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Wilderness register and indicator for Europe

(October 2013)


[Excerpt] [Executive summary] The main aim of the contract was to increase data availability on wilderness in Europe. The Guidelines on management of wilderness and wild areas in Natura 2000 (DG Environment, in prep.) described the benefits of wilderness management within the framework of the EU Biodiversity strategy, analysed the pressures affecting wilderness areas and provided guidelines on their management and protection, largely based on best practice examples of wilderness and wild areas throughout Europe. However, an overview of remaining areas of wilderness and wildlands at the European ...


Mediterranean habitat loss under future climate conditions: assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

Applied Geography, Vol. 75 (2016), pp. 83-92,


[Highlights] [::] The Mediterranean climate domain is projected to loss 11–25% of its current extent. [::] Projected losses of the Mediterranean climate are due to shifts of the arid domain. [::] The Mediterranean domain is projected to shift by 53–121% of its current size. [::] These changes are projected to affect 15–23% of the Mediterranean Natura 2000 sites. [Abstract] The Mediterranean basin is a global hotspot of biological diversity and the most rich biodiversity region in Europe. Nevertheless, climate-driven habitat loss is one of the most serious ...


The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

CATENA, Vol. 38, No. 4. (February 2000), pp. 279-300,


The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of logging on landslide activity in Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A total of 1004 landslides were documented in order to test the hypothesis that areas affected by logging activities show different density, frequency and magnitude characteristics of landsliding than areas unaffected by logging. The frequency of landslides in logged terrain was found to be nine times higher than in undisturbed forest. An exponential increase ...


Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/873 of 1 June 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 recognising protected zones exposed to particular plant health risks in the Community

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 59, No. L 145. (June 2016), pp. 10-17
Keywords: agricultural-resources   anthonomus-grandis   bemisia-tabaci   cephalcia-lariciphila   ceratocystis-platani   cryphonectria-parasitica   curtobacterium-flaccumfaciens   daktulosphaira-vitifoliae   dendroctonus-micans   dryocosmus-kuriphilus   eli-identifier   erwinia-amylovora   european-commission   european-union   forest-pests   forest-resources   fungal-diseases   gilpinia-hercyniae   globodera-pallida   globodera-rostochiensis   glomerella-gossypii   gonipterus-scutellatus   gremmeniella-abietina   hypoxylon-mammatum   ips-amitinus   ips-cembrae   ips-duplicatus   ips-sexdentatus   ips-typographus   legislation   leptinotarsa-decemlineata   liriomyza-bryoniae   paysandisia-archon   plant-diseases   plant-pests   protection   rhynchophorus-ferrugineus   sternochetus-mangiferae   thaumetopoea-pityocampa   thaumetopoea-processionea   tree-diseases   xanthomonas-arboricola  


[Excerpt] [:Article 1] Amendment of Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 [\n] Annex I to Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 is replaced by the text set out in the Annex to this Regulation. [:Article 2] Entry into force and application [\n] This Regulation shall enter into force on the day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. It shall apply from 1 May 2016. [\n] [...] ...


Commission Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 of 4 July 2008 recognising protected zones exposed to particular plant health risks in the Community (Recast)

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 51, No. L 193. (July 2008), pp. 1-6


[Excerpt] [:Article 1] The zones in the Community listed in Annex I are recognised as protected zones within the meaning of the first subparagraph of Article 2(1)(h) of Directive 2000/29/EC, in respect of the harmful organism(s) listed against their names in Annex I to this Regulation. [:Article 2] Directive 2001/32/EC, as amended by the acts listed in Annex II, Part A, is repealed, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law and application of the ...


Does increased forest protection correspond to higher fire severity in frequent-fire forests of the western United States?

Ecosphere, Vol. 7, No. 10. (October 2016), e01492,


There is a widespread view among land managers and others that the protected status of many forestlands in the western United States corresponds with higher fire severity levels due to historical restrictions on logging that contribute to greater amounts of biomass and fuel loading in less intensively managed areas, particularly after decades of fire suppression. This view has led to recent proposals—both administrative and legislative—to reduce or eliminate forest protections and increase some forms of logging based on the belief that ...


