Appel, D.N., 1995. The oak wilt enigma: perspectives from the Texas epidemic. Annual Review of Phytopathology 33, 103–118.
  3. Appel, D.N., Maggio, R.C., Nelson, E.L., Jeger, M.J., 1989. Measurement of expanding oak wilt centers in live oak. Phytopathology 79, 1318–1322.
  4. Baker, R., Candresse,

Scientific opinion on the pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr

EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 10. (1 October 2014), pp. n/a-n/a,


The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform a pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr, the fungal pathogen responsible for chestnut blight, a highly destructive disease that kills trees through bark cankers. The pathogen is listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. Its identity is clearly defined as C.parasitica (Murrill) Barr and methods exist for its discriminative detection. Several hosts are known, but the main hosts are species of Castanea and Quercus, particularly C.sativa and Q.petraea. ...


  1. Adamcikova, K., Kobza, M., Juhasova, G., 2010. Characteristics of the Cryphonectria parasitica isolated from Quercus in Slovakia. Forest Pathology 40, 443–449.
  2. Adamcikova, K., Juhasova, G., Kobza, M., Ondruskova, E., 2013. Diversity of microfungi on branches of Castanea sativa in Slovakia. Polish Botanical Journal 58, 741–746.
  3. Aguín Casal, O., Montenegro Gregorio, D., Pérez Otero, R., Mansilla Vázquez, J.P., 2005. VI Congreso Forestal Español, Zaragoza 2005. Available online: .

Temperate and boreal rainforest relicts of Europe

In Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World: Ecology and Conservation (2011), pp. 154-180,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-pseudoplatanus   aconitum-spp   alces-alces   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   anemone-trifolia   aquila-chrysaetos   arthonia-leucopellaea   asplenium-scolopendrium   athyrium-filix-femina   balkan-peninsula   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   biodiversity   bison-bonasus   boreal-forests   buteo-buteo   calluna-vulgaris   canis-lupus   capreolus-capreolus   carduus-personata   central-europe   cervus-elaphus   cervus-nippon   cicerbita-alpine   conservation   cortusa-matthioli   corylus-avellana   dryocopus-martius   dryopteris-carthusiana   dryopteris-dilatata   dryopteris-spp   endangered-species   epimedium-alpinum   euphorbia-austriaca   europe   fagus-sylvatica   felis-silvestris   forest-resources   fragmentation   fraxinus-excelsior   grazing   gymnocarpium-dryopteris   habitat-conservation   hacquetia-epipactis   hotspot   ilex-aquifolium   lagopus-muta   lamium-orvala   larix-eurolepis   lichens   lobaria-amplissima   lobaria-scrobiculata   lunaria-rediviva   lynx-lynx   lyrurus-tetrix   meles-meles   milvus-milvus   norway   omphalodes-verna   picea-abies   picea-sitchensis   pinus-contorta   pleurospermum-austriacum   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pyrenula-laevigata   quercus-petraea   quercus-robur   quercus-spp   rainforest   rhododendron-ponticum   rupicapra-rupicapra   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sanicula-europaea   saxifraga-rotundifolia   sorbus-aucuparia   strix-uralensis   sus-scrofa   taxus-baccata   temperate-forests   tetrao-urogallus   thalictrum-aquilegifolium   thelotrema-lepadinum   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   vaccinium-myrtillus  


European temperate rainforests are disjunctly distributed from ~45° to 69°N latitude, where they are influenced by maritime climates (see figure 6-1). Storms originating in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Balkans) provide for mild winters, cool summers, and adequate precipitation to sustain rainforests throughout the year. Due to extensive deforestation, however, today’s European rainforests are mere fragments of primeval rainforests. A reminder of a bygone era when rainforests flourished, they are barely hanging on as contemporary rainforest relicts (see box 6-1). ...


Planting sentinel European trees in Eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders

PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5. (20 May 2015), e0120864,


Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 33

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   pyrus-tamamschianae   pyrus-theodorovii   pyrus-vallis-demonis   pyrus-voronovii   python   q-learning   qualitative-research   quantile-95   quantitive-variation   quantity-calculus   quantum-computing   quantum-gis   quarantine   quaternary   quercus-agrifolia   quercus-alnifolia   quercus-borealis   quercus-calliprinos   quercus-canariensis   quercus-castaneifolia   quercus-cerrioides   quercus-cerris   quercus-chrysolepis   quercus-coccifera   quercus-coccinea   quercus-crenata   quercus-dalechampii   quercus-douglasii   quercus-emoryi   quercus-engelmannii   quercus-faginea   quercus-falcata   quercus-frainetto   quercus-gambelii   quercus-garryana   quercus-hartwissiana   quercus-ilex   quercus-imbricaria   quercus-imeretina   quercus-kelloggii   quercus-lanuginosa   quercus-liaotungensis   quercus-lobata   quercus-macranthera   quercus-macrolepis   quercus-mirbeckii   quercus-mongolica   quercus-palustris   quercus-parvula   quercus-pedunculata   quercus-pedunculiflora   quercus-petraea   quercus-polycarpa   quercus-pontica   quercus-prinus   quercus-pubescens   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-rubra   quercus-sessiflora   quercus-sessiliflora   quercus-sicula   quercus-spp   quercus-suber   quercus-trojana   quercus-variabilis   quercus-virgiliana   quercus-virginiana   quercus-wislizeni   quercus-x-morisii   radar   radial-growth   radiocarbon-chronology   rain-shadow   rainfall   rainfall-deciles   rainforest   rainy-days_daily-rainfall   random-forest   random-forests   random-walk   range-altitude   range-modelling   range-shift   rank-based-analysis   rapid-assessment   rare-events   rarely-observed-plant-species   rasterisation   ravine-forest   rcp26   rcp45   rcp60   rcp85   realised-vs-potential-range   realized-niche   reassuring-learning   receptivity  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Climate change increases the drought risk in Central European forests: what are the options for adaptation?

Forestry Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 January 2014),


The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher ...


Gene flow and hybridisation in a mixed oak forest (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus petraea (Matts.) Liebl.) in central Spain

Heredity, Vol. 95, No. 6. (26 October 2005), pp. 457-465,


Oaks are long-standing models for the study of gene flow and hybridisation. Temperate (Quercus petraea) and sub-Mediterranean (Quercus pyrenaica) oaks coexist in central Spain, showing remarkable differences in population size and structure. Q. petraea has a scattered distribution in central Spain, where it is at one of the southernmost limits of its range, and forms low-density stands; in contrast, Q. pyrenaica is widespread in the region. We selected a mixed population of the two species (13 ha, 176 adults and 96 saplings) ...


Natural hybridisation between Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus pubescens Willd. within an Italian stand as revealed by microsatellite fingerprinting

Plant Biology, Vol. 11, No. 5. (September 2009), pp. 758-765,

Differentiation and hybridization of Quercus frainetto, Q. petraea, and Q. pubescens (Fagaceae): insights from macro-morphological leaf traits and molecular data

Plant Systematics and Evolution In Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 301, No. 1. (2015), pp. 375-385,


Macro-morphological leaf traits and genetic assignments were combined to study the differentiation and hybridization of three sympatric and inter-fertile white oak species (Quercus frainetto, Q. petraea, and Q. pubescens). The sampling was performed in a single forest stand of central Italy (Mount Vairano) in which the cover percentages of each of these three oak species were almost equal. The individuals classified as pure species and the hybrid individuals were divided into two subsets (A and B) which were subsequently statistically analysed. ...


Flooding tolerance of Central European tree and shrub species

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (November 2006), pp. 1-13,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-campestre   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanus   aesculus-hippocastanum   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   betula-pendula   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   cornus-sanguinea   corylus-avellana   crataegus-monogyna   disturbances   fagus-sylvatica   floods   forest-resources   frangula-alnus   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-communis   larix-decidua   malus-sylvestris   picea-abies   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   prunus-domestica   prunus-mahaleb   prunus-padus   prunus-spinosa   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   robinia-pseudoacacia   salix-alba   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sambucus-nigra   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   taxus-baccata   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   tolerance   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   viburnum-opulus   water-resources  


Extensive efforts have been made in recent years to restore rivers with a view to increasing the ecological value of riparian areas and the surrounding landscape and to improving the protection provided against extreme flooding events. One of the important factors for the successful establishment and survival of tree and shrub species in enlarged river corridors (particularly in lowlands) – and in retention basins – is their capacity to survive in anoxic conditions, i.e. their flooding tolerance. The importance of improving ...


Reviving extinct Mediterranean forest communities may improve ecosystem potential in a warmer future

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 13, No. 7. (2015), pp. 356-362,


The Mediterranean Basin is the region of Europe most vulnerable to negative climate-change impacts, including forest decline, increased wildfire, and biodiversity loss. Because humans have affected Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, it is unclear whether the region’s native ecosystems were more resilient to climate change than current ecosystems, and whether they would provide sustainable management options if restored. We simulated vegetation with the LANDCLIM model, using present-day climate as well as future climate-change scenarios, in three representative areas that encompass a broad ...


Distribution map of Sessile oak (Quercus petraea)



The distribution maps on this page were compiled by experts contributing to EUFORGEN activities, based on existing bibliography and other information sources. Individuals may use the distribution maps for personal, educational, scientific or other non-commercial purposes without prior permission from the EUFORGEN Secretariat but they must acknowledge EUFORGEN as the source of information. In case the distribution maps are used for a publication, the EUFORGEN Secretariat would appreciate receiving a notification or a copy of the publication. ...


