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Selection: with tag picea-abies [106 articles] 

 

Pest categorisation of Guignardia laricina

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 6. (June 2018), e05303, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5303

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Guignardia laricina, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Phyllostictaceae. The pathogen is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IAI) as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. G. laricina is native to East Asia and causes a shoot blight disease of Larix spp. Major hosts of G. laricina are European larch (Larix decidua) and two North American ...

 

Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry

  
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 15, No. 7. (10 July 2010), pp. 681-701, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9243-0

Abstract

Risks can generally be described as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Using this framework, we evaluated the historical and future development of risk of fire and wind damage in European forestry at the national level. Fire risk is expected to increase, mainly as a consequence of an increase in fire hazard, defined as the Fire Weather Index in summer. Exposure, defined as forest area, is expected to increase slightly as a consequence of active afforestation and abandonment of marginal ...

 

The effects of air pollutants on vegetation and the role of vegetation in reducing atmospheric pollution

  
In The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources (26 September 2011), pp. 241-280, https://doi.org/10.5772/17660
edited by Mohamed Khallaf

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. [\n] gases forms are: oxidized and reduced forms of carbon (CO2, CO, CH4), of nitrogen (NO2, NO, N2O4, NH3, NH4+), SO2, O3, C6H6 vapours, Hg, volatile phenols, Cl2, etc. [\n] The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter, heavy metals with toxic effect (Pb, Ni, Cd, As), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs, etc. [\n] Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can ...

 

Managing alpine forests in a changing climate

  
In Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks (28 August 2013), pp. 369-383, https://doi.org/10.5772/56272
edited by Gillian Cerbu

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] There is mounting evidence that Alpine forest ecosystems will not be able to fully absorb the changes in site factors associated with climate change, such as higher temperatures, more intensive drought stress and associated biotic impacts since these changes exceed the adaptive capacity of the trees. The projected changes in temperature by 2.2 to 5.1 K from 1980 to 1999 to 2080 to 2099, for the A1B scenario in southern Europe [1], correspond to an altitudinal shift of 300 to ...

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Generalized allometric volume and biomass equations for some tree species in Europe

  
In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 126, No. 2. (2007), pp. 157-166, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-007-0168-4

Abstract

Since biomass is one of the key variables in ecosystem studies, widespread effort has aimed to facilitating its estimation. Numerous stand-specific volume and biomass equations are available, but these cannot be used for scaling up biomass to the regional level where several age-classes and structural types of stands coexist. Therefore simplified generalized volume and biomass equations are needed. In the present study, generalized biomass and volume regression equations were developed for the main tree species in Europe. These equations were based ...

 

Temperate and boreal rainforest relicts of Europe

  
In Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World: Ecology and Conservation (2011), pp. 154-180, https://doi.org/10.5822/978-1-61091-008-8_6
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-pseudoplatanus   aconitum-spp   alces-alces   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   anemone-trifolia   aquila-chrysaetos   arthonia-leucopellaea   asplenium-scolopendrium   athyrium-filix-femina   balkan-peninsula   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   biodiversity   bison-bonasus   boreal-forests   buteo-buteo   calluna-vulgaris   canis-lupus   capreolus-capreolus   carduus-personata   central-europe   cervus-elaphus   cervus-nippon   cicerbita-alpine   conservation   cortusa-matthioli   corylus-avellana   dryocopus-martius   dryopteris-carthusiana   dryopteris-dilatata   dryopteris-spp   endangered-species   epimedium-alpinum   euphorbia-austriaca   europe   fagus-sylvatica   felis-silvestris   forest-resources   fragmentation   fraxinus-excelsior   grazing   gymnocarpium-dryopteris   habitat-conservation   hacquetia-epipactis   hotspot   ilex-aquifolium   lagopus-muta   lamium-orvala   larix-eurolepis   lichens   lobaria-amplissima   lobaria-scrobiculata   lunaria-rediviva   lynx-lynx   lyrurus-tetrix   meles-meles   milvus-milvus   norway   omphalodes-verna   picea-abies   picea-sitchensis   pinus-contorta   pleurospermum-austriacum   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pyrenula-laevigata   quercus-petraea   quercus-robur   quercus-spp   rainforest   rhododendron-ponticum   rupicapra-rupicapra   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sanicula-europaea   saxifraga-rotundifolia   sorbus-aucuparia   strix-uralensis   sus-scrofa   taxus-baccata   temperate-forests   tetrao-urogallus   thalictrum-aquilegifolium   thelotrema-lepadinum   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   vaccinium-myrtillus  

