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Selection: with tag pinus-sylvestris [100 articles] 


Pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae

EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05029,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The regulated harmful organism is the anamorph Cercoseptoria pini-densiflorae (synonym Cercospora pini-densiflorae) with the corresponding teleomorph Mycosphaerella gibsonii. P. pini-densiflorae causes a needle blight of Pinus spp. also known as Cercospora blight of pines or Cercospora needle blight. P. pini-densiflorae is reported from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia and ...


  1. Anon, 2015. PM 7/46 (3) Lecanosticta acicola (formerly Mycosphaerella dearnessii), Dothistroma septosporum (formerly Mycosphaerella pini) and Dothistroma pini. EPPO Bulletin 45, 163–182.
  2. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. .
  3. Büttner, G., Kosztra, B., Maucha, G., Pataki, R., 2012. Implementation and achievements of CLC2006. Tech. rep., European Environment Agency. .

Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 15, No. 7. (10 July 2010), pp. 681-701,


Risks can generally be described as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Using this framework, we evaluated the historical and future development of risk of fire and wind damage in European forestry at the national level. Fire risk is expected to increase, mainly as a consequence of an increase in fire hazard, defined as the Fire Weather Index in summer. Exposure, defined as forest area, is expected to increase slightly as a consequence of active afforestation and abandonment of marginal ...


History matters: previous land use changes determine post-fire vegetation recovery in forested Mediterranean landscapes

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 279 (September 2012), pp. 121-127,


[Abstract] Land use changes and shifts in disturbance regimes (e.g. wildfires) are recognized worldwide as two of the major drivers of the current global change in terrestrial ecosystems. We expect that, in areas with large-scale land use changes, legacies from previous land uses persist and affect current ecosystem responses to climate-associated disturbances like fire. This study analyses whether post-fire vegetation dynamics may differ according to specific historical land use histories in a Mediterranean forest landscape of about 60,000 ha that was burnt ...


Investigation of root reinforcement decay after a forest fire in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) protection forest

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 400 (September 2017), pp. 339-352,


[Highlights] [::] Engineering resilience of Scots pine 4 years after forest fire has been quantified. [::] Spatial distribution of root reinforcement (RR) has been modeled. [::] RR decay by a factor of 3.6, 4 years after a stand replacing forest fire. [::] Natural regeneration has almost no root reinforcement 4 years after fire. [::] Decay of root mechanical properties determine most of RR loss. [Abstract] Natural disturbances may cause a temporary reduction or elimination of the protective effect of forests. The management of protection forests aims to influence ...


Generalized allometric volume and biomass equations for some tree species in Europe

In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 126, No. 2. (2007), pp. 157-166,


Since biomass is one of the key variables in ecosystem studies, widespread effort has aimed to facilitating its estimation. Numerous stand-specific volume and biomass equations are available, but these cannot be used for scaling up biomass to the regional level where several age-classes and structural types of stands coexist. Therefore simplified generalized volume and biomass equations are needed. In the present study, generalized biomass and volume regression equations were developed for the main tree species in Europe. These equations were based ...


Potential insect vectors of Bursaphelenchus spp. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) in Spanish pine forests

In Pine Wilt Disease: A Worldwide Threat to Forest Ecosystems (2008), pp. 221-234,


Potential insect vectors of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (PWN) were studied. Pathways of introduction of PWN from Portugal to Europe, through Spain, were determined and traps were located in pine stands sites along the pathways. 19 Cerambycidae, 12 Scolytidae, 12 Buprestidae and 10 Curculionidae species have been found. Trapped insects were examined for the presence of nematodes under their elytra. Nematodes were found on Arhopalus ferus, Spondylis buprestoides, Hylastes ater, Hylurgus lingniperda, Orthotomicus erosus, Pityogenes bidentatus, Tomicus piniperda, Hylobius abietis and Pissodes validirrostris ...


Introduction of lodgepole pine in Sweden - Ecological relevance for vertebrates

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (February 2001), pp. 143-153,


Several factors like vegetation structure, quality of food and protection from predators influence habitat utilisation by vertebrates. When an exotic tree species is introduced it has the potential to affect vertebrates in a number of ways. In the boreal region of Sweden (where Scots pine (P. sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) are the dominant native conifers), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was introduced on a large scale about 40 years ago. [\n] Our review of current knowledge on the lodgepole pine suggests ...