Shake in oak: an evidence review



Shake is the phenomenon of internal, longitudinal splitting of the wood in a growing tree. It occurs in either an annular pattern as ring shake or radially as star shake and is only possible to detect definitively once a tree is felled. Oaks can be affected by either or by both types, although star shakes occur more frequently than ring shakes. Figure 1 shows both types with characteristic staining. This report addresses shake in native oak species, that is pedunculate (Quercus ...


Quercus petraea

In Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie, Vol. 3 (2000)


Die Weichselkirsche ist ein höchstens 10 m hoher, kleiner Baum mit kurzem Stamm und breiter Krone, auf ungünstigen Standorten bleibt sie ein Strauch. Ihr Verbreitungsgebiet liegt in Südeuropa und zieht sich über den Kaukasus bis nach Turkestan hin. Als dürreresistente, thermophile Art mit hohen Lichtansprüchen gedeiht sie vor allem auf felsigen, flachen Kalkböden; in geschlossenen Waldbeständen kommt sie nicht vor. Da das Holz angenehm nach Cumarin duftet, stellt man Schmuck und kleinere Gebrauchsgegenstände daraus her. Ihre etwas bitter schmeckenden Früchte verwendet ...


Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects

Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 9. (1 September 2007), pp. 835-848,
Keywords: abies-balsamea   acalitus-rudis   albizia-guachapele   alsophila-pometaria   amblypelta-cocophaga   atta-cephalotes   betula-pendula   biodiversity   callophylum-brasiliense   cardiaspina-fiscella   cecidomyiidae   choristoneura-fumiferana   choristoneura-spp   chrysoptharta-bimaculata   corylus-avellana   curculio-elephas   dendroctonus-frontalis   dipteryx-panamensis   diversity   euclystis-spp   forest-pests   forest-resources   genipa-americana   hylobius-abietis   hypsipyla-robusta   lepidoptera   lymantria-dispar   matsucoccus-feytaudi   milicia-excelsa   myzocallis-coryli   neuroterus-spp   phyllobius-argentatus   phyllonorycter-spp   phytolyma-lata   picea-abies   picea-glauca   picea-sitchensis   pinus-densiflora   pinus-nigra-laricio   pinus-pinaster   pinus-strobus   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-taeda   pissodes-strobi   plant-pests   populus-angustifolia   pseudotsuga-menziesii   quercus-petraea   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-suber   rhyacionia-frustrana   sonneratia-apetala   stigmella-spp   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   thaumetopoea-pytiocampa   thecodiplosis-japonensis   toona-ciliata   virola-koschnyi   vochysia-ferruginea   vochysia-guatemalensis   zeuzera-conferta  


Biodiversity loss from plant communities is often acknowledged to affect primary production but little is known about effects on herbivores. We conducted a meta-analysis of a worldwide data set of 119 studies to compare herbivory in single-species and mixed forests. This showed a significant reduction of herbivory in more diverse forests but this varied with the host specificity of insects. In diverse forests, herbivory by oligophagous species was virtually always reduced, whereas the response of polyphagous species was variable. Further analyses ...


Growth decrease and mortality of oak floodplain forests as a response to change of water regime and climate

European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 134, No. 3. (2015), pp. 555-567,


Forest mortality is globally present, and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) forests in Europe are no exception at all. The aim of this study was to tackle the issue of oak floodplain forests response to water level, temperature and precipitation changes due to the altered climate conditions. We examined interannual and interseasonal scales using dendroecological analysis. The goal was to review the growth from the perspective of forest management practice, including specific recommendations for forest managers. The most important environmental variable in ...


Oak decline in a southern Finnish forest as affected by a drought sequence

Geochronometria, Vol. 41, No. 1. (1 January 2014),


We investigated the decline of a pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) forest growing on shallow soil at the northern distributional limit of the species in southern Finland, using the dendroclimatic approach. About 200-year-old trees in three vigour classes — healthy, declining and dead — were sampled in 2008. Annual tree-ring, earlywood and latewood widths were measured and chronologies were established. The tree-ring data were correlated with monthly and seasonal climate data. Radial increment of oaks was positively related to the June ...


The influence of site quality, silviculture and region on wood density mixed model in Quercus petraea Liebl.

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 189, No. 1-3. (February 2004), pp. 111-121,


Three linear mixed-effect models for wood density were constructed with average ring density data measured by X-ray microdensitometry on 10427 heartwood rings collected from 82 sessile oaks sampled in five French regions (Alsace, Lorraine, Orne et Sarthe, Allier, Loir-et-Cher). Two types of forest management (coppice-with-standards and high forest) and three site qualities were represented in each region. A model (1) between air dry wood density and radial tree growth was established. Model (2), with radial growth and tree environment (region, silviculture, ...