Abstract

European temperate rainforests are disjunctly distributed from ~45° to 69°N latitude, where they are influenced by maritime climates (see figure 6-1). Storms originating in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Balkans) provide for mild winters, cool summers, and adequate precipitation to sustain rainforests throughout the year. Due to extensive deforestation, however, today’s European rainforests are mere fragments of primeval rainforests. A reminder of a bygone era when rainforests flourished, they are barely hanging on as contemporary rainforest relicts (see box 6-1). ...

 

Introduction of lodgepole pine in Sweden - Ecological relevance for vertebrates

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (February 2001), pp. 143-153, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(00)00497-7

Abstract

Several factors like vegetation structure, quality of food and protection from predators influence habitat utilisation by vertebrates. When an exotic tree species is introduced it has the potential to affect vertebrates in a number of ways. In the boreal region of Sweden (where Scots pine (P. sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) are the dominant native conifers), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was introduced on a large scale about 40 years ago. [\n] Our review of current knowledge on the lodgepole pine suggests ...

 

Characteristics of Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) surviving a spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) outbreak

  
Trees - Structure and Function In Trees, Vol. 25, No. 6. (24 May 2011), pp. 965-973, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-011-0571-9

Abstract

The characteristics of spruce individuals, which survived a massive bark beetle outbreak, were compared with the characteristics of neighbouring attacked trees in Šumava National Park (Czech Republic). Selected parameters related to crown geometry, stand conditions and distances between trees were measured or estimated. Significant differences were found between the surviving trees and the neighbouring trees attacked by I. typographus. Trees with a higher level of stem shading (longer crown length) tended to survive. The attacked trees were usually located in areas ...

 

Fine-scale spruce mortality dynamics driven by bark beetle disturbance in Babia Góra National Park, Poland

  
European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 135, No. 3. (2016), pp. 507-517, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-016-0949-8

Abstract

Bark beetle outbreaks have had major impacts on Norway spruce forests in Europe. The large majority of these forests are located in areas under forest management; thus, few studies have investigated outbreak-driven spruce mortality patterns unaffected by humans. Our study examined spruce mortality resultant from a beetle outbreak in a high-elevation, unmanaged forest over a 17-year span. We analyzed three tree-level survivorship and DBH datasets collected during pre-, mid-, and post-outbreak conditions to evaluate long-term mortality dynamics. We measured changes in ...

 

The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

  
Annals of Forest Research, Vol. 55, No. 2. (2012), pp. 243-252

Abstract

We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region), from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone ...

 

Tree and stand-level patterns and predictors of Norway spruce mortality caused by bark beetle infestation in the Tatra Mountains

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 354 (October 2015), pp. 261-271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.06.006

Abstract

This study investigates temporal shifts in Norway spruce (Picea abies) mortality, stand structure characteristics, and stand complexity facilitated by a bark beetle (Ips typographus) outbreak that affected an unmanaged subalpine forest region in Tatra National Park, Poland in the late 2000s. Changes in survivorship and stand structure characteristics (diameter (DBH), basal area, height, age, and crown length ratio) of nearly 2500 spatially-referenced trees located in 64 long-term survey plots were compared over four time periods that spanned the duration of the ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 29