Evidences of drought stress as a predisposing factor to Scots pine decline in Valle d’Aosta (Italy)

European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 131, No. 4. (25 October 2012), pp. 989-1000,


Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of many inner Alpine valleys have recently displayed a quick loss of vitality. A decline disease has been suggested as the cause, with drought as the main predisposing factor and the additional contribution of biotic agents inciting tree dieback. This study is focused on Valle d’Aosta, a dry, inner-Alpine region in NW Italy. We inferred vitality changes between years 2000 and 2007 by computing reductions in enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Image differencing was carried ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 30

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   pinus-ponderosa   pinus-pungens   pinus-radiata   pinus-resinosa   pinus-rigida   pinus-rotundata   pinus-roxburghii   pinus-sabiniana   pinus-silvester   pinus-spp   pinus-strobus   pinus-sylvestriformis   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-tabulaeformis   pinus-tabuliformis   pinus-taeda   pinus-thunbergiana   pinus-thunbergii   pinus-torreyana   pinus-tropicalis   pinus-uncinata   pinus-wallichiana   pioneer-species   pip   pissodes-piceae   pissodes-spp   pissodes-strobi   pissodes-validirostris   pissodes-validirrostris   pistacia-lentiscus   pistacia-spp   pistacia-terebinthus   pistacia-vera   pith   pithecellobium-unguis-cati   pityogenes-bidentatus   pityogenes-chalcographus   pityokteines-curvidens   pityostrobus   pktools   plankton   planning   plant   plant-adaptation   plant-breeding   plant-classification   plant-climate-interactions   plant-communities   plant-community   plant-consumption   plant-dictionary   plant-diseases   plant-diversity   plant-ecology   plant-functional-types   plant-genetics   plant-growth   plant-health   plant-height   plant-invasion   plant-migration   plant-pathogens   plant-pests   plant-physiology   plant-population-dynamics   plant-populations   plant-self-defense   plant-species   plant-species-competition   plant-species-richness   plant-survival   plant-trait   plant-use   plantation   plants   plasticity   platanus-orientalis   platanus-racemosa   platanus-spp   platanus-x-hispanica   platycarya-strobilacea   platymiscium-pinnatum   platypus-sulcatus   plausibility-check   pleistocene   pleurospermum-austriacum   pleurostomophora-richardsiae   pliocene   plumeria-alba   plumeria-rubra   po-plain   poaceae   podocarpus-falcatus   poisonous-plants   poland   polar-ecological-zone   polar-region   polfc   policy  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Climate change increases the drought risk in Central European forests: what are the options for adaptation?

Forestry Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 January 2014),


The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher ...


Effect of tree species mixing on the size structure, density, and yield of forest stands

European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 135, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-22,


An increasing number of studies provide evidence that mixed-species stands can overyield monocultures. But it is still hardly understood, how the overyielding at the stand level emerges from the tree, canopy, and size structure. Analyses of 42 triplets with 126 mixed and mono-specific plots in middle-aged, two-species stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), and European beech (Fagus sylvativa L.) in Central Europe revealed that mixed-species compared with mono-specific stands ...


Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 311 (January 2014), pp. 3-16,


[Highlights] [::] C:N ratio in forest floor, peat and mineral topsoil mainly depend on tree species. [::] Most important differences in C:N ratios are seen between deciduous and evergreen species. [::] Either soil type, ecoregion or humus type was the second most important explanatory factor. [::] There was no consistent relationship between modelled deposition and C:N ratios. [Abstract] The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of ...


Soil characteristics and landcover relationships on soil hydraulic conductivity at a hillslope scale: a view towards local flood management

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 497 (August 2013), pp. 208-222,


We evaluate woodland/grassland cover and soil types to reduce local flooding. We measured field saturated hydraulic conductivity under grassland and woodland. Established broadleaf woodland had significantly higher infiltration rates than grassland. 1 in 10 year storm events would cause infiltration-excess overland flow on grassland. We suggest deciduous shelterbelts upslope could locally reduce overland flow. There are surprisingly few studies in humid temperate forests which provide reliable evidence that soil permeability is enhanced under forests. This work addresses this research gap through a ...