The ‘masking effect’ of silviculture on substrate-induced plant diversity in oak-hornbeam forests from northern France

Biodiversity & Conservation In Biodiversity & Conservation, Vol. 9, No. 11. (2000), pp. 1467-1491,


Traditional measures of plant diversity from phytosociological relevés are used to compare floristical richness and diversity between different oak-hornbeam forest stands of Thiérache (Northern France). Five sets of physiognomically similar forests are distinguished according to the geological substrate: schists and sandstones, loess on schists, loess on calcareous rocks, jurassic limestones, cretaceous marls and clays. Plant species diversity is investigated at two scale levels: a phytocoenotic level and a synusial one which is supposed to partly avoid a possible silviculture-related bias. Two ...


Improvement and silviculture of oaks in Hungary

Annales des Sciences Forestières, Vol. 50, No. 6. (1993), pp. 607-614,


The most important tree species in Hungary are the indigenous oak secies (Quercus sessiliflora, Q robur, Q cerris). They form mixed stands, most frequently with hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). They occupy nearly 35% of the Hungarian forests. For oak timber, the allowable cut exceeds demand; it is therefore possible to export the more valuable mixtures. Producing valuable oak timber is of great importance for Hungarian forestry. Veneer logs of good quality can be harvested from mixed 2-storied oak ...


New perspectives in German oak silviculture

Annales des Sciences Forestières, Vol. 50, No. 6. (1993), pp. 563-570,


After decades of negligence, oak (Q petraea and Q pedunculata) is now being replanted throughout Germany on an increasingly wider scale. For the first time, the amount of oak now established in Baden-Württemberg is the same as it was 100-200 yr ago. This is a result of both ecological and economical factors. The concepts involved in establishing and tending an oak stand vary considerably - as do the costs. New perspectives in silviculture and in the proliferation of oak management have ...


Methods of oak silviculture in Austria

Annales des Sciences Forestières, Vol. 50, No. 6. (1993), pp. 583-591,


In Austria oak stands occupy an area covering ≈ 150 000 ha or ≈ 4% of the total forest area. Half of the oak stands are managed as coppice or coppice with standards, and half are managed as high forest. During the last 2 decades there has been a remarkable increase in developing young oak stands. The interest in managing suitable forest areas for oak is apparently growing. Therefore regeneration methods, timely and proper management and thinning regimes will be very ...


Influence of patch scarification and insect herbivory on growth and survival in Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L. Karst. and Quercus robur L. seedlings following a Norway spruce forest

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 134, No. 1-3. (September 2000), pp. 111-123,


Southern Sweden is dominated by relatively uniform coniferous forests where Norway spruce is the most common tree species. Ecological and economic considerations have created an interest in re-establishing broadleaves in these forests. To study the influence of patch scarification and compare the influence of insect herbivory on growth and survival in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings, a field experiment was established. The experiment was carried out on a new clear-cut ...

Visual summary


Taxonomical impact of morphological variation in Quercus robur and Q petraea: a contribution to the hybrid controversy

Annales des sciences forestières, Vol. 50, No. Supplement. (1993), pp. 107s-113s,


Numeric - taxonomical analysis of the complex Quercus robur-Q petraea showed that variability within each of the 2 species is so wide that none of the features considered is suitable for clear distinction. By using multivariate statistical analysis, it was possible to differentiate 2 distinct groups and thus to locate intermediate individuals. However, designating such morphologically intermediate individuals as hybrids remains questionable because it is not possible to find the exact limits of each group. For practical reasons, such limits have ...


Hybridization between Quercus robur and Q. petraea in a mixed oak stand in Denmark

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 66, No. 7. (2009), pp. 706-706,


[::] Hybridization and mating pattern between Quercus robur and Q. petraea was studied in a 5.8 ha mixed forest stand in Jutland, Denmark which comprises in total 135 Quercus robur and 230 Q. petraea trees. Classification of the oak trees into species was performed using canonical discriminant analysis of a range of leaf morphological traits. Adult trees (365) and offspring (582) were genotyped with eight microsatellite markers. Seedlings were sampled in 2003 and acorns were collected in 2004. [::] Mating patterns of ...


EUFORGEN Technical Guidelines for genetic conservation and use for pedunculate and sessile oaks (Quercus robur/Quercus petraea)



These Technical Guidelines are intended to assist those who cherish the valuable white oaks genepool and its inheritance, through conserving valuable seed sources or use in practical forestry. The focus is on conserving the genetic diversity of the species at the European scale. The recommendations provided in this module should be regarded as a commonly agreed basis to be complemented and further developed in local, national or regional conditions. The Guidelines are based on the available knowledge of the species and on ...


