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Selection: with tag precursor-research [25 articles] 


Global environmental issues and the emergence of Second Order Science

Vol. 12803 (1990)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The fundamental achievements of science, like those of all creative activities, have a timeless quality. The social activity of science, like any other, evolves in response to its changing circumstances, in its objects, methods and social functions. In the high Middle Ages, the independence of secular learning was established in the universities, removed from the monasteries; and the boundary between the sacred and private on the one hand, and the secular and public on the other, was set for ...


Lexicographic optimisation for water resources planning: the case of Lake Verbano, Italy

In Proceedings of the iEMSs First Biennial Meeting: Integrated Assessment and Decision Support (2002), pp. 235-240


Lake Verbano is a natural lake used as multipurpose reservoir. The lake supplies water for irrigation and hydropower generation to downstream users, while flood controls are applied to protect the lake shores and the downstream populations on the Ticino river, and environmental preservation constraints must be respected. All these objectives are conflicting and they have different priorities, as stated by the Italian regulation on water use. This paper explores a methodology aimed at solving this conflict. The stakeholders involvement in the ...


Concluding remarks

Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 22 (1 January 1957), pp. 415-427,


This concluding survey of the problems considered in the Symposium naturally falls into three sections. In the first brief section certain of the areas in which there is considerable difference in outlook are discussed with a view to ascertaining the nature of the differences in the points of view of workers in different parts of the field; no aspect of the Symposium has been more important than the reduction of areas of dispute. In the second section a rather detailed analysis ...


Attempts to manufacture scientific discovery

Nature, Vol. 94, No. 2358. (7 January 1915), pp. 512-512,


[Excerpt] In an excellent article forming one of his admirable series of essays entitled “Science from an Easy-chair,” published in the Daily Telegraph of December 15, 1914, Sir Ray Lankester deals particularly with the case of the recent proposal that the Lister Institute should be handed over to the Medical Research Committee of the National Insurance Commission. The proposal was rejected on November 18 by the votes of the members; and Sir Ray Lankester preaches a useful sermon upon this text. ...


LINPACK: users' guide



[Excerpt:Table of Contents] "R.T.F.M." - Anonymous [\n] [...] [Overview] LIMPACK is a collection of Fortran subroutines which analyze and solve various systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The subroutines are designed to be completely machine independent, fully portable, and to run at near optimum efficiency in most operating environments. [\n] Many of the subroutines deal with square coefficient matrices, where there are as many equations as unknowns. Some of the subroutines process rectangular coefficient matrices, where the system may be over- or underdetermined. Such systems ...


The economic possibilities of conservation

The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3. (01 May 1913), pp. 497-519,


[Excerpt] It is desirable to confine the idea of conservation to its original application to natural resources. Even in this sense the concept as developed in the conservation movement comprises several distinct purposes, which are not clearly separated in the popular mind. In the first place, it expresses a demand for a fair distribution of the natural resources not yet alienated. [\n] [...] The real heart of the conservation problem presents an issue which taxes the resources of economic theory to the utmost. ...


The charcoal vision: a win–win–win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality

Agronomy Journal, Vol. 100, No. 1. (2008), 178,


Processing biomass through a distributed network of fast pyrolyzers may be a sustainable platform for producing energy from biomass. Fast pyrolyzers thermally transform biomass into bio-oil, syngas, and charcoal. The syngas could provide the energy needs of the pyrolyzer. Bio-oil is an energy raw material (∼17 MJ kg−1) that can be burned to generate heat or shipped to a refinery for processing into transportation fuels. Charcoal could also be used to generate energy; however, application of the charcoal co-product to soils ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 31

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   policy-strategies-for-scientific-uncertainty   pollen   pollen-analysis   pollen-dispersal   pollen-records   pollination   pollinology   pollution   polulation   polydrusus-impressifrons   polygala-myrtifolia   polygraphus-poligraphus   polymath   polymorphism   polypodium   population   population-adaptation   population-decline   population-density   population-dynamics   population-growth   population-structuring   population-viability-risk-management   populus-adenopoda   populus-alba   populus-angustifolia   populus-balsamifera   populus-cathayana   populus-deltoides   populus-euphratica   populus-fremontii   populus-grandidentata   populus-igra   populus-ilicifolia   populus-koreana   populus-lasiocarpa   populus-nigra   populus-simonii   populus-spp   populus-szechuanica   populus-tremula   populus-tremuloides   populus-trichocarpa   populus-wettsteinii   populus-x-canescens   populus-x-tomentosa   populus-yunnanensis   porosity   portability   porthetria-dispar   portugal   positional-analysis   post-fire-management   post-fire-regeneration   post-fire-vegetation-dynamics   post-glacial-dispersal   post-glacial-migration   post-normal-science   post-publication-peer-review   post-truth   postfire-impacts   postfire-recovery   postgis   postglacial-recolonization   postgresql   potassium   potential   potential-evapotranspiration   potential-habitat   potential-soil-erosion   potoxylon-melagangai   poverty   power-law   ppm   practice   pre-alpine   pre-print   precaution   precaution-principle   precipitation   precisely-wrong   precursor-research   predation   predator-satiation   predatory-publishers   prediction   prediction-bias   predictive-modelling   predictor-selection   predictors   predisposition   prehistoric-human-impacts   premature-optimization   preparedness   preprints   prescribed-burn   presence-absence   presence-background   presence-only  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Grundriss der Klimakunde