Dothistroma and Lecanosticta needle blight in the CR

SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal (2009), pp. 7-14


Dothistroma needle blight is widespread in the Czech Republic now, although the first finding was noted in 2000. To date, it has been identified on 21 species of Pines, 4 species of Spruces and also on Douglas fir in the CR. Records on Scots pine were exceptionally rare in the CR and also in Europe up to spring 2008. Brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola was for the first time reported in the Czech Republic on June 2007, actually is known from ...


Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup, a new quarantine pathogen of pines in the CR

Journal of Forest Science, Vol. 50, No. 7. (2004), pp. 319-326


Dothistroma needle blight caused by Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup was observed for the first time in the Czech Republic on an imported Pinus nigra Arnold in 1999. In 2000, it was also found in the open planting. During three years, it became an important pathogen of pines in the Czech Republic. Its occurrence was noticed in more than 50 localities, above all in the region of Moravia and Silesia and eastern Bohemia. In total, it was found on 10 species of ...


Characterization of Fusarium circinatum from Pinus spp. in northern Spain

Mycological Research, Vol. 111, No. 7. (July 2007), pp. 832-839,


Pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum was recently reported on Pinus spp. in Spain. In this study, a collection of 157 isolates of F. circinatum obtained from different geographical origins and hosts in northern Spain were identified and characterized by cultural and morphological features, PCR-RFLPs of the histone H3 gene, IGS region, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF). Mating types were determined by multiplex PCR and sexual compatibility was performed under laboratory conditions. Both mating types were present in ...


Genetic diversity of Dothistroma septosporum in Estonia, Finland and Czech Republic

European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 136, No. 1. (2013), pp. 71-85,


Dothistroma needle blight is one of the most damaging foliage diseases in pine plantations worldwide. Recently it has become more aggressive in native pine stands in northern America and has been found frequently on Scots pine stands in northern Europe. In Estonia and Finland it was noticed for the first time in 2006 and 2008, respectively and in Central Europe in the late 1990s. We show considerable diversity in allele patterns of several microsatellite loci in populations of these countries which ...


Effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 29, No. 9. (August 2004), pp. 1161-1169,


Vegetation barriers can be effective in trapping eroded sediment, but little knowledge exists on the characteristics of vegetation barriers efficient in trapping all sediments from an eroded zone upslope. The objective of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping. Relationships between eroded zones and vegetation barriers – composed of low vegetation, that is to say herbaceous and under-shrub layers – located downslope and sufficient to stop all the sediments eroded above, have been studied ...


Influence of vegetation distribution on sediment yield in forested marly gullies

CATENA, Vol. 50, No. 2-4. (January 2003), pp. 549-562,


The cover provided by forest vegetation makes it possible to fight erosion efficiently. Furthermore, vegetation barriers can also play a major role by trapping eroded sediments and thus vegetation located downslope of a gully can be important. The objective of this study is to highlight the role of vegetation distribution in a marly gully in reducing sediment loss at the outlet. To do this, sediment yield in gullies with similar geological and geomorphological components, but with different vegetation cover and distribution, ...


Precipitation and temperature as factors in Gremmeniella abietina epidemics

Forest Pathology, Vol. 39, No. 1. (February 2009), pp. 56-72,


The combination of temperature and precipitation during the growth season could be correlated with the occurrence of Gremmeniella abietina epidemics in Denmark. The Gremmeniella index value (GIV) is the result of the monthly rain in mm divided by average monthly temperature in centigrade (mm/°C) and it was created to facilitate easy prediction of epidemics in Denmark. The two most severe outbreaks of G. abietina in pine and other conifers in Denmark took place in 1963–64 and 1984–85, following years where low ...


Direct regeneration is not the only response of Mediterranean forests to large fires

Ecology, Vol. 85, No. 3. (March 2004), pp. 716-729,


It is widely accepted that the postfire recovery in Mediterranean plant communities is carried out by direct regeneration, i.e., the fast recovery of a plant community with the same species pool that it had immediately prior to disturbance. However, there is evidence that not all plant species in the Mediterranean basin survive fire in all situations, suggesting that the direct regeneration process might not apply to all situations. We analyze whether the main combinations of forest tree species (up to 16) ...


