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Selection: with tag pinus-nigra [66 articles] 


Pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae

EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05029,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The regulated harmful organism is the anamorph Cercoseptoria pini-densiflorae (synonym Cercospora pini-densiflorae) with the corresponding teleomorph Mycosphaerella gibsonii. P. pini-densiflorae causes a needle blight of Pinus spp. also known as Cercospora blight of pines or Cercospora needle blight. P. pini-densiflorae is reported from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia and ...


  1. Anon, 2015. PM 7/46 (3) Lecanosticta acicola (formerly Mycosphaerella dearnessii), Dothistroma septosporum (formerly Mycosphaerella pini) and Dothistroma pini. EPPO Bulletin 45, 163–182.
  2. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. .
  3. Büttner, G., Kosztra, B., Maucha, G., Pataki, R., 2012. Implementation and achievements of CLC2006. Tech. rep., European Environment Agency. .

Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 15, No. 7. (10 July 2010), pp. 681-701,


Risks can generally be described as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Using this framework, we evaluated the historical and future development of risk of fire and wind damage in European forestry at the national level. Fire risk is expected to increase, mainly as a consequence of an increase in fire hazard, defined as the Fire Weather Index in summer. Exposure, defined as forest area, is expected to increase slightly as a consequence of active afforestation and abandonment of marginal ...


History matters: previous land use changes determine post-fire vegetation recovery in forested Mediterranean landscapes

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 279 (September 2012), pp. 121-127,


[Abstract] Land use changes and shifts in disturbance regimes (e.g. wildfires) are recognized worldwide as two of the major drivers of the current global change in terrestrial ecosystems. We expect that, in areas with large-scale land use changes, legacies from previous land uses persist and affect current ecosystem responses to climate-associated disturbances like fire. This study analyses whether post-fire vegetation dynamics may differ according to specific historical land use histories in a Mediterranean forest landscape of about 60,000 ha that was burnt ...


Geographic distribution of 24 major tree species in the Mediterranean and their genetic resources



[Excerpt: Introduction] The Mediterranean Basin is one of the world’s richest places in terms of animal and plant diversity. It is a highly diverse region and its mountains, rivers, forests and thousands of islands form a mosaic of natural and cultural landscapes of incomparable value. With around 25,000 species of native plants, of which more than half are endemic, and because many habitats and species are threatened, the Mediterranean is recognized as one of the Global Biodiversity Hotspots [18]. For millennia, ...


Potential insect vectors of Bursaphelenchus spp. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) in Spanish pine forests

In Pine Wilt Disease: A Worldwide Threat to Forest Ecosystems (2008), pp. 221-234,


Potential insect vectors of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (PWN) were studied. Pathways of introduction of PWN from Portugal to Europe, through Spain, were determined and traps were located in pine stands sites along the pathways. 19 Cerambycidae, 12 Scolytidae, 12 Buprestidae and 10 Curculionidae species have been found. Trapped insects were examined for the presence of nematodes under their elytra. Nematodes were found on Arhopalus ferus, Spondylis buprestoides, Hylastes ater, Hylurgus lingniperda, Orthotomicus erosus, Pityogenes bidentatus, Tomicus piniperda, Hylobius abietis and Pissodes validirrostris ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 29