[Excerpt] Der erste Teil dieses Buches ist eine Umarbeitung des unter dem Titel Klimakunde I, Allgemeine Klimalehre, erschienenen 114. Bändchens der Sammlung Göschen. ...


Extinction, Substitution, and Ecosystem Services

BioScience, Vol. 33, No. 4. (01 April 1983), pp. 248-254,


The loss of services to humanity following extinctions ranges from trivial to catastrophic, depending on the number of elements (populations, species, guilds) deleted and the degree of control each exerted in the system. Most attempts to substitute other organisms for those lost have been unsuccessful, to one degree or another, and prospects for increasing the success rate in the foreseeable future are not great. Attempts to supply the lost services by other means tend to be expensive failures in the long ...


Biodiversity studies: science and policy

Science, Vol. 253, No. 5021. (16 August 1991), pp. 758-762,


Biodiversity studies comprise the systematic examination of the full array of different kinds of organisms together with the technology by which the diversity can be maintained and used for the benefit of humanity. Current basic research at the species level focuses on the process of species formation, the standing levels of species numbers in various higher taxonomic categories, and the phenomena of hyperdiversity and extinction proneness. The major practical concern is the massive extinction rate now caused by human activity, which ...


Conserving genetic resources on-site in forest ecosystems

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 35, No. 1-2. (June 1990), pp. 45-68,


Genetic diversity and its structure (its organization in space and time) are the critical raw materials from which many other aspects of diversity are derived. These genetic resources represent information about unique and successful relationships among genes and between gene complexes and environments. Only a fraction of this information has been mined through research. The balance, and the genetic materials themselves, are most effectively conserved for future use by on-site (in-situ) preservation, management, or restoration of populations, communities and entire landscapes. ...


In Absentia Benefits of Nature Preserves: A Review

Environmental Conservation, Vol. 11 (March 1984), pp. 3-10,


Nature preserves are lands which are protected in order to provide hoped-for perpetuation of natural features within the context of a relatively unmodified natural environment. Nature preserves are typically justified on the basis of benefits to communities of plants or animals (biocentric benefits) or to Mankind (anthropocentric benefits). Anthropocentric benefits are usually described in terms of on-site uses of nature preserves for recreation, quiet enjoyment, scientific research, education, and/or resource-banking. These benefits are not, however, by any means the only effects ...


Two-Person Cooperative Games

Econometrica, Vol. 21, No. 1. (1953), pp. 128-140,


In this paper, the author extends his previous treatment of 'The Bargaining Problem" to a wider class of situations in which threats can play a role. A new approach is introduced involving the elaboration of the threat concept. [Introduction] The theory presented here was developed to treat economic (or other) situations involving two individuals whose interests are neither completely opposed nor completely coincident. The word cooperative is used because the two individuals are supposed to be able to discuss the situation ...


The "Anthropocene"

Global Change Newsletter, Vol. 41 (May 2000), pp. 17-18


[Excerpt] The name Holocene (“Recent Whole”)for the post-glacial geological epoch of the past ten to twelve thousand years seems to have been proposed for the first time by Sir Charles Lyell in 1833, and adopted by the International Geological Congress in Bologna in 1885 (1). During the Holocene mankind’s activities gradually grew into a significant geological, morphological force, as recognised early on by a number of scientists. Thus, G.P. Marsh already in 1864 published a book with the title “Man and Nature”, more recently reprinted as “The Earth as Modified by Human Action” (2). Stoppani ...


Self-stabilization in spite of distributed control

In Selected Writings on Computing: A personal Perspective (1982), pp. 41-46,


A systematic way for finding the algorithm ensuring some desired form of co-operation between a set of loosely coupled sequential processes can in general terms be described as follows: the relation “the system is in a legitimate state” is kept invariant. As a consequence, each intended individual process step that could possibly cause violation of that invariant relation has to be preceded by a test that it won’t do so, and depending on the outcome of that test the critical process ...