Colchic and Hyrcanian forests of the Caucasus: similarities, differences and conservation status

Flora Mediterranea, Vol. 25, No. Special Issue. (26 November 2015),
Keywords: abies-nordmanniana   acer-insigne   acer-velutinum   albizzia-julibrissin   alnus-barbata   alnus-subcordata   ancient-forest   ancient-forest-plant-species   arachne-colchica   betula-litwinowii   betula-medwedewii   biodiversity   buxus-colchicus   buxus-hyrcana   carpinus-caucasica   castanea-sativa   caucasus   colchic-region   comparison   corylus-colchica   danae-racemosa   daphne-alboviana   daphne-pontica   dioscorea-caucasica   diospyros-lotus   ecological-zones   ecosystem-conservation   epigaea-gaultherioides   fagus-orientalis   forest-resources   gleditcia-caspica   hedera-colchica   hedera-pastuchovii   hypericum-androsaemum   hypericum-inodorum   hyrcanian-region   ilex-colchica   ilex-hyrcana   laurocerasus-officinalis   parrotia-persica   philadelphus-caucasicus   picea-orientalis   protected-areas   protection   pterocarya-fraxinifolia   quercus-castaneifolia   quercus-hartwissiana   quercus-imeretina   quercus-macranthera   quercus-pontica   rainforest   rhamnus-imeretina   rhododendron-caucasicum   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-smirnowii   rhododendron-ungernii   ruscus-colchicus   ruscus-hyrcanus   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-caucasigena   sorbus-subfusca   species-richness   staphylea-colchica   temperate-forests   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   viburnum-orientale   zelkova-carpinifolia  


Along with high degree of vascular plant endemism (more than 25%) the existence of two refugia of the Tertiary flora – Colchic and Hyrcanian – are the most unique features of the Caucasus ecoregion. Likewise, Colchic and Hyrcanian forests are classified as temperate rainforests.There are certain physical-geographical and biological similarities and even more differences between Colchic and Hyrcanian regions, reflected on compositions of flora, types of vegetation zonation, as well as spectrums of vegetation formations. An “individualities” of these two unique nature phenomena definethe necessity of their ...


Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici



[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...


  1. ARPA Lombardia. Servizio Idrografico. .
  2. ASR Lombardia (2014). Valori medi dei terreni agricoli in Provincia di Cremona - Regione agraria. .
  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). .
  5. Autorità di bacino del

Wildlife comeback in Europe - The recovery of selected mammal and bird species



[Executive summary] With biodiversity in continuing decline worldwide, and targets set to reduce biodiversity loss not being met, conservation successes are rare in comparison to the news on declining populations and extinctions. Wildlife in Europe is showing a variety of responses to human pressure: while certain groups are clearly in decline and require conservation attention, other wildlife species are showing resurgence from previously low levels. Understanding the mechanisms allowing this wildlife comeback is crucial to better conservation of wildlife both in Europe and across the world, if we can apply the principles underlying conservation ...


Using higher-taxon richness as a surrogate for species richness: II - local applications

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 263, No. 1376. (22 November 1996), pp. 1571-1575,


Recent analyses confirm that urgent attempts to catalogue the distribution of biological diversity may be facilitated by focusing at the level of genera or families rather than species. However, questions remain over the application of higher-taxon surveys to identify networks of priority areas for conservation action. Is the close spatial match between species and higher-taxon richness at global and regional scales reiterated when sites are locally distributed? How much money is saved by the higher-taxon approach? And how does using genus ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 32

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   pressure-volume-curves   pressures   prestoea-montana   pretreatment   prey-predator   pricing   primary-productivity   primates   principal-components-regression   prisoners-dilemma   pristiphora-abietina   probability-vs-possibility   problem-driven   processes   processing   production-rules   productivity   programm   programming   progressive-learning   prolog   proportion   prosopis-alba   prosopis-glandulosa   prosopis-pallida   protected-areas   protected-species   protection   protective-forest   protective-forests   protocol-uncertainty   protozoans   provenance   provenance-uncertainty   provisioning-services   pruning   prunus-avium   prunus-cerasifera   prunus-domestica   prunus-dulcis   prunus-fruticosa   prunus-ilicifolia   prunus-laurocerasus   prunus-mahaleb   prunus-malaheb   prunus-padus   prunus-salicina   prunus-serotina   prunus-spinosa   prunus-spp   prunus-tenella   pseudo-absences   pseudo-random   pseudoaraucaria-spp   pseudocercospora-pini-densiflorae   pseudolarix-spp   pseudomonas-avellanae   pseudomonas-spp   pseudomonas-syringae   pseudotsuga-macrocarpa   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pseudotsuga-spp   psychology   pterocarpus-indicus   pterocarpus-officinalis   pterocarya-fraxinifolia   pterocarya-pterocarpa   public-domain   publication-bias   publication-delay   publication-errors   publish-or-perish   puccinia-coronata   pull-push-pest-control   pulp   punica-granatum   purdiaea-nutans   pyrenees-region   pyrenula-laevigata   pyrogeography   pyrolysis   pyrus-amygdaliformis   pyrus-browiczii   pyrus-castribonensis   pyrus-chosrovica   pyrus-communis   pyrus-complexa   pyrus-daralagezi   pyrus-elata   pyrus-gergerana   pyrus-hajastana   pyrus-magyarica   pyrus-nivalis   pyrus-nutans   pyrus-pyraster   pyrus-sicanorum   pyrus-sosnovskyi   pyrus-spinosa   pyrus-spp  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Soil carbon stocks under present and future climate with specific reference to European ecoregions