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   phytophthora-alni   phytophthora-cactorum   phytophthora-cambivora   phytophthora-cinnamomi   phytophthora-citricola   phytophthora-europaea   phytophthora-fragariae   phytophthora-hibernalis   phytophthora-ilicis   phytophthora-kernoviae   phytophthora-lateralis   phytophthora-multivora   phytophthora-plurivora   phytophthora-polonica   phytophthora-pseudosyringae   phytophthora-psychrophila   phytophthora-quercina   phytophthora-ramorum   phytophthora-spp   phytophthora-syringae   phytophthora-uliginosa   phytoplasmas   phytoremediation   phytosanitary   phytosociology   phytotoxic-agent   phytotoxins   picea-abies   picea-brachytyla   picea-breweriana   picea-engelmannii   picea-glauca   picea-jazoensis   picea-jezoensis   picea-mariana   picea-obovata   picea-omirika   picea-omorika   picea-orientalis   picea-pungens   picea-rubens   picea-schrenkiana   picea-sitchensis   picea-spp   pieris-spp   pillyrea-spp   pin-oak   pinaceae   pine-processionary-moth   pine-sawflies   pine-shoot-beetles   pine-wilt   pine-wood-nematode   pinewood-nematode   pinewoods   pinus-albicaulis   pinus-aristata   pinus-attenuata   pinus-balfouriana   pinus-banksiana   pinus-brutia   pinus-bungeana   pinus-canariensis   pinus-caribaea   pinus-cembra   pinus-clausa   pinus-contorta   pinus-coulteri   pinus-densiflora   pinus-echinata   pinus-edulis   pinus-elliottii   pinus-flexilis   pinus-halepensis   pinus-heldreichii   pinus-jeffreyi   pinus-kesiya   pinus-koraiensis   pinus-lambertiana   pinus-leiophylla   pinus-leucodermis   pinus-longaeva   pinus-massoniana   pinus-merkusii   pinus-monophylla   pinus-monticola   pinus-mugo   pinus-mugo-ssp-rotundata   pinus-muricata   pinus-nigra   pinus-nigra-laricio   pinus-nigra-var-pallasiana   pinus-oocarpa   pinus-orientalis   pinus-pallasiana   pinus-palustris   pinus-peuce   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 311 (January 2014), pp. 3-16,


[Highlights] [::] C:N ratio in forest floor, peat and mineral topsoil mainly depend on tree species. [::] Most important differences in C:N ratios are seen between deciduous and evergreen species. [::] Either soil type, ecoregion or humus type was the second most important explanatory factor. [::] There was no consistent relationship between modelled deposition and C:N ratios. [Abstract] The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of ...


Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758) distribution, abundance, habitat use and breeding performance in a recently colonized region in SW Europe

Munibe Ciencias Naturales, Vol. 63 (2015)


At the southwestern edge of its global distribution, the Pyrenean population of the black woodpecker Dryocopus martius has increased its range during the last three decades, colonizing new areas where the species was previously unknown. This is the case for Gipuzkoa, where a systematic survey was performed in the breeding season of 2013 aimed at describing the species distribution, abundance, habitat use and reproductive performance. Potential locations were identified using forest inventories and were visited since January until March. Locations were considered occupied when nests or pairs ...


  1. Aierbe, T., Olano, M., Vázquez, J. 2001. Atlas de las aves nidificantes de Gipuzkoa. Munibe, Cienc. nat. 52: 5-136.
  2. Alberdi, I., Hernández, L., Saura, S., Barrera, M., Gil, P., Condés, S., Cantero, A., Sandoval, V.J., Vallejo, R., Cañellas, I. 2012. Estimación de la biodiversidad forestal en el Tercer Inventario Forestal Nacional. País Vasco-Euskadi. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Madrid.
  3. Álvarez, J., Bea, A., Faus, J.M., Castién, E., Mendiola, Í.

Dothistroma and Lecanosticta needle blight in the CR

SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal (2009), pp. 7-14


Dothistroma needle blight is widespread in the Czech Republic now, although the first finding was noted in 2000. To date, it has been identified on 21 species of Pines, 4 species of Spruces and also on Douglas fir in the CR. Records on Scots pine were exceptionally rare in the CR and also in Europe up to spring 2008. Brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola was for the first time reported in the Czech Republic on June 2007, actually is known from ...


Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup, a new quarantine pathogen of pines in the CR

Journal of Forest Science, Vol. 50, No. 7. (2004), pp. 319-326


Dothistroma needle blight caused by Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup was observed for the first time in the Czech Republic on an imported Pinus nigra Arnold in 1999. In 2000, it was also found in the open planting. During three years, it became an important pathogen of pines in the Czech Republic. Its occurrence was noticed in more than 50 localities, above all in the region of Moravia and Silesia and eastern Bohemia. In total, it was found on 10 species of ...


Characterization of Fusarium circinatum from Pinus spp. in northern Spain

Mycological Research, Vol. 111, No. 7. (July 2007), pp. 832-839,


Pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum was recently reported on Pinus spp. in Spain. In this study, a collection of 157 isolates of F. circinatum obtained from different geographical origins and hosts in northern Spain were identified and characterized by cultural and morphological features, PCR-RFLPs of the histone H3 gene, IGS region, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF). Mating types were determined by multiplex PCR and sexual compatibility was performed under laboratory conditions. Both mating types were present in ...