On the role of scientific thought

In Selected Writings on Computing: A personal Perspective (1982), pp. 60-66,


Essentially, this essay contains nothing new; on the contrary, its subject matter is so old that sometimes it seems forgotten. It is written in an effort to undo some of the more common misunderstandings that I encounter (nearly daily) in my professional world of computing scientists, programmers, computer users and computer designers, and even colleagues engaged in educational politics. The decision to write this essay now was taken because I suddenly realized that my confrontation with this same pattern of misunderstanding ...


Robust regression using repeated medians

Biometrika, Vol. 69, No. 1. (01 April 1982), pp. 242-244,


The repeated median algorithm is a robustified U-statistic in which nested medians replace the single mean. Unlike many generalizations of the univariate median, repeated median estimates maintain the high 50% breakdown value and can resist the effects of outliers even when they comprise nearly half of the data. For bivariate linear regression with symmetric errors, repeated median estimates are unbiased and Fisher consistent, and their efficiency under Gaussian sampling can be comparable to the efficiency of the univariate median. ...


  1. Andrews, D. F., 1974. A robust method for multiple linear regression. Technometrics 16, 523-31.
  2. Brown, G. W., Mood, A. M., 1951. On median tests for linear hypotheses. Proc. 2nd berkeley symp. 159- 66.
  3. Cox, D. R., Hinkley, D. V., 1974. Theoretical statistics. London: Chapman and Hall.
  4. Hoeffding, W., 1948. A class of statistics with asymptotically normal distribution. Ann. Math. Statist. 19, 293-325.

Ironies of automation

Automatica, Vol. 19, No. 6. (November 1983), pp. 775-779,


This paper discusses the ways in which automation of industrial processes may expand rather than eliminate problems with the human operator. Some comments will be made on methods of alleviating these problems within the ‘classic’ approach of leaving the operator with responsibility for abnormal conditions, and on the potential for continued use of the human operator for on-line decision-making within human-computer collaboration. ...


Environmental decision support systems


Numerical taxonomy

Nature, Vol. 193, No. 4818. (03 March 1962), pp. 855-860,


Recent years have seen a remarkable re-awakening of interest in taxonomy accompanied by a new freedom of ideas and concepts in this field. A number of authors, both in Great Britain and the United States, and in such diverse fields as zoology, botany, palontology and microbiology, have started thinking and working along similar lines quite independently. We do not attempt to review here all the growing technical literature on the subject, since this is listed in several other publications will therefore ...


Algorithm = Logic + Control

Commun. ACM, Vol. 22, No. 7. (July 1979), pp. 424-436,


An algorithm can be regarded as consisting of a logic component, which specifies the knowledge to be used in solving problems, and a control component, which determines the problem-solving strategies by means of which that knowledge is used. The logic component determines the meaning of the algorithm whereas the control component only affects its efficiency. The efficiency of an algorithm can often be improved by improving the control component without changing the logic of the algorithm. We argue that computer programs ...


Modeling, informatics, and the quest for reproducibility

Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, Vol. 53, No. 7. (12 June 2013), pp. 1529-1530,


There is no doubt that papers published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, and related journals, provide valuable scientific information. However, it is often difficult to reproduce the work described in molecular modeling and cheminformatics papers. In many cases the software described in the paper is not readily available, in other cases the supporting information is not provided in an accessible format. To date, the major journals in the fields of molecular modeling and cheminformatics have not established guidelines ...


Letter to the Editor - Comment on editorial on software distribution in science

Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, Vol. 24, No. 4. (1 November 1984), pp. 276-276,


I am accepting your invitation to comment on your editorial in the May issue of JCICS regarding the subject of scientists’ commercial stakes in programs that they write for scientific purposes. I feel strongly about this issue because I believe that the spirit of scientific investigation and the spirit of scientific cooperation are threatened by the behavior of some of our new entrepreneurs who desire to get rich quick. The question of vested interest can be resolved at the publication level, at ...


An ecological approach to forest protection

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 5, No. 2. (February 1983), pp. 133-168,


In this article the following problems are discussed: (1) the nature of stability of a forest ecosystem, i.e. resistance of a forest ecosystem to pest organisms, (2) the causes that decrease such stability, (3) the interrelations between ideas about forest ecosystem stability and some ecological concepts, (4) methods by which forest ecosystem stability may be maintained by man. The stability results from the self-defense mechanism of forest trees and natural enemies of pests. Both components are disturbed by factors unfavourable for ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.