Árboles monumentales de España

Keywords: abies-alba   abies-pinsapo   abies-spp   acer-campestre   arbutus-unedo   boiss   castanea-sativa   celtis-australis   ceratonia-siliqua   citrus-aurantium   cupressus-macrocarpa   cupressus-sempervirens   dracaena-drago   eucalyptus-globulus   fagus-silvatica   fagus-sylvatica   ficus-carica   ficus-macrophylla   forest-resources   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   jubaea-chilensis   juglans-regia   juniperus-cedrus   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-phoenicea   juniperus-thurifera   laurus-azorica   liriodendron-tulipifera   monumental-trees   morus-alba   nolina-recurvata   olea-europaea   phoenix-canariensis   phoenix-dactylifera   pinus-canariensis   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-uncinata   pistacia-terebinthus   platanus-x-hispanica   populus-alba   populus-nigra   prunus-dulcis   pyrus-spinosa   quercus-cerrioides   quercus-faginea   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-suber   sequoiadendron-giganteum   spain   syagrus-romanzoffiana   taxodium-distichum   taxodium-mucronatum   taxus-baccata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   washingtonia-robusta   wisteria-sinensis   yucca-filifera  


[Excerpt] De entre todas las especies vegetales, la de los árboles resulta, por distintas razones, la más notable y la que está más ligada, por muy diferentes causas, al devenir del ser humano, a la historia y a la cultura de los pueblos que prosperaron a su alrededor. Los árboles nos han otorgado alimento y cobijo; los hemos relacionado con acontecimientos históricos de muy diferente índole; los hemos vinculado a devociones religiosas y milagrosas; hemos celebrado fiestas y júbilo alrededor de ellos; en definitiva, han permanecido vinculados a lo terrenal y ...


Árboles monumentales de España - Comunidades Autónomas

Keywords: acer-pseudoplatanus   araucaria-araucana   araucaria-bidwillii   betula-pendula   camellia-reticulata   castanea-sativa   casuarina-equisetifolia   cedrus-atlantica   cedrus-libani   ceiba-pentandra   celtis-australis   ceratonia-siliqua   cinnamomum-camphora   crataegus-monogyna   cupressus-sempervirens   dracaena-draco   eucaliptus-camaldulensis   eucalyptus-globulus   fagus-sylvatica   ficus-carica   ficus-macrophylla   forest-resources   fraxinus-angustifolia   gleditsia-triacanthos   hedera-helix   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-thurifera   lagunaria-patersoni   laurus-nobilis   magnolia-grandiflora   monumental-trees   morus-nigra   myrtus-communis   olea-europaea   phoenix-canariensis   phytolacca-dioica   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   platanus-orientalis   populus-alba   populus-nigra   prunus-dulcis   quercus-canariensis   quercus-faginea   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-suber   quercus-x-morisii   sequoiadendron-giganteum   sorbus-domestica   spain   tamarix-canariensis   taxodium-distichum   taxodium-mucronatum   taxus-baccata   tilia-tomentosa   ulmus-minor   washingtonia-robusta  


[Excerpt] En las páginas de este libro podrá encontrar el lector interesado algunos de los árboles más bellos, localizados en los diversos territorios de nuestras Comunidades Autónomas. La Compañía Logística de Hidrocarburos CLH, S.A. desea, con esta colección de árboles monumentales, tender un puente entre los dos elementos que dan sentido a su cotidiano devenir empresarial: el hombre y la naturaleza. Es decir, el servicio a los hombres, a la Sociedad y el deseo de colaborar en la conservación del entorno natural. Y para la construcción de ese puente ...


Diversity and ecological differentiation of oak forests in NW Thrace (Turkey)

Archives of Biological Sciences, Vol. 62, No. 3. (2010), pp. 705-718,


Quercus robur, Q. frainetto, Q. cerris and Q. petraea that predominate in forests in the Thrace region, a bridge between the Balkans and Anatolia, were sampled, elaborated and classified. The ecological conditions were estimated by bio-indicator values. Oak forests can be divided into four groups: Q. robur-Fraxinus angustifolia forests thriving in floodplains, Q. petraea forests found at higher altitudes, Q. frainetto-Carpinus orientalis forests appearing in the warmest and driest sites and Q. frainetto forests on more humid sites. It was established ...


Regeneration of Oak-Birch Woodland Following Exclusion of Sheep

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 71, No. 2. (1983), pp. 629-646


[::] Sheep have been excluded for 26 years from 1. 12 ha of woodland dominated by Quercus petraea, Betula pendula and B. pubescens in which there had been no regeneration of oak for at least 50 years and only limited regeneration ...