A genetically homogenous population of Fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker of Pinus radiata in the Basque Country, Spain

Fungal Biology, Vol. 115, No. 3. (March 2011), pp. 288-295,


Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a destructive disease of Pinus species and has recently been shown to represent a substantial threat to natural and commercial forests in northern Spain. The genetic diversity of F. circinatum in the Basque Country of Spain was assessed by characterising 96 isolates based on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), mating type assays, polymorphic DNA-markers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses. For this purpose, F. circinatum isolates were collected from diseased Pinus radiata as well ...


Genetic diversity of Dothistroma septosporum in Estonia, Finland and Czech Republic

European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 136, No. 1. (2013), pp. 71-85,


Dothistroma needle blight is one of the most damaging foliage diseases in pine plantations worldwide. Recently it has become more aggressive in native pine stands in northern America and has been found frequently on Scots pine stands in northern Europe. In Estonia and Finland it was noticed for the first time in 2006 and 2008, respectively and in Central Europe in the late 1990s. We show considerable diversity in allele patterns of several microsatellite loci in populations of these countries which ...


First observations of Mycosphaerella pini in Estonia

Plant Pathology, Vol. 57, No. 6. (December 2008), pp. 1177-1177,


[Excerpt] An aggressive disease of pines – red belt blight, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella pini (anamorph Dothistroma septospora) was recorded for the first time in Estonia, in Järvselja Forest District, South Eastern Estonia. Estonia is located in the centre of a geographic area subject to climatic change (Aasa et al., 2002). Forests have just experienced two series’ of extreme weather events, accompanied by the simultaneous deterioration of the health of different tree species (Hanso & Drenkhan, 2007). Not only has there ...


First record of Dothistroma septospora (Dorog.) Morelet in Poland: a contribution to the symptomatology and epidemiology

Phytopathologia Polonica, Vol. 16 (1998), pp. 15-29


Investigations were carried out in the Miechów Forest District (20 km north of Kraków, Poland) where, in May 1990, D. septospora [Mycosphaerella pini] was observed on Pinus nigra for the first time in Poland. The disease symptoms were analysed, the fungi were isolated from needles exhibiting varying stages of disease, and the time of the occurrence of ripe spores was determined. Red transverse bands present on the attacked, prematurely dying needles were among the most characteristic symptoms. The intensity of this ...


Linking plant morphological traits to uprooting resistance in eroded marly lands (Southern Alps, France)

Plant and Soil In Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 31-42,


In marly catchments of the French Southern Alps, soils are subjected to harsh water erosion that can result in concentrated flows uprooting small plants. Evaluating and predicting plant resistance to uprooting from simple plant traits is therefore highly important so that the most efficient plant strategy for future restoration of eroded slopes can be defined. Twelve species growing on marly land were studied. For each species, in-situ lateral uprooting tests were conducted and morphological plant traits were measured on small plants ...


An analysis of forest restoration 120 years after reforestation on badlands in the Southwestern Alps

Restoration Ecology, Vol. 10, No. 1. (March 2002), pp. 16-26,


We report the results of descriptive and functional analyses of a representative forest and watershed in the southwestern Alps, where the Forest Service has attempted reforestation of badlands for erosion control since 1860, relying on the non-native Pinus nigra ssp. nigra (Austrian black pine). One hundred twenty years after the first tree plantings, the plant communities are still early seral assemblages for the most part, with Austrian black pine occurring alone in the canopy. In contrast, most of the marly soils ...


Uniform drought and warming responses in Pinus nigra provenances despite specific overall performances

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 270 (April 2012), pp. 200-208,


Climate extremes are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude as a consequence of global warming, threatening the functioning, services and goods of forest ecosystems. The introduction of species from drier and warmer climates is one option that is discussed to adapt forest ecosystems to these adverse effects of climate change. The (sub)-mediterranean Pinus nigra is a potential candidate for such assisted migration, especially for dry sites in Central Europe. The high genetic diversity within this species and thus the potential ...


Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) growth divergence along a latitudinal gradient in Western Mediterranean mountains

Annals of Forest Science In Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 67, No. 4. (2010), pp. 401-401,

Palaeobiogeography of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco in the north-western Mediterranean Basin: A review based on macroremains

Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Vol. 194 (July 2013), pp. 1-11,

Back from a Predicted Climatic Extinction of an Island Endemic: A Future for the Corsican Nuthatch

PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, No. 3. (25 March 2011), e18228,


The Corsican Nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi) is red-listed as vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN because of its endemism, reduced population size, and recent decline. A further cause is the fragmentation and loss of its spatially-restricted favourite habitat, the Corsican pine (Pinus nigra laricio) forest. In this study, we aimed at estimating the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of the Corsican Nuthatch using species distribution models. Because this species has a strong trophic association with the Corsican and Maritime ...


Structure and Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii Natural Forests: A Basic Knowledge for Adaptive Management in a Changing Climate

Forests, Vol. 2, No. 4. (09 December 2011), pp. 1013-1030,


Since climate change projections contain many uncertainties and are normally unable to predict the direction and magnitude of change at the small scale needed by forest managers, some understanding about the functioning of the target forest should be obtained before a robust management strategy can be applied. Structure and regeneration patterns are related to key ecosystem processes which, on the other hand, can be modified by silvicultural treatments. In this research, the structure and recruitment dynamics of two stands with different ...


European Black Pine Pinus nigra Arnold

In Silvics of North America. Vol 1: Conifers (1990), pp. 797-818


European black pine (Pinus nigra), also called Austrian pine, was one of the early tree introductions into the United States, first reported in cultivation in 1759 (52). Black pine was one of the first conifers tested for adaptability in the Sandhills of Nebraska in the 1891 Bruner plantation, Holt County, and in 1909 on the Nebraska National Forest. It was also planted by homesteaders on the Great Plains in the early 1900's to provide beauty and protection from wind and snow on ...


Precipitation and temperature as factors in Gremmeniella abietina epidemics

Forest Pathology, Vol. 39, No. 1. (February 2009), pp. 56-72,


The combination of temperature and precipitation during the growth season could be correlated with the occurrence of Gremmeniella abietina epidemics in Denmark. The Gremmeniella index value (GIV) is the result of the monthly rain in mm divided by average monthly temperature in centigrade (mm/°C) and it was created to facilitate easy prediction of epidemics in Denmark. The two most severe outbreaks of G. abietina in pine and other conifers in Denmark took place in 1963–64 and 1984–85, following years where low ...


Direct regeneration is not the only response of Mediterranean forests to large fires

Ecology, Vol. 85, No. 3. (March 2004), pp. 716-729,


It is widely accepted that the postfire recovery in Mediterranean plant communities is carried out by direct regeneration, i.e., the fast recovery of a plant community with the same species pool that it had immediately prior to disturbance. However, there is evidence that not all plant species in the Mediterranean basin survive fire in all situations, suggesting that the direct regeneration process might not apply to all situations. We analyze whether the main combinations of forest tree species (up to 16) ...


Erosion in Mediterranean landscapes: changes and future challenges

Geomorphology, Vol. 198 (September 2013), pp. 20-36,


[Highlights] [::] Recent land uses contribute to soil erosion in marginal lands. [::] Long history of human activity explains many landscape characteristics. [::] Intensification and extensification/wealth and poverty increase spatial complexity. [Abstract] Intense erosion processes are widespread in the Mediterranean region, and include sheet wash erosion, rilling, gullying, shallow landsliding, and the development of large and active badlands in both subhumid and semi-arid areas. This review analyses the main environmental and human features related to soil erosion processes, and the main factors that explain the extreme ...


Distribution map of Black pine (Pinus nigra)



The distribution maps on this page were compiled by experts contributing to EUFORGEN activities, based on existing bibliography and other information sources. Individuals may use the distribution maps for personal, educational, scientific or other non-commercial purposes without prior permission from the EUFORGEN Secretariat but they must acknowledge EUFORGEN as the source of information. In case the distribution maps are used for a publication, the EUFORGEN Secretariat would appreciate receiving a notification or a copy of the publication. ...


