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Selection: with tag psychology [22 articles] 

 

Helping a victim or helping the victim: altruism and identifiability

  
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 26, No. 1. (2003), pp. 5-16, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1022299422219

Abstract

Although it has been claimed that people care more about identifiable than statistical victims, demonstrating this “identifiable victim effect” has proven difficult because identification usually provides information about a victim, and people may respond to the information rather than to identification per se. We show that a very weak form of identifiability—determining the victim without providing any personalizing information—increases caring. In the first, laboratory study, subjects were more willing to compensate others who lost money when the losers had already been ...

 

Reviewers are blinkered by bibliometrics

  
Nature, Vol. 544, No. 7651. (26 April 2017), pp. 411-412, https://doi.org/10.1038/544411a

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Although journal impact factors (JIFs) were developed to assess journals and say little about any individual paper, reviewers routinely justify their evaluations on the basis of where candidates have published. [...] As economists who study science and innovation, we see engrained processes working against cherished goals. Scientists we interview routinely say that they dare not propose bold projects for funding in part because of expectations that they will produce a steady stream of papers in journals with high impact ...

 

When the appeal of a dominant leader is greater than a prestige leader

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. 6734-6739, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617711114

Abstract

[Significance] We examine why dominant/authoritarian leaders attract support despite the presence of other admired/respected candidates. Although evolutionary psychology supports both dominance and prestige as viable routes for attaining influential leadership positions, extant research lacks theoretical clarity explaining when and why dominant leaders are preferred. Across three large-scale studies we provide robust evidence showing how economic uncertainty affects individuals’ psychological feelings of lack of personal control, resulting in a greater preference for dominant leaders. This research offers important theoretical explanations for why, around ...

 

Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 35. (30 August 2016), pp. 9769-9773, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1519998113

Abstract

[Significance] Decisions we make every day about how to invest our time have crucial personal and societal consequences. Most theories of motivation propose that our daily choices of activities aim to maximize positive affective states but fail to explain when people decide to engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. We tracked the activities and moods of over 28,000 people in real time and demonstrated that people seek mood-enhancing activities when they feel bad and unpleasant activities when they feel good. These findings ...

 

Uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 31. (02 August 2016), pp. 8658-8663, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601280113

Abstract

[Significance] Human prosociality presents an evolutionary puzzle, and reciprocity has emerged as a dominant explanation: cooperating today can bring benefits tomorrow. Reciprocity theories clearly predict that people should only cooperate when the benefits outweigh the costs, and thus that the decision to cooperate should always depend on a cost–benefit analysis. Yet human cooperation can be very uncalculating: good friends grant favors without asking questions, romantic love “blinds” us to the costs of devotion, and ethical principles make universal moral prescriptions. Here, we ...

 

Three lessons rarely taught

  
Science, Vol. 352, No. 6291. (June 2016), pp. 1358-1358, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.352.6291.1358

Abstract

[Excerpt] After earning two advanced degrees, completing three postdocs, working in three countries, and finally reaching the stage when I am setting up my own lab, I realize that three lessons taught by three great mentors have influenced how I think about doing science. These lessons, each of which came at just the right time in my career, have helped me probe new intellectual territories and enjoy my work. [\n] [...] [::Play around] The first lesson came from my Ph.D. supervisor in my ...

 

Time discounting and criminal behavior

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 22. (31 May 2016), pp. 6160-6165, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1522445113

Abstract

[Significance] One of the most fundamental predictions of almost any model of crime is that individual time preferences matter. However, empirical evidence on this basic property of the model is essentially nonexistent. We empirically investigate whether individual time discounting measured at age 13 predicts subsequent criminal involvement up to age 31. We show that time discounting significantly predicts criminal activity and that high discount rates predict crime more strongly at the extensive margin rather than for total crime. The link is much ...