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 81, No. 2. (1 June 2008), pp. 113-127,


World soils and terrestrial ecosystems have been a source of atmospheric abundance of CO2 ever since settled agriculture began about 10–13 millennia ago. The amount of CO2-C emitted into the atmosphere is estimated at 136 ± 55 Pg from terrestrial ecosystems, of which emission from world soils is estimated at 78 ± 12 Pg. Conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems decreases soil organic carbon (SOC) pool by 30–50% over 50–100 years in temperate regions, and 50–75% over 20–50 years in tropical climates. The projected global warming, with estimated increase in ...


Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) improvement in Hungary: a review

Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica, Vol. 4 (2008), pp. 127-132


Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species introduced and acclimated from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is a fast growing, nitrogen fixing, site tolerant, excellent coppicing species with frequent and abundant seed production and relatively high yielding potential. It has a durable and high quality wood, which is used for many purposes. Although native of North America, black locust is now naturalized and widely planted throughout the world from temperate ...


Potential use of Populus for phytoremediation of environmental pollution in riparian zones

In Micropropagation, genetic engineering, and molecular biology of Populus, Vol. RM-GTR-297 (1997), pp. 206-211


[Excerpt: Introduction] Environmental pollution is a serious threat to human life and to our ecosystems. Riparian zones, the narrow band of land between terrestrial and aquatic systems, are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution because many pollutants are transported through these systems via surface or subsurface runoff. Pollutants include fertilizers (e.g., nitrates), pesticides, agrichemical by-products, heavy metals, trichloroethylene, halogenated phenolics, and other waste products (Schoeneberger 1994). Because agricultural and industrial pollutants are widespread, there is increasing interest on organisms that accumulate, detoxify, or degrade these substances. While it is known that plants and microorganisms modify ...


Willows beyond wetlands: uses of Salix L. species for environmental projects

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution In Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol. 162, No. 1-4. (March 2005), pp. 183-204,


Species of Salix characterized by particular physiological adaptations and ecological resilience are predisposed to use in conservation and environmental projects in many climatic zones and adverse microsite conditions. The economic importance of Salix is currently increasing and emerging in a wide array of practical applications to restore damaged ecosystems. Here we describe the ecology, physiological characteristics and agricultural requirements of Salix and present an integrated picture based on literature review, of current uses for willows well beyond wetland and riparian situations. ...


MOBSTRAT – Timber MOBilisation STRATegies for Swiss forests A participatory and multi-criteria decision-making process to promote timber harvesting in the Ticino Canton

In Atti del IX Congresso Nazionale SISEF "Multifunzionalità degli ecosistemi forestali montani: sfide e opportunità per la ricerca e lo sviluppo" (2013)


Due to global climate change and future energy challenges (peak oil and regional independence on energy supply), local and national policies worldwide promote an increase in the use of timber both in the building sector and for energy production purposes [1, 2, 3]. The MOBSTRAT project aims at understanding whether mobilising more timber is possible and which consequences it would bring. The project is based on a simulation of forest management scenarios applied to three case studies and stakeholder involvement using ...


Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

Ecosystem Services, Vol. 9 (September 2014), pp. 155-165,


[Highlights] [::] We analyzed biophysical and economic impacts of European forest policy options. [::] We assessed impacts on multiple marketed and non-marketed ecosystem services. [::] Intensified forest biomass production decreases provisioning of other services. [::] Biodiversity protection enhances social benefits provided by European forest. [Abstract] To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ...