Pinus nigra

In Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie (2000)


Pinus nigra, ein wichtiger Waldbaum in der montanen Stufe europäischer Mittelmeerländer, hatte seine größte Verbreitung gegen Ende der letzten Eiszeit (ca. 5000 v.Chr.). Später mußte er in vielen Gebieten dem Konkurrenzdruck anpassungsfähigerer Arten der Gattungen Fagus und Abies weichen. Die wärmeliebende, recht langlebige Art stellt geringe Bodenansprüche und wird häufig zu Aufforstungen nährstoffarmer Standorte herangezogen. Das gilt vor allem für die besonders wüchsigen korsischen und kalabrischen Herkünfte. Ssp. nigricans, die Österreichische Schwarzkiefer, spielt hingegen eine wichtige Rolle für den Windschutz an ...


Árboles monumentales de España

Keywords: abies-alba   abies-pinsapo   abies-spp   acer-campestre   arbutus-unedo   boiss   castanea-sativa   celtis-australis   ceratonia-siliqua   citrus-aurantium   cupressus-macrocarpa   cupressus-sempervirens   dracaena-drago   eucalyptus-globulus   fagus-silvatica   fagus-sylvatica   ficus-carica   ficus-macrophylla   forest-resources   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   jubaea-chilensis   juglans-regia   juniperus-cedrus   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-phoenicea   juniperus-thurifera   laurus-azorica   liriodendron-tulipifera   monumental-trees   morus-alba   nolina-recurvata   olea-europaea   phoenix-canariensis   phoenix-dactylifera   pinus-canariensis   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-uncinata   pistacia-terebinthus   platanus-x-hispanica   populus-alba   populus-nigra   prunus-dulcis   pyrus-spinosa   quercus-cerrioides   quercus-faginea   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-suber   sequoiadendron-giganteum   spain   syagrus-romanzoffiana   taxodium-distichum   taxodium-mucronatum   taxus-baccata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   washingtonia-robusta   wisteria-sinensis   yucca-filifera  


[Excerpt] De entre todas las especies vegetales, la de los árboles resulta, por distintas razones, la más notable y la que está más ligada, por muy diferentes causas, al devenir del ser humano, a la historia y a la cultura de los pueblos que prosperaron a su alrededor. Los árboles nos han otorgado alimento y cobijo; los hemos relacionado con acontecimientos históricos de muy diferente índole; los hemos vinculado a devociones religiosas y milagrosas; hemos celebrado fiestas y júbilo alrededor de ellos; en definitiva, han permanecido vinculados a lo terrenal y ...


Árboles monumentales de España - Comunidades Autónomas

Keywords: acer-pseudoplatanus   araucaria-araucana   araucaria-bidwillii   betula-pendula   camellia-reticulata   castanea-sativa   casuarina-equisetifolia   cedrus-atlantica   cedrus-libani   ceiba-pentandra   celtis-australis   ceratonia-siliqua   cinnamomum-camphora   crataegus-monogyna   cupressus-sempervirens   dracaena-draco   eucaliptus-camaldulensis   eucalyptus-globulus   fagus-sylvatica   ficus-carica   ficus-macrophylla   forest-resources   fraxinus-angustifolia   gleditsia-triacanthos   hedera-helix   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-thurifera   lagunaria-patersoni   laurus-nobilis   magnolia-grandiflora   monumental-trees   morus-nigra   myrtus-communis   olea-europaea   phoenix-canariensis   phytolacca-dioica   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   platanus-orientalis   populus-alba   populus-nigra   prunus-dulcis   quercus-canariensis   quercus-faginea   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-suber   quercus-x-morisii   sequoiadendron-giganteum   sorbus-domestica   spain   tamarix-canariensis   taxodium-distichum   taxodium-mucronatum   taxus-baccata   tilia-tomentosa   ulmus-minor   washingtonia-robusta  


[Excerpt] En las páginas de este libro podrá encontrar el lector interesado algunos de los árboles más bellos, localizados en los diversos territorios de nuestras Comunidades Autónomas. La Compañía Logística de Hidrocarburos CLH, S.A. desea, con esta colección de árboles monumentales, tender un puente entre los dos elementos que dan sentido a su cotidiano devenir empresarial: el hombre y la naturaleza. Es decir, el servicio a los hombres, a la Sociedad y el deseo de colaborar en la conservación del entorno natural. Y para la construcción de ese puente ...