An overview of the geobotanical structure of Turkish Pinus sylvestris and Carpinus betulus forests

Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 40, No. 4. (2008), pp. 1497-1520


Pinus L. and Carpinus L. are the two widely distributed genera of higher plants being represented by 80 and 170 species respectively. Th e former has 5 species in Turkey and latter 2 species namely; P.pinea, P.halepensis, utia, P.sylvestris, P.nigra ssp. pallasiana, Carpinus betulus and C.orientalis . In this paper an attempt has been made to present an overview of the geobotanical structure of Pinus sylvestris L. ...


Ecological and phytogeographical differentiation of oak-hornbeam forests in southeastern Europe

Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, Vol. 147, No. 1. (6 August 2012), pp. 84-98,


Abstract The aim of the study was to establish the main types of oak-hornbeam (Carpinus betulus and Quercus sp. div) forests on the Apennines, Balkan peninsula and southern Alps and their correlations with the main ecological and phytogeographical gradients in the region. Furthermore, the comparison with the major types recognized in the traditional expert-based classification was done. 1676 relevés of oak-hornbeam forests (alliances Erythronio-Carpinion, Carpinion moesiacum, Physospermo verticillati-Quercion cerris) from the area of the Apennines, Balkan peninsula and southern Alps were ...


Species-specific climate response of oaks (Quercus spp.) under identical environmental conditions

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 7, No. 2. (02 April 2014), pp. 61-69,


Oak forests play a major role in Britain due to their economic, social and historic value. Sudden oak death and general decline symptoms have therefore caused major concerns in the forestry sector over the past decade. Several strategies have been proposed to preserve the economic and social value of oak forests, including the planting of native species with more southerly origins, or non-native species of oak that may be better suited to the projected climate of the future. The Ovington research ...


Leaf Growth and Photosynthetic Performance of Two Co-existing Oak Species in Contrasting Growing Seasons

Acta Silvatica & Lingaria Hungarica, Vol. 3 (2007), pp. 7-20


Ecophysiological investigations of Quercus petraea and Quercus cerris were performed at the Sikfkút research site in the dry and humid growing seasons of 2003 and 2004. The results suggested that leaf growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of Q. petraea exhibited higher sensitivity to drought in 2003 than that of Q. cerris. In leaves of Q. petraea, chlorophyll content showed larger inter-annual and within-canopy variability than in those of Q. cerris. Fully developed leaves of Q petraea showed lower SLM which indicated ...


An overview of ecology and silviculture of indigenous oaks in France

Annales des Sciences Forestières, Vol. 53, No. 2-3. (1996), pp. 649-661,


There are nine species of oaks in French forests: Quercus petraea, Q robur, Q pubescens, Q pyrenaica, Q ilex, Q rubra, Q suber, Q coccifera and Q cerris. Among them, five are of major economic and ecological importance, either because of the quality and value of their wood or because of their geographic extension, or both. Two of these species are widespread in the hills and plains of the Atlantic and of the mid-European domains: Q petraea (sessile oak), and Q ...


Impact of several common tree species of European temperate forests on soil fertility

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 59, No. 3. (April 2002), pp. 233-253,


The aim of the present work was to provide a synopsis of the scientific literature concerning the effects of different tree species on soil and to quantify the effect of common European temperate forest species on soil fertility. The scientific literature dealing with the tree species effect on soil has been reviewed. The composition of forest overstory has an impact on the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of soil. This impact was highest in the topsoil. Different tree species had significantly ...


Spatial patterns of dispersal, seed predation and germination during colonization of abandoned grassland by Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana

Vegetatio, Vol. 125, No. 2. (August 1996), pp. 193-205,


Key processes during recruitment of Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana were investigated in abandoned calcareous grasslands and adjacent scrub using the following methods: (1) observation of hoarding animals during the main period of ripening of acorns and hazel nuts, (2) exposition of seeds on the soil surface and in 5–6 cm depth to test differences in predation and germination, and (3) mapping of seedlings in the grasslands. European jays (Garrulus glandarius) and mice were the main disperser of seeds. Jays preferred ...