How have exotic forest pests impacted Europe?

In Risks of Exotic Forest Pests and Their Impact on Trade (2001)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The forests of Europe, predominantly coniferous, span a wide range of age and species. For example, in the former USSR, forest cover has been present for many thousands of years, whereas in the UK, the present coniferous forest cover is typically less than 100 hundred years old. The range of pests present in any area and, more importantly, the damage they cause reflect this age and species range. Thus, efforts directed at either controlling or in some areas, keeping ...


Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Ips typographus (L.) on Picea abies [(L.) H. Karst.] and Pinus sylvestris L. in north-eastern Poland

Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, Vol. 74, No. 4. (24 April 2011), pp. 345-350,


This study dealt with the species distribution and frequency of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the bark beetle Ips typographus on Norway spruce and Scots pine in north-eastern Poland. At all locations high spruce bark beetle damage has occurred in 2002-2003. Fungi were isolated from beetles and from brood systems of trees infested by the spruce bark beetle. The ophiostomatoid fungi were represented by 13 species. A similar spectrum of ophiostomatoid fungi as that recorded from Picea abies was associated with I. ...


Fire resistance of European pines

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 256, No. 3. (July 2008), pp. 246-255,


Pine resistance to low- to moderate-intensity fire arises from traits (namely related to tissue insulation from heat) that enable tree survival. Predictive models of the likelihood of tree mortality after fire are quite valuable to assist decision-making after wildfire and to plan prescribed burning. Data and models pertaining to the survival of European pines following fire are reviewed. The type and quality of the current information on fire resistance of the various European species is quite variable. Data from low-intensity fire ...


A new Chionosphaera species associated with conifer inhabiting bark beetles

Mycological Research, Vol. 105, No. 11. (November 2001), pp. 1403-1408,


An undescribed species of the heterobasidiomycetous genus Chionosphaera is carried by the bark beetles Dryocoetus autographus, Hylurgops palliatus, Ips acuminatus, Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus, Orthotomicus laricis, Pityogenes chalcographus, Pityokteines spinidens, and Polygraphus poligraphus infesting conifers in Europe (Abies alba, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris). Chionosphaera cuniculicola sp. nov. differs morphologically from C. apobasidialis in the more slender basidiospores. The segregation of the two species is supported by comparison of partial sequences of the large subunit of the ribosomal gene. ...


Taxonomic differences among closely related pines Pinus sylvestris, P. mugo, P. uncinata, P. rotundata and P. uliginosa as revealed in needle sclerenchyma cells

Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, Vol. 202, No. 7. (September 2007), pp. 555-569,


The purpose of the present study was to test the taxonomic value of sclerenchyma in distinguishing Pinus sylvestris and P. mugo, P. uncinata, P. rotundata and P. uliginosa, all representing the subsection Sylvestres within the genus Pinus. Thirty-six samples were gathered in natural populations. Every sample was represented with 30 individuals, every individual with 10 brachyblasts. Three types of sclerenchymatic cells surrounding the resin canals and four between vascular bundles were distinguished. Relations among samples and taxa were verified using discriminant ...


Pinus uncinata Ramond taxonomy based on needle characters

In Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 227, No. 3-4. (2001), pp. 183-194,


11 needle characters of Pinus uncinata Ramond from the Spanish Pyrenees, P. mugo Turra from the Tatra Mountains, and P. sylvestris L. from N.E. Poland were analysed. It was shown that P. uncinata is much more closely related to P. mugo than to P. sylvestris. Nevertheless P. uncinata remains distinct from both in a number of the characters examined. The species differs from P. mugo especially in the length of the needles and in the distance between the vascular bundles. It differs ...


Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress

Plant, Cell & Environment (May 2014), pp. n/a-n/a,


One major effect of global climate change will be altered precipitation patterns in many regions of the world. This will cause a higher probability of long-term waterlogging in winter/spring and flash floods in summer because of extreme rainfall events. Particularly, trees not adapted at their natural site to such waterlogging stress can be impaired. Despite the enormous economic, ecological and social importance of forest ecosystems, the effect of waterlogging on trees is far less understood than the effect on many crops ...