Plant succession in post fire communities of Pinus nigra Arn.

Ecologia Balkanica, Vol. 5, No. Special Edition. (2014), pp. 55-60


Fires around settlements are a logical consequence of climate drought and the increased human activity today. Plant communities with specific composition and structure are formed on burned areas. This study aims to analyze the floristic composition on three of the after- fire communities, occurring at different times in the Stara Zagora green shelter belt Analysis of Raunkiaer life forms is made, and the degree of canopy cover is calculated on Braun Blanquet The results allow predicting the development of secondary plant ...


Pinus nigra - Version 2014.3

In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2013), 42386/0


[Excerpt] The very wide distribution and abundance of this species places it well beyond a category of threat. The only subspecies under threat is Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica, which occupies a tiny part of the entire range of the species. Pinus nigra has an exceptionally disjunct natural distribution, and genotypes will undoubtedly differ markedly in some isolated subpopulations. On a regional or local scale therefore, there may well be conservation issues that are not reflected in the assessment of the species, ...


Ecological attributes and distribution of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana Lamb.Holmboe] in Turkey

Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 33, No. 2. (2012)


The aim of this study is to determine ecoregions and the effect of ecological properties on natural distribution of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana Lamb. (Holmboe)] in Turkey. The results suggest that 6 ecoregions exist and climate, parent material, topography, anthropogenic factors, floristic composition, competition are ecological factors that determine the distribution of Black pine in Turkey. But, climatic elements such as precipitation and temperature are the dominant factors. The six ecoregions with different characteristics have been identified ...


Ecology and classification of forests in Turkey

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 120 (March 2014), pp. 788-805,


Turkey possesses all types of parent materials or bedrocks like metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic belonging to different geological era and periods. Some parent materials contain evaporitic sediments with salt, gypsum and high contents of alkaline materials which mostly prevent the growth of climax vegetation. The country has a rugged and high topography, related to tectonic movements, and volcanic activities which mainly occurred in Tertiary and Quaternary eras. The mountains are divided into three groups in terms of formation and ecological importance ...


Determination of incoming solar radiation in major tree species in Turkey

Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 33, No. 4. (2012), pp. 817-821


Light requirements and spatial distribution of major forest tree species in Turkey hasn't been analyzed yet. Continuous surface solar radiation data, especially at mountainous-forested areas, are needed to put forward this relationship between forest tree species and solar radiation. To achieve this, GIS-based modeling of solar radiation is one of the methods used in rangelands to estimate continuous surface solar radiation. Therefore, mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation maps of whole Turkey were computed spatially using GRASS GIS software ...


Distribution of the major forest tree species in Turkey within spatially interpolated plant heat and hardiness zone maps

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 5, No. 2. (30 April 2012), pp. 83-92,


In disciplines such as agriculture, forestry and horticulture, it is customary to make use of various hardiness zone maps intended for the selection of the plant species to be cultivated within specific regions. The most widely used of these maps is the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone (PHZ) map. Recently, the American Horticultural Society also created the Plant Heat Zone (AHZ) Map. PHZ and AHZ maps have not yet been produced for Turkey. To overcome deficiencies of these maps and compare the ...


Ecological characteristics of six important submediterranean tree species in Serbia

Bocconea, Vol. 5 (1997), pp. 431-438


Through a study of the submediterranean woodland communities of Mt Maljen in C. Serbia, the distribution of six dominant tree species (Carpinus orientalis, Pinus nigra, Quercus frainetto, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, and Ostrya carpin!folia) along gradients for four ecological parameters (light, moisture, soil acidity, and nitrogen concentration) was assessed by means of the method of weighted averaging, and the respective optima and tolerance ranges were obtained for each species. Integer values for the estimated opti ma were compared with Ellenberg's indicator ...