 

Memories of unethical actions become obfuscated over time

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 22. (31 May 2016), pp. 6166-6171, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1523586113

Abstract

[Significance] We identify a consistent reduction in the clarity and vividness of people’s memory of their past unethical actions, which explains why they behave dishonestly repeatedly over time. Across nine studies using diverse sample populations and more than 2,100 participants, we find that, as compared with people who engaged in ethical behavior and those who engaged in positive or negative actions, people who acted unethically are the least likely to remember the details of their actions. That is, people experience unethical amnesia: ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 28

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   power-law   ppm   practice   pre-alpine   pre-print   precaution   precaution-principle   precipitation   precisely-wrong   precursor-research   predation   predator-satiation   predatory-publishers   prediction   prediction-bias   predictive-modelling   predictors   predisposition   premature-optimization   preparedness   preprints   prescribed-burn   presence-absence   presence-only   pressure-volume-curves   pressures   prestoea-montana   pretreatment   prey-predator   pricing   primary-productivity   principal-components-regression   prisoners-dilemma   pristiphora-abietina   probability-vs-possibility   problem-driven   processes   processing   production-rules   productivity   programming   progressive-learning   prolog   proportion   prosopis-alba   prosopis-glandulosa   prosopis-pallida   protected-areas   protected-species   protection   protective-forest   protocol-uncertainty   provenance   provisioning-services   pruning   prunus-avium   prunus-cerasifera   prunus-domestica   prunus-dulcis   prunus-fruticosa   prunus-ilicifolia   prunus-laurocerasus   prunus-mahaleb   prunus-malaheb   prunus-padus   prunus-salicina   prunus-serotina   prunus-spinosa   prunus-spp   prunus-tenella   pseudo-absences   pseudo-random   pseudoaraucaria-spp   pseudolarix-spp   pseudomonas-avellanae   pseudomonas-spp   pseudomonas-syringae   pseudotsuga   pseudotsuga-macrocarpa   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pseudotsuga-spp   psychology   pterocarpus-indicus   pterocarpus-officinalis   pterocarya-pterocarpa   public-domain   publication-bias   publication-delay   publication-errors   publish-or-perish   puccinia-coronata   pull-push-pest-control   pulp   punica-granatum   purdiaea-nutans   pyrenees-region   pyrolysis   pyrus-amygdaliformis   pyrus-browiczii  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Infants ask for help when they know they don’t know

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 13. (29 March 2016), pp. 3492-3496, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515129113

Abstract

[Significance] Although many animals have been shown to monitor their own uncertainty, only humans seem to have the ability to explicitly communicate their uncertainty to others. It remains unknown whether this ability is present early in development, or whether it only emerges later alongside language development. Here, using a nonverbal memory-monitoring paradigm, we show that infants are able to strategically ask for help to avoid making mistakes. These findings reveal that infants are capable of monitoring and communicating their own uncertainty. We ...

 

The science myths that will not die

  
Nature, Vol. 528, No. 7582. (16 December 2015), pp. 322-325, https://doi.org/10.1038/528322a

Abstract

False beliefs and wishful thinking about the human experience are common. They are hurting people - and holding back science. [Excerpt] [...] Scientists should work to discredit myths, but they also have a responsibility to try to prevent new ones from arising, says Paul Howard-Jones, who studies neuroscience and education at the University of Bristol, UK. “We need to look deeper to understand how they come about in the first place and why they're so prevalent and persistent.” [\n] Some dangerous myths get plenty ...

 

A decline in prosocial language helps explain public disapproval of the US Congress

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 21. (26 May 2015), pp. 6591-6594, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1500355112

Abstract

[Significance] Past laboratory research has shown that talking about helping others can make a positive impression upon a listener. We tested whether this basic social-cognitive phenomenon can help explain how governments gain the confidence of the public they serve. A computerized text analysis of the debates of the US Congress over the past 20 y found that the density of prosocial language strongly predicted public approval ratings 6 mo later. These results suggest that both individuals and governments can gain social approval ...

 

People power

  
Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7515. (27 August 2014), pp. 347-347, https://doi.org/10.1038/512347b

Abstract

[Excerpt] Climate models must consider how humans are responding to a warming world. Physics and mathematics can tell us how the Universe began, but as the cosmologist Stephen Hawking noted: “They are not much use in predicting human behaviour because there are far too many equations to solve.” The motives, needs and desires that drive human action have long resisted rational analysis. From the volatility of the stock market to fads and fashions that flare brightly and then vanish, the ability ...