Flooding tolerance of Central European tree and shrub species

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (November 2006), pp. 1-13,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-campestre   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanus   aesculus-hippocastanum   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   betula-pendula   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   cornus-sanguinea   corylus-avellana   crataegus-monogyna   disturbances   fagus-sylvatica   floods   forest-resources   frangula-alnus   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-communis   larix-decidua   malus-sylvestris   picea-abies   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   prunus-domestica   prunus-mahaleb   prunus-padus   prunus-spinosa   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   robinia-pseudoacacia   salix-alba   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sambucus-nigra   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   taxus-baccata   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   tolerance   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   viburnum-opulus   water-resources  


Extensive efforts have been made in recent years to restore rivers with a view to increasing the ecological value of riparian areas and the surrounding landscape and to improving the protection provided against extreme flooding events. One of the important factors for the successful establishment and survival of tree and shrub species in enlarged river corridors (particularly in lowlands) – and in retention basins – is their capacity to survive in anoxic conditions, i.e. their flooding tolerance. The importance of improving ...


Distribution map of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)



The distribution maps on this page were compiled by experts contributing to EUFORGEN activities, based on existing bibliography and other information sources. Individuals may use the distribution maps for personal, educational, scientific or other non-commercial purposes without prior permission from the EUFORGEN Secretariat but they must acknowledge EUFORGEN as the source of information. In case the distribution maps are used for a publication, the EUFORGEN Secretariat would appreciate receiving a notification or a copy of the publication. ...


Pinus sylvestris

In Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie (2006)


Pinus sylvestris, oft als "Brotbaum" des osteuropäischen Diluviums bezeichnet, stellt eine der wirtschaftlich wichtigsten und wissenschaftlich am intensivsten bearbeiteten Waldbaumarten der Nordhalbkugel dar. Die geringen Ansprüche an Klima und Boden sowie die kaum zu überblickende Variationsbreite der morphologischen Merkmale wie auch der physiologischen Eigenschaften sind besonders hervorzuheben. Das riesige natürliche Areal "der Kiefer" schließt weite, klimatisch stark differierende Teile Eurasiens ein, was zwangsläufig die Entstehung von Klima- und Standortsrassen zur Folge hatte. So war es kein Zufall, dass die forstliche Provenienzforschung ...


Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects

Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 9. (1 September 2007), pp. 835-848,
Keywords: abies-balsamea   acalitus-rudis   albizia-guachapele   alsophila-pometaria   amblypelta-cocophaga   atta-cephalotes   betula-pendula   biodiversity   callophylum-brasiliense   cardiaspina-fiscella   cecidomyiidae   choristoneura-fumiferana   choristoneura-spp   chrysoptharta-bimaculata   corylus-avellana   curculio-elephas   dendroctonus-frontalis   dipteryx-panamensis   diversity   euclystis-spp   forest-pests   forest-resources   genipa-americana   hylobius-abietis   hypsipyla-robusta   lepidoptera   lymantria-dispar   matsucoccus-feytaudi   milicia-excelsa   myzocallis-coryli   neuroterus-spp   phyllobius-argentatus   phyllonorycter-spp   phytolyma-lata   picea-abies   picea-glauca   picea-sitchensis   pinus-densiflora   pinus-nigra-laricio   pinus-pinaster   pinus-strobus   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-taeda   pissodes-strobi   plant-pests   populus-angustifolia   pseudotsuga-menziesii   quercus-petraea   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-suber   rhyacionia-frustrana   sonneratia-apetala   stigmella-spp   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   thaumetopoea-pytiocampa   thecodiplosis-japonensis   toona-ciliata   virola-koschnyi   vochysia-ferruginea   vochysia-guatemalensis   zeuzera-conferta  


Biodiversity loss from plant communities is often acknowledged to affect primary production but little is known about effects on herbivores. We conducted a meta-analysis of a worldwide data set of 119 studies to compare herbivory in single-species and mixed forests. This showed a significant reduction of herbivory in more diverse forests but this varied with the host specificity of insects. In diverse forests, herbivory by oligophagous species was virtually always reduced, whereas the response of polyphagous species was variable. Further analyses ...