Reports of the technical working groups established under the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection

Vol. 21319 (2004)


[Excerpt: Introduction] [::Brief History on the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection and Sustainable Use] The concept “Thematic Strategies” appears in the Commission’s proposal on the sixth Environmental Action Programme (6EAP) which the Commission adopted on 24 January 2001. The final text on the 6EAP, adopted by the European Council and the European Parliament on 22 July 2002 dedicates a specific article on Thematic Strategies and lists a total of 7 strategies to be delivered for the following areas: soil, marine, air, pesticides, urban, waste and resources. In ...


Soil Degradation and Soil Quality in Western Europe: Current Situation and Future Perspectives

Sustainability, Vol. 7, No. 1. (31 December 2014), pp. 313-365,


The extent and causes of chemical, physical and biological degradation of soil, and of soil loss, vary greatly in different countries in Western Europe. The objective of this review paper is to examine these issues and also strategies for soil protection and future perspectives for soil quality evaluation, in light of present legislation aimed at soil protection. Agriculture and forestry are the main causes of many of the above problems, especially physical degradation, erosion and organic matter loss. Land take ...


Planet at the crossroads

Science, Vol. 346, No. 6209. (31 October 2014), pp. 525-525,


When we think of nature in 2014, chances are that protected areas come to mind: Amazonian rainforests teeming with wildlife, the sweeping plains of the Serengeti, or an Alpine lake surrounded by glaciers. But the world's protected areas are at a crossroads, and next month, when the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) convenes its once-in-a-decade World Parks Congress in Sydney, Australia, nations will discuss how to address the challenges in protecting ecosystems across the world for the benefit of ...


Engineering ecological protection against landslides in diverse mountain forests: Choosing cohesion models

Ecological Engineering, Vol. 45 (August 2012), pp. 55-69,


Vegetation is increasingly used to protect artificial and natural slopes against shallow landslides. Mechanically, plant roots reinforce soil along a slope by providing cohesion (cr). cr is usually estimated using either of two models: a Wu and Waldron's Model (WWM) or a Fiber Bundle Model (FBM). The WWM assumes that all fine and medium roots break simultaneously during shearing, whereas the FBM assumes progressive breakage of these roots. Both models are based on measurements of root density (RD), root tensile strength ...


Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 May 2000 on protective measures against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 43, No. L 169. (May 2000), pp. 1-112


[:Article 1] 1. This Directive concerns protective measures against the introduction into the Member States from other Member States or third countries of organisms which are harmful to plants or plant products. [\n]It also concerns: [\n](a) with effect from 1 June 1993, protective measures against the spread of harmful organisms within the Community by means related to movements of plants, plant products and other related objects within a Member State; [\n](b) protective measures against the introduction of harmful organisms into the French ...


Root strength and density decay after felling in a Silver Fir-Norway Spruce stand in the Italian Alps

Plant and Soil, Vol. 377, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 63-81,


Aims Forests induce a mechanical reinforcement of soil, generally quantified in terms of additional root cohesion (c r ), which decreases due to root decay after felling. The aim of this work is providing new field data on soil reinforcement by roots after trees cutting. Methods The present work investigated c r decay in a mixed Silver Fir-Norway Spruce (Abies alba Mill. Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in the Italian Alps over a period of 3 years after felling by monitoring ...


Hydrogeomorphic processes and vegetation: disturbance, process histories, dependencies and interactions

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 January 2012), pp. 9-22,


Riparian vegetation and hydrogeomorphic processes are intimately connected parts of upland catchment and fan environments. Trees, shrubs and grasses and hydrogeomorphic processes interact and depend on each other in complex ways on the hillslopes, channels and cone-shaped fans of torrential watersheds. While the presence and density of vegetation have a profound influence on hydrogeomorphic processes, the occurrence of the latter will also exert control on the presence, vitality, species, and age distribution of vegetation. This contribution aims at providing a review ...


Species selection for soil reinforcement and protection

In Slope Stability and Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions (2008), pp. 167-210,


Species selection is vitally important for ensuring the success of any ecotechnological solution that may be employed on a particular site. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the engineer with a database of plant species that are suitable for both soil and slope stability by either mechanical or hydrological means, i.e., anchoring and buttressing of deep tap roots; bank and channel reinforcement; deep reinforcement and soil strength enhancement; removing soil moisture, surface protection, shallow reinforcement and erosion control. Protection ...


Selecting tree species for use in rockfall-protection forests

Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 77-88


Research on protection forests designed to alleviate rockfall hazard has increased enormously over the last decade. Data are available concerning the most suitable stem spacing and density regimes in stands.The species used in protection forests can also influence enormously the effectiveness of the forest in conferring a protective role. Little information exists, however, about either the mechanical resistance of different species to rock impacts or the recovery processes after sustaining a wound. This paper provides a short review of the work ...