Forest pathogens with higher damage potential due to climate change in Europe

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 30, No. 2. (1 April 2008), pp. 177-195,
Keywords: abies-alba   alnus-cordata   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   alpine-region   armillaria-spp   biscogniauxia-mediterranea   biscogniauxia-nummularia   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   ceratocystis-platani   climate-change   corylus-avellana   cryphonectria-parasitica   cupressus-arizonica   cupressus-macrocarpa   cupressus-sempervirens   diplodia-pinea   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   droughts   dutch-elm-disease   europe   fagus-sylvatica   forest-pests   global-warming   gremmeniella-abietina   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   leptographium-spp   megastigmus-wachtli   mycosphaerella-pini   oak-decline   olea-europaea   ophiostoma-novo-ulmi   ophiostoma-ulmi   phytophthora-alni   phytophthora-cinnamomi   phytophthora-polonica   picea-abies   pinus-banksiana   pinus-cembra   pinus-contorta   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pallasiana   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-radiata   pinus-spp   pinus-sylvestris   platanus-spp   pseudotsuga-spp   quercus-cerris   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-spp   quercus-suber   scirrhia-pini   secondary-opportunistic-pest   seiridium-cardinale   seiridium-spp   silver-fir-decline   species-decline   sphaeropsis-sapinea   temperate-mountain-system   ulmus-glabra  


Abstract Most atmospheric scientists agree that climate changes are going to increase the mean temperature in Europe with increased frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, floods, and storms. Under such conditions, there is high probability that forests will be subject to increased frequency and intensity of stress due to climatic extremes. Therefore, impacts of climate change on forest health should be carefully evaluated. Given these assumptions, several fungal diseases on trees may become more devastating because of the following factors: ...


A Dendrological study on Pinus nigra Arn. at different altitudes of northern slopes of Kazdaglari, Turkey.

Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 28, No. 1. (2007), pp. 73-75


This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between tree ring widths of Pinus nigra in Kazdaglari having humid and very humid climatic conditions. Sixty two trees were cut from 24 sampled points from different altitudes in Kazdaglari to measure treering widths. To determine the responses to the climate, correlation coefficients between treering widths and climatic data were calculated during biological years from October of the previous year to September of the current year. In lower altitudes, where climate type ...


Variation in Growth and Branching Characters in Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) of Peloponnesos.

Silvae Genetica, Vol. 38, No. 3-4. (1989), pp. 77-81


In a black pine (Pinus nigra ARNOLD) seed orchard, comprising 52 clones selected from the natural forest of Peloponnesos, Greece, the following 16 growth and branching characters were studied: tree height, length of terminal shoot, number of lateral buds, number of branches, branch length, branch thickness and branch angle in the first, second, and third whorl, as well as crown diameter. For all characters there exist significant clone differences. The length of terminal shoot varied from 42 cm to 74 cm (overall ...


The decline of a Pinus nigra Arn. reforestation stand on a limestone substrate: the role of nutritional factors examined by means of foliar diagnosis

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 55, No. 5. (1998), pp. 567-576,


The Austrian black pine reforestation projects on Monte Morello, near the heavily populated metropolitan area of Florence (Italy), have been affected for many years now by a severe decline consisting of widespread crown yellowing. To investigate the causes of this decline foliar diagnosis methods were used to monitor the nutritional status of ten trees, sampling and analysing every year, between 1989 and 1992, the current year needles (c), needles from the previous year (c+ I) and from the year before that ...


Pinewood Nematode: A Threat to U.S. Forests?

Plant Disease, Vol. 65, No. 12. (1981), pp. 1022-1027,


In February 1979, a portion of the trunk of an Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) arrived in Einar Palm's diagnostic clinic at the University of Missouri, Columbia. The previous summer, with no warning, the 39-year-old tree suddenly died; the needles lost their green color and became reddish brown but were retained. Seiji Ouchi, a plant pathologist from Japan who happened to be visiting the clinic that day, suggested that a nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, might be involved. Much to the surprise of clinic ...


Diplodia pinea is a new pathogen on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) in Estonia

Plant Pathology, Vol. 58, No. 4. (August 2009), pp. 797-797,
Keywords: diplodia-pinea   pinus-nigra  


Diplodia pinea (syn. Sphaeropsis sapinea), one of the most common and widely distributed pathogens of conifers worldwide (Whitehill et al.,2007), was found in Estonia for the first time in the autumn of 2007. The last decade is characterised by the fast movement of this pathogen from southern Europe to the north. Generally, a southern fungus moves north during drought periods: it is known that D.pinea can be released from its quiescent stage in the host by host water stress (Stanosz et al., ...