Herbivory by the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) and short-snouted weevils (Strophosoma melanogrammum Forst. and Otiorhynchus scaber L.) during the conversion of a wind-thrown Norway spruce forest into a mixed-species plantation

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 190, No. 2-3. (March 2004), pp. 281-290,


The influence of above-ground insect herbivory and other agents of damage to seedlings was studied in a field experiment. Nine different tree species were planted in each of five randomised blocks. The species were: Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner, Betula pendula Roth., Fagus sylvatica L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Larix eurolepis Henry, Picea abies (L.) Karst., Prunus avium L., Quercus robur L. and Tilia cordata Mill. The seedlings were monitored through the 2000–2002 growing seasons. Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis L.) fed significantly more ...

Visual summary


Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden

Silva Fennica, Vol. 48, No. 4. (2014), 1188,


[Highlights] [::] Both native and introduced confer species in Sweden can be highly susceptible to damage by the pine weevil [::] Douglas fir and Sitka spruce were generally the most damaged among six studied conifer species [::] The results highlight some of the risks in establishing exotic tree species for forest production. [Abstract] There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of ...

Visual summary


Adult large pine weevils Hylobius abietis feed on silver birch Betula pendula even in the presence of conifer seedlings

Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 8, No. 2. (May 2006), pp. 121-128,


[::] The feeding preference of the adult pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Betula pendula Roth was studied in no-choice and paired-choice feeding experiments. [::] In the first no-choice test, large quantities of silver birch bark in Petri dishes were consumed; on average, the daily consumption of each weevil was 67 mm2. [::] In the second no-choice test, the weevils were offered 1-year-old silver birch seedlings for 6 days. Initially, the weevils fed mostly on the stem bases; later, ...


Árboles monumentales de España

Keywords: abies-alba   abies-pinsapo   abies-spp   acer-campestre   arbutus-unedo   boiss   castanea-sativa   celtis-australis   ceratonia-siliqua   citrus-aurantium   cupressus-macrocarpa   cupressus-sempervirens   dracaena-drago   eucalyptus-globulus   fagus-silvatica   fagus-sylvatica   ficus-carica   ficus-macrophylla   forest-resources   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   jubaea-chilensis   juglans-regia   juniperus-cedrus   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-phoenicea   juniperus-thurifera   laurus-azorica   liriodendron-tulipifera   monumental-trees   morus-alba   nolina-recurvata   olea-europaea   phoenix-canariensis   phoenix-dactylifera   pinus-canariensis   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-uncinata   pistacia-terebinthus   platanus-x-hispanica   populus-alba   populus-nigra   prunus-dulcis   pyrus-spinosa   quercus-cerrioides   quercus-faginea   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-suber   sequoiadendron-giganteum   spain   syagrus-romanzoffiana   taxodium-distichum   taxodium-mucronatum   taxus-baccata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   washingtonia-robusta   wisteria-sinensis   yucca-filifera  


[Excerpt] De entre todas las especies vegetales, la de los árboles resulta, por distintas razones, la más notable y la que está más ligada, por muy diferentes causas, al devenir del ser humano, a la historia y a la cultura de los pueblos que prosperaron a su alrededor. Los árboles nos han otorgado alimento y cobijo; los hemos relacionado con acontecimientos históricos de muy diferente índole; los hemos vinculado a devociones religiosas y milagrosas; hemos celebrado fiestas y júbilo alrededor de ellos; en definitiva, han permanecido vinculados a lo terrenal y ...