Effects of plant species diversity on soil conservation and stability in the secondary succession phases of a semihumid evergreen broadleaf forest in China

Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 67, No. 4. (01 July 2012), pp. 311-320,


One of the most studied aspects of ecosystems in recent years has been the relationship between plant species diversity and ecosystem functions; however, the relationship with one such ecosystem function, soil conservation, has been less well studied. We established forest plots in the secondary succession phases of a semihumid evergreen broadleaf forest in China. The plots differed in plant species richness but had otherwise similar soil-erosion factors, observed surface runoff, sediment, and total phosphorus (P) loss. We analyzed the relationship between ...


Political borders should not hamper wildlife

Nature, Vol. 508, No. 7494. (1 April 2014), pp. 9-9,


[Excerpt] Given the lack of global legislation, nations should work hard to establish cross-border protections for vulnerable species, says Aaron M. Ellison. [...] Conservation biologists have repeatedly called for global, or at least cross-border, systems of protected areas. Long-standing international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), make similar pronouncements. But although the CBD has guidelines and suggestions for the conservation of biological diversity, it provides no legal protection for threatened or endangered species. And even if the CBD could be ...


Matching and mechanisms in protected area and poverty alleviation research

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 11. (18 March 2014), pp. 3909-3910,


[excerpt] Excitement among social scientists about the discovery of randomized controlled trials has been tempered by the recognition that experimental research and related designs may be infeasible, prohibitively expensive, or even unsuitable for an enormous range of questions of interest to social science and policy (1⇓–3). Recourse to matching-based statistical approaches can enable more transparent causal inference with observational data. The recent upsurge in environmental science writings that use matching techniques borrows from a long and continuing history of such use ...


Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 11. (18 March 2014), pp. 4332-4337,


[Significance] Scholars are accumulating evidence about the effects of environmental programs on social outcomes. Quantifying these effects is important, but to design better programs we need to understand how these effects arise. Little is known about the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare. Our study demonstrates that, with existing data and appropriate empirical designs, scientists and policymakers can elucidate these previously unidentified mechanisms. We estimate how Costa Rica’s protected area system reduced poverty in neighboring communities. Nearly two-thirds ...


Dynamic reserve site selection under contagion risk of deforestation

Ecological Modelling In Management, Control and Decision Making for Ecological Systems, Vol. 201, No. 1. (10 February 2007), pp. 75-81,


Recently, dynamic reserve site selection models based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) have been proposed. The models consider a random development pattern in which the probability that a site will be developed is independent of the development status of other sites. However, development often takes the form of a contagion process in which the sites most likely to be developed are near sites that already have been developed. To consider site selections in such cases, we propose improved algorithms that make ...


Climate change might drive the invasive tree Robinia pseudacacia into nature reserves and endangered habitats

Biological Conservation, Vol. 143, No. 2. (01 February 2010), pp. 382-390,


Static networks of nature reserves disregard the dynamics of species ranges in changing environments. In fact, climate warming has been shown to potentially drive endangered species out of reserves. Less attention has been paid to the related problem that a warmer climate may also foster the invasion of alien species into reserve networks. Here, we use niche-based predictive modelling to assess to which extent the Austrian Natura 2000 network and a number of habitat types of conservation value outside this network ...


Mandatory requirements in relation to air, soil, or water protection: analysis of need and feasibility - Final Report (Tasks 3 and 4)

No. BIONL11469. (February 2013)


Summary. This report presents the results of Task 3, the Analysis of the need to introduce mandatory requirements in relation to air, soil, or water protection and Task 4 the Analysis of the feasibility to introduce mandatory requirements in relation to air, soil or water protection in the context of the overall project for the Commission “Study on the operation of the system for the biofuels and bioliquids sustainability scheme” (ENER/C1/2010-431). The main intention in encouraging an increase in biofuel use is ...


Achieving the Convention on Biological Diversity’s goals for plant conservation

Science, Vol. 341, No. 6150. (6 September 2013), pp. 1100-1103,


[Editor's Summary]: The Convention on Biological Diversity's 20 Aichi Targets, agreed in October 2010, extend to 2020 an international commitment to halt the loss of biodiversity. Using data from “The Plant List” (, Joppa et al. (p. 1100), show that ∼65% of plant species are endemic to 17% of the terrestrial land surface and include many islands, with mainland contributions concentrated heavily in central and southern America and Asia. These regions include 75% of all plant species. These regions are also ...

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INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.