Infection of Austrian and ponderosa pines by Dothistroma pini in Eastern Nebraska.

Phytopathology, Vol. 63, No. 8. (1973), pp. 1060-1063


Conidia of D. [Scirrhia] pini were found in stromata on needles of Pinus nigra and P. ponderosa as early as 23 Apr. and were trapped by 15 May, being disseminated until Oct. Conidia were dispersed only after rain and there was no evidence of long distance spread, none being trapped within 5 ft of infected trees. Current year needles did not become infected until 13 July but previous season's needles were infected by 20-27 May. The first symptoms occurred as early ...


Ips pini (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Is a Vector of the Fungal Pathogen, Sphaeropsis sapinea (Coelomycetes), to Austrian Pines, Pinus nigra (Pinaceae)

Environmental Entomology, Vol. 36, No. 1. (01 February 2007), pp. 114-120,[114:ipcsia];2
Keywords: canker   ips-pini   phoresy   pinus-nigra  


Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.:Fr.) Dyko and Sutton, is among the most common and widely distributed pathogens of conifers worldwide. S. sapinea is disseminated over short distances by rain splash and moist wind, but significant knowledge gaps regarding long-range dispersal remain. Our objective was to determine whether or not the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini Say, is a vector of the pathogen onto Austrian pines (Pinus nigra Arnold). In 2004 and 2005, individuals of I. pini were collected with pheromone traps at two ...


Enhancement of Sphaeropsis sapinea stem invasion of pines by water deficits.

Plant Disease, Vol. 69, No. 9. (1985), pp. 798-799


Three-year-old trees of 3 Pinus spp. growing in a loamy clay soil were inoculated with Sphaeropsis sapinea. Water was withheld for periods sufficient to create soil water potentials of -0.1, -0.6 to -0.8 and -1.2 to -1.5 MPa. Increasingly negative soil water potentials promoted greater linear fungal growth in stems. P. sylvestris and P. nigra were more susceptible than P. thunbergiana, although fungal growth within stems of this normally resistant sp. was extensive. The findings support field observations of increased infection ...


Role of Lophodermella species in premature death of Pine needles in Scotland

In Report on Forest Research (1970), pp. 176-178


Premature browning and death of the current year's needles of Pinus nigra var. calabrica and P. sylvestris was studied in two Scottish forests. The primary cause of the damage proved to be the fungus Lophodermella (Hypodermella) sulcigena, which enters at the base of the current year's needles. Control by fungicides is complicated by the fact that new infection sites (needle bases) are available throughout the sporing season. L. conjuncta may sometimes affect P. nigra var. calabrica in the same way. Various ...


Dothistroma pini on Pinus nigra in Minnesota.

Plant Disease Reporter, Vol. 55, No. 11. (1971), pp. 1040-1040


D. pini was reported for the first time in Minnesota during 1970; some Christmas tree plantations of Pinus nigra were severely affected. ...


Transmission of pine wood nematode to cut timber and girdled trees.

Plant Disease, Vol. 67, No. 1. (1983), pp. 35-37


Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was recovered from Pinus nigra, P. banksiana and P. resinosa logs 4 months after they had been cut from healthy trees that did not contain nematodes. B. xylophilus was found only in logs in which cerambycid beetles had oviposited. Similarly, only previously girdled jack pine that had been colonized by cerambycid beetles contained B. xylophilus. The results of this study show that B. xylophilus can be transmitted to cut timber and dying trees and suggest that the nematode may ...


Dieback disease of Pines with special reference to Corsican Pine, Pinus nigra var. calabrica Schn. III. Mycological factors

Forestry, Vol. 41, No. 1. (1968), pp. 72-82


Brunchorstia pinea is found to be consistently associated with early stages of dieback disease in a number of Pine species. Inoculation of buds with conidial suspensions of the fungus causes typical disease symptoms to develop. The proportion of successful inoculations depends on the time of year, the location of the tree, and its physiological condition. Vigorous trees are able to avoid infection, while weaker trees are very susceptible to attack. It is suggested that though infection depends on low resistance of ...

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