Árboles monumentales de España - Comunidades Autónomas

Keywords: acer-pseudoplatanus   araucaria-araucana   araucaria-bidwillii   betula-pendula   camellia-reticulata   castanea-sativa   casuarina-equisetifolia   cedrus-atlantica   cedrus-libani   ceiba-pentandra   celtis-australis   ceratonia-siliqua   cinnamomum-camphora   crataegus-monogyna   cupressus-sempervirens   dracaena-draco   eucaliptus-camaldulensis   eucalyptus-globulus   fagus-sylvatica   ficus-carica   ficus-macrophylla   forest-resources   fraxinus-angustifolia   gleditsia-triacanthos   hedera-helix   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-thurifera   lagunaria-patersoni   laurus-nobilis   magnolia-grandiflora   monumental-trees   morus-nigra   myrtus-communis   olea-europaea   phoenix-canariensis   phytolacca-dioica   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   platanus-orientalis   populus-alba   populus-nigra   prunus-dulcis   quercus-canariensis   quercus-faginea   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-suber   quercus-x-morisii   sequoiadendron-giganteum   sorbus-domestica   spain   tamarix-canariensis   taxodium-distichum   taxodium-mucronatum   taxus-baccata   tilia-tomentosa   ulmus-minor   washingtonia-robusta  


[Excerpt] En las páginas de este libro podrá encontrar el lector interesado algunos de los árboles más bellos, localizados en los diversos territorios de nuestras Comunidades Autónomas. La Compañía Logística de Hidrocarburos CLH, S.A. desea, con esta colección de árboles monumentales, tender un puente entre los dos elementos que dan sentido a su cotidiano devenir empresarial: el hombre y la naturaleza. Es decir, el servicio a los hombres, a la Sociedad y el deseo de colaborar en la conservación del entorno natural. Y para la construcción de ese puente ...


An overview of the geobotanical structure of Turkish Pinus sylvestris and Carpinus betulus forests

Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 40, No. 4. (2008), pp. 1497-1520


Pinus L. and Carpinus L. are the two widely distributed genera of higher plants being represented by 80 and 170 species respectively. Th e former has 5 species in Turkey and latter 2 species namely; P.pinea, P.halepensis, utia, P.sylvestris, P.nigra ssp. pallasiana, Carpinus betulus and C.orientalis . In this paper an attempt has been made to present an overview of the geobotanical structure of Pinus sylvestris L. ...


Pinus sylvestris - Version 2014.3

In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2013), 42418/0


[Excerpt] This is the most widespread of all pines, occupying many millions of hectares across Eurasia. Its tremendous distribution and large population size leads to an assessment of Least Concern. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English – Scots Pine [::]French – Pin sylvestre [::Taxonomic Notes] More than 50 botanical varieties have been described for this species. Farjon (2010), only recognizes three of these. The typical variety is very widespread, from Scotland to Russian Far East. Pinus sylvestris var. hamata Steven is restricted to the Ukraine, ...


A review of the plant communities associated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Europe, and an evaluation of putative indicator/specialist species

Forest Systems, Vol. 9, No. S1. (2000), pp. 15-39


Plant communities dominated by Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) occur over an extraordinarily wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions. The salient features of communities from different parts of Europe are outlined, drawing mainly on phytosociological literature. The degree to which a number of specialist species (mainly mycotrophic herbs) are associated with Scots pine is assessed. We conclude that no species or species group is associated with Scots pine through all or even most of its geographic and edaphic range. It follows ...


Current and future status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest in Europe

Investigación agraria. Sistemas y recursos forestales, Vol. 9, No. 1. (2000), pp. 317-336


There was a major expansion in the area of Scots pine forests in Europe during the twentieth century so that this forest type now exceeds 20 per cent of the productive forest area of the EU. Although the main aim of this expansion was to increase timber production, a wider range of management objectives has become more important during recent decades. These changes may affect the future status and development of Scots pine forests. To analyse the potential impacts, a questionnaire ...


Interactions between growth, demography and biotic interactions in determining species range limits in a warming world: The case of Pinus sylvestris

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 282, No. 0. (2012), pp. 10-22,


Changes in climate are affecting the distribution and status of species on a global scale, through alteration of factors including their phenology, growth and ecological interactions. These alterations are often most apparent at species range edges, where changes to conditions previously limiting the species distribution can result in range shifts. In this paper, we review the rapid recent increase in our understanding of the factors limiting the distribution of a species to explore how the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors ...