 

Context effects produced by question orders reveal quantum nature of human judgments

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 26. (01 July 2014), pp. 9431-9436, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1407756111

Abstract

[Significance] In recent years, quantum probability theory has been used to explain a range of seemingly irrational human decision-making behaviors. The quantum models generally outperform traditional models in fitting human data, but both modeling approaches require optimizing parameter values. However, quantum theory makes a universal, nonparametric prediction for differing outcomes when two successive questions (e.g., attitude judgments) are asked in different orders. Quite remarkably, this prediction was strongly upheld in 70 national surveys carried out over the last decade (and in ...

 

Improving scientific communication

  
Science, Vol. 342, No. 6154. (04 October 2013), pp. 13-13, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1246449

Abstract

Even the most brilliant scientific discovery, if not communicated widely and accurately, is of little value. And with the explosion of science around the globe, the dissemination of scientific information, once the purview of learned societies and a handful of publishers, is now a growth industry. This growth has attracted new models and new providers of services. In the process, the standards for scientific communication are slipping (see the special section on Communication in Science beginning on p. 56). The science ...

 

Concentrating on kindness

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6152. (20 September 2013), pp. 1336-1339, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.341.6152.1336

Abstract

Neuroscientist Tania Singer, a director at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, has embarked on an ambitious study involving 160 participants to find out whether meditation can make people more compassionate. Meditation research does not have a very rigorous reputation, and some scientists are skeptical about the work, but Singer—who has long practiced meditation herself—hopes her study will be methodologically rigorous enough to withstand criticism. By increasing compassion, she hopes her research will contribute to ...

 

Core foundations of abstract geometry

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 35. (27 August 2013), pp. 14191-14195, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1312640110

Abstract

Human adults from diverse cultures share intuitions about the points, lines, and figures of Euclidean geometry. Do children develop these intuitions by drawing on phylogenetically ancient and developmentally precocious geometric representations that guide their navigation and their analysis of object shape? In what way might these early-arising representations support later-developing Euclidean intuitions? To approach these questions, we investigated the relations among young children’s use of geometry in tasks assessing: navigation; visual form analysis; and the interpretation of symbolic, purely geometric maps. ...

 

Poverty impedes cognitive function

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6149. (30 August 2013), pp. 976-980, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1238041

Abstract

The poor often behave in less capable ways, which can further perpetuate poverty. We hypothesize that poverty directly impedes cognitive function and present two studies that test this hypothesis. First, we experimentally induced thoughts about finances and found that this reduces cognitive performance among poor but not in well-off participants. Second, we examined the cognitive function of farmers over the planting cycle. We found that the same farmer shows diminished cognitive performance before harvest, when poor, as compared with after harvest, ...

 

The poor's poor mental power

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6149. (30 August 2013), pp. 969-970, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244172

Abstract

Few people wish to be poor. Many find it puzzling that those in poverty seem to get stuck in that state, even when there are opportunities to improve one's lot. On page 976 of this issue, Mani et al. (1) provide a possible reason: Poverty-related concerns impair cognitive capacity. Simply put, being poor taps out one's mental reserves. This could explain data showing that the poor are likelier than others to behave in ways that are harmful to health and impede ...

 

Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 8. (14 August 2013), e69841, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069841

Abstract

Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of ...

 

False-positive psychology: undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant

  
Psychological Science, Vol. 22, No. 11. (01 November 2011), pp. 1359-1366, https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611417632

Abstract

In this article, we accomplish two things. First, we show that despite empirical psychologists’ nominal endorsement of a low rate of false-positive findings (≤ .05), flexibility in data collection, analysis, and reporting dramatically increases actual false-positive rates. In many cases, a researcher is more likely to falsely find evidence that an effect exists than to correctly find evidence that it does not. We present computer simulations and a pair of actual experiments that demonstrate how unacceptably easy it is to accumulate ...

 

Public understanding of climate change in the United States.

  
American Psychologist, Vol. 66, No. 4. (2011), pp. 315-328, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023253

Abstract

This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our review supports a constructivist account of human judgment. Public understanding is affected by the inherent difficulty of understanding climate change, the mismatch between people's usual modes of understanding and the ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/psychology

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.