Forest pathogens with higher damage potential due to climate change in Europe

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 30, No. 2. (1 April 2008), pp. 177-195,
Keywords: abies-alba   alnus-cordata   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   alpine-region   armillaria-spp   biscogniauxia-mediterranea   biscogniauxia-nummularia   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   ceratocystis-platani   climate-change   corylus-avellana   cryphonectria-parasitica   cupressus-arizonica   cupressus-macrocarpa   cupressus-sempervirens   diplodia-pinea   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   droughts   dutch-elm-disease   europe   fagus-sylvatica   forest-pests   global-warming   gremmeniella-abietina   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   leptographium-spp   megastigmus-wachtli   mycosphaerella-pini   oak-decline   olea-europaea   ophiostoma-novo-ulmi   ophiostoma-ulmi   phytophthora-alni   phytophthora-cinnamomi   phytophthora-polonica   picea-abies   pinus-banksiana   pinus-cembra   pinus-contorta   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pallasiana   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-radiata   pinus-spp   pinus-sylvestris   platanus-spp   pseudotsuga-spp   quercus-cerris   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-spp   quercus-suber   scirrhia-pini   secondary-opportunistic-pest   seiridium-cardinale   seiridium-spp   silver-fir-decline   species-decline   sphaeropsis-sapinea   temperate-mountain-system   ulmus-glabra  


Abstract Most atmospheric scientists agree that climate changes are going to increase the mean temperature in Europe with increased frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, floods, and storms. Under such conditions, there is high probability that forests will be subject to increased frequency and intensity of stress due to climatic extremes. Therefore, impacts of climate change on forest health should be carefully evaluated. Given these assumptions, several fungal diseases on trees may become more devastating because of the following factors: ...


Review of oak stand decline with special reference to the role of drought in Poland

Forest Pathology, Vol. 28, No. 2. (March 1998), pp. 99-112,


Declines in oak-forest ecosystems have been reported frequently throughout the world since the beginning of this century. They have been associated with the death of individual trees, of small groups of trees or of entire stands. In this paper, the phenomenon of oak decline is presented in the context of the local site conditions in selected countries. Oak decline is regarded as a result of the synergistic action between damaging agents, both biotic and abiotic. Periodic changes of the climate in ...


Quercus L.

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 47, No. 1. (1959), pp. 169-222


A large genus of shrubs and trees of at least 450 species, many of which are major components of the communities in which they occur. Distributed throughout the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and extending into the tropical montane forest of central America southwards to Colombia, and that of lndomalaya; in Africa only in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of the species are restricted to the warmer temperate regions. The most recent monographs of the genus are by Camus (1936-39) and ...


Flooding tolerance of Central European tree and shrub species

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (2006), pp. 1-13,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-campestre   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanus   aesculus-hippocastanum   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   amelancier-ovalis   anoxia   berberis-vulgaris   betula-pendula   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   central-europe   corylus-avellana   crataegus-laevigata   crataegus-monogyna   fagus-sylvatica   flooding-tolerance   frangula-alnus   fraxinus-excelsior   hippophae-rhamnoides   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-communis   larix-decidua   ligustrum-vulgare   lonicera-xylosteum   malus-sylvestris   picea-abies   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   processes   prunus-avium   prunus-domestica   prunus-malaheb   prunus-padus   prunus-spinosa   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   rhamnus-cathartica   riparian-forest   river-restoration   robinia-pseudoacacia   salix-alba   salix-appendiculata   salix-caprea   salix-cinera   salix-daphnoides   salix-elaeagnos   salix-fragilis   salix-myrsinifolia-nigricans   salix-pentandra   salix-purpurea   salix-triandra   salix-viminalis   sambucus-nigra   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   taxus-baccata   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus  


Extensive efforts have been made in recent years to restore rivers with a view to increasing the ecological value of riparian areas and the surrounding landscape and to improving the protection provided against extreme flooding events. One of the important factors for the successful establishment and survival of tree and shrub species in enlarged river corridors (particularly in lowlands) – and in retention basins – is their capacity to survive in anoxic conditions, i.e. their flooding tolerance. The importance of improving ...


A description of the symptoms of Acute Oak Decline in Britain and a comparative review on causes of similar disorders on oak in Europe

Forestry, Vol. 87, No. 4. (2014), pp. 535-551,


Acute Oak Decline (AOD) is a relatively new decline-disease affecting both native oak species (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) in Britain. The key aim of this study was to describe the symptoms, and signs of AOD, to set a baseline. The second aim was to compare and review the European literature on what appear to be similar disorders on oak. AOD is characterized by four key features: weeping patches more-or-less vertically aligned on oak tree trunks; cracks between bark plates from ...


Species selection for soil reinforcement and protection

In Slope Stability and Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions (2008), pp. 167-210,


Species selection is vitally important for ensuring the success of any ecotechnological solution that may be employed on a particular site. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the engineer with a database of plant species that are suitable for both soil and slope stability by either mechanical or hydrological means, i.e., anchoring and buttressing of deep tap roots; bank and channel reinforcement; deep reinforcement and soil strength enhancement; removing soil moisture, surface protection, shallow reinforcement and erosion control. Protection ...