Climate change and the risks of Neodiprion sertifer outbreaks on Scots pine

Silva Fennica, Vol. 30, No. 2-3. (1996), pp. 169-177


The European Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer) is one of the most serious defoliators of Scots pine in northern Europe. We studied the pattern in the regional occurrence of the outbreaks of N. sertifer in Finland in years 1961—90, and made predictions about the outbreak pattern to the year 2050 after predicted winter warming. We tested whether minimum winter temperatures and forest type and soil properties could explain the observed outbreak pattern. We analysed outbreak patterns at two different spatial levels: forest ...


Tree Mortality, Needle Biomass Recovery and Growth Losses in Scots Pine Following Defoliation by Diprion pini (L.) and Subsequent Attack by Tomicus piniperda (L.)

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 16, No. 4. (1 January 2001), pp. 342-353,


Tree mortality and growth losses following insect defoliation are poorly documented in Scandinavia. In 1990-1991, Diprion pini (L.) caused extensive defoliation to Scots pine in Lauhanvuori national park and surrounding areas in south-western Finland. Most trees lost all their foliage in 1990. In 1991, the outbreak area was sprayed with diflubenzuron (Dimilin?), except in the national park, where trees were severely defoliated again. No further defoliation occurred in 1992. In spring 1993, sprayed trees had ca 30% foliage, whereas unsprayed trees ...


Climatic signals extracted from ring-width chronologies of Scots pines from the northern, middle and southern parts of the boreal forest belt in Finland

Silva Fennica, Vol. 34, No. 4. (2000), pp. 317-330


Climatic signals were extracted from ring-width chronologies of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) from natural stands of the northern, middle, and southern parts of the boreal forest belt in Finland. The strength of the common growth signals (forcing factors) were quanti- fi ed as a function of time. This was achieved by mean inter-series correlations, calculated over a moving 30-year window, both within and between the regional chronologies. Strong regional signals and also evidence for common forcings were found, especially between northern and central, central and eastern, ...


Climate warming will reduce growth and survival of Scots pine except in the far north

Ecology Letters, Vol. 11, No. 6. (2008), pp. 588-597,


Tree growth and survival were assessed in 283 populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) originating from a broad geographic range and grown at 90 common-garden experimental sites across Europe, and in 101 populations grown at 14 sites in North America. Growth and survival were analysed in response to climatic transfer distance, the difference in mean annual temperature (MAT) between the site and the population origin. Differences among populations at each site, and across sites for regional groups of populations, were ...


Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

In Forest Tree Breeding in Europe, Vol. 25 (2013), pp. 267-323,
edited by Luc E. Pâques


Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) is an economically very important and scientifically well investigated tree species of the northern hemisphere. Its requirements are moderate in terms of climate and soil conditions and its morphological variation is very high. The broad natural range of Scots pine occupies large areas with different climate conditions in Eurasia. Therefore the high number of species and ecotypes is not surprising. Provenance trials with Pinus sylvestris have been established since the end of the nineteenth century. Today ...


Pinus sylvestris (Scotch Pine)

In Silvics of North America. Vol 1: Conifers (1990), pp. 1000-1017


Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), also called Scots pine, is an introduced species in North America, brought here from Europe probably in colonial days. Although it is used for both pulpwood and sawlogs, its principal value in the United States appears to be as a Christmas tree, as an ornamental, and for erosion control. ...


Predicting habitat suitability with machine learning models: The potential area of Pinus sylvestris L. in the Iberian Peninsula

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 197, No. 3-4. (August 2006), pp. 383-393,


We present a modelling framework for predicting forest areas. The framework is obtained by integrating a machine learning software suite within the GRASS Geographical Information System (GIS) and by providing additional methods for predictive habitat modelling. Three machine learning techniques (Tree-Based Classification, Neural Networks and Random Forest) are available in parallel for modelling from climatic and topographic variables. Model evaluation and parameter selection are measured by sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, while the final presence and absence maps are obtained through maximisation of ...


EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)



These Technical Guidelines are intended to assist those who cherish the valuable Scots pine, genepool and its inheritance, through conserving valuable seed sources or use in practical forestry. The focus is on conserving the genetic diversity of the species at the European scale. The recommendations provided in this module should be regarded as a commonly agreed basis to be complemented and further developed in local, national or regional conditions. The Guidelines are based on the available knowledge of the species and on ...

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