Size-mediated climate–growth relationships in temperate forests: a multi-species analysis

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 261, No. 8. (16 April 2011), pp. 1382-1391,


In most dendrochronological studies, climate–growth relationships are established on dominant trees to minimize non-climatic signals. However, response to environmental factors may be affected by tree-size, which begs the question of the representativeness of dominant trees on the stand level. To highlight the variations in climate–growth relationships among sizes and species, under a wide range of ecological conditions (climate and soil properties), 61 pure even-aged stands were sampled across France. At each stand, two tree-ring chronologies were established from 10 big- to ...


Species-specific climate sensitivity of tree growth in Central-West Germany

Trees - Structure and Function In Trees, Vol. 23, No. 4. (2009), pp. 729-739,


Growth responses to twentieth century climate variability of the three main European tree species Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, and Pinus sylvestris within two temperate low mountain forest sites were analyzed, with particular emphasis on their dependence upon ecological factors and temporal stability in the obtained relationships. While site conditions in Central (~51°N, 9°E, KEL) and West (50.5°N, 6.5°E, EIF) Germany are similar, annual precipitation totals of ≅700 mm and ≅1,000 mm describe a maritime-continental gradient. Ring-width samples from 228 trees were collected and ...


Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany

Tree Physiology, Vol. 29, No. 1. (01 January 2009), pp. 39-51,


We analyze interannual to multi-decadal growth variations of 555 oak trees from Central-West Germany. A network of 13 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and 33 sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) site chronologies is compared with gridded temperature, precipitation, cloud-cover, vapor pressure and drought (i.e., Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI) fluctuations. A hierarchic cluster analysis identifies three groups for each oak species differentiated by ecologic settings. When high precipitation is primarily a characteristic for one Q. robur and one Q. petraea ...


Annual variation in soil respiration and its components in a coppice oak forest in Central Italy

Global Change Biology, Vol. 8, No. 9. (September 2002), pp. 851-866,


In order to investigate the annual variation of soil respiration and its components in relation to seasonal changes in soil temperature and soil moisture in a Mediterranean mixed oak forest ecosystem, we set up a series of experimental treatments in May 1999 where litter (no litter), roots (no roots, by trenching) or both were excluded from plots of 4 m2. Subsequently, we measured soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture in each plot over a year after the forest was coppiced. ...


Phytophthora pseudosyringae sp. nov., a new species causing root and collar rot of deciduous tree species in Europe

Mycological Research, Vol. 107, No. 7. (July 2003), pp. 772-789,


In several studies of oak decline in Europe, a semi-papillate homothallic Phytophthora taxon was consistently isolated, together with other Phytophthora species, from rhizosphere soil samples. It was also found associated with necrotic fine roots and stem necroses of Fagus sylvatica and Alnus glutinosa. Due to morphological and physiological similarities, the semi-papillate isolates were previously identified as P. syringae by various authors. The morphology, physiology and pathogenicity against fine roots of Quercus robur, Q. petraea and F. sylvatica, bark of A. glutinosa, ...


Ice age legacies in the geographical distribution of tree species richness in Europe

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 16, No. 2. (1 March 2007), pp. 234-245,
Keywords: abies-alba   abies-borisii-regis   abies-cephalonica   abies-pinsapo   alnus-cordata   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   celtis-australis   climate-change   corylus-colurna   fagus-orientalis   fagus-sylvatica   forest-resources   juglans-regia   juniperus-drupacea   juniperus-excelsa   larix-decidua   laurus-nobilis   ostrya-carpinifolia   paleo-climate   picea-abies   picea-omorika   pinus-brutia   pinus-cembra   pinus-halepensis   pinus-heldreichii   pinus-nigra   pinus-peuce   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   quercus-canariensis   quercus-cerris   quercus-faginea   quercus-frainetto   quercus-ilex   quercus-pedunculiflora   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-sicula   quercus-suber   salix-alba   salix-fragilis   taxus-baccata   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor  


Aim  This study uses a high-resolution simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate to assess: (1) whether LGM climate still affects the geographical species richness patterns in the European tree flora and (2) the relative importance of modern and LGM climate as controls of tree species richness in Europe. Location  The parts of Europe that were unglaciated during the LGM. Methods  Atlas data on the distributions of 55 tree species were linked with data on modern and LGM climate and ...


Taxonomy: Species status of hybridizing oaks

Nature, Vol. 405, No. 6790. (29 June 2000), pp. 1016-1016,


The two widespread species of oak tree in Europe, Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl., hybridize extensively, calling their taxonomic status into question. Here we use microsatellite DNA, a highly informative genetic marker, to show that Q. robur and Q. petraea are discrete taxonomic units despite this intensive hybridization. Furthermore, individual oaks can be assigned to separate species. ...

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