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   phytophthora-alni   phytophthora-cactorum   phytophthora-cambivora   phytophthora-cinnamomi   phytophthora-citricola   phytophthora-europaea   phytophthora-fragariae   phytophthora-hibernalis   phytophthora-ilicis   phytophthora-kernoviae   phytophthora-lateralis   phytophthora-multivora   phytophthora-plurivora   phytophthora-polonica   phytophthora-pseudosyringae   phytophthora-psychrophila   phytophthora-quercina   phytophthora-ramorum   phytophthora-spp   phytophthora-syringae   phytophthora-uliginosa   phytoplasmas   phytoremediation   phytosanitary   phytosociology   phytotoxic-agent   phytotoxins   picea-abies   picea-brachytyla   picea-breweriana   picea-engelmannii   picea-glauca   picea-jazoensis   picea-jezoensis   picea-mariana   picea-obovata   picea-omirika   picea-omorika   picea-orientalis   picea-pungens   picea-rubens   picea-schrenkiana   picea-sitchensis   picea-spp   pieris-spp   pillyrea-spp   pin-oak   pinaceae   pine-processionary-moth   pine-sawflies   pine-shoot-beetles   pine-wilt   pine-wood-nematode   pinewood-nematode   pinewoods   pinus-albicaulis   pinus-aristata   pinus-attenuata   pinus-balfouriana   pinus-banksiana   pinus-brutia   pinus-bungeana   pinus-canariensis   pinus-caribaea   pinus-cembra   pinus-clausa   pinus-contorta   pinus-coulteri   pinus-densiflora   pinus-echinata   pinus-edulis   pinus-elliottii   pinus-flexilis   pinus-halepensis   pinus-heldreichii   pinus-jeffreyi   pinus-kesiya   pinus-koraiensis   pinus-lambertiana   pinus-leiophylla   pinus-leucodermis   pinus-longaeva   pinus-massoniana   pinus-merkusii   pinus-monophylla   pinus-monticola   pinus-mugo   pinus-mugo-ssp-rotundata   pinus-muricata   pinus-nigra   pinus-nigra-laricio   pinus-nigra-var-pallasiana   pinus-oocarpa   pinus-orientalis   pinus-pallasiana   pinus-palustris   pinus-peuce   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Individual-based analysis of tree establishment and forest stand development within 25 years after wind throw

  
European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 131, No. 2. (2011), pp. 493-501, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-011-0524-2

Abstract

Wind throw is a common disturbance in forest ecosystems. Because many forests are intensively used our knowledge on forest dynamics after such disturbances is limited. In the Bavarian Forest National Park/Germany after the wind throw event in summer 1983, we started our long-term observation in nearly natural Norway spruce forests within 5-year intervals up to 2010. A part of the affected stands was cleared, while another part was left untouched for natural development. Here, we focused on the tree species regeneration, ...

 

The interacting ecological effects of large-scale disturbances and salvage logging on montane spruce forest regeneration in the western European Alps

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 292 (2013), pp. 19-28, https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.12.021

Abstract

Insect outbreaks and wind storms are the most common natural disturbances affecting the northern slopes of montane Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in the European Alps. The combined effects on stand dynamics, including tree regeneration, of these natural disturbances and an anthropogenic (i.e., salvage logging) disturbance were studied to assess the role of post-disturbance management practices. The study areas were in two adjacent inner valleys of the Aosta Valley Autonomous Region (western Italian Alps). Les Combes study area ...

 

Disturbance history of an old-growth sub-alpine Picea abies stand in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic

  
Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 23, No. 1. (February 2012), pp. 86-97, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2011.01329.x

Abstract

Questions What historical natural disturbances have shaped the structure and development of an old-growth, sub-alpine Picea abies forest? Are large-scale, high-severity disturbances (similar to the recent windthrow and bark beetle outbreaks in the region) within the historical range of variability for this forest ecosystem? Can past disturbances explain the previously described gradient in stand structure that had been attributed to an elevation gradient? Location Šumava National Park (the Bohemian Forest) of the southwest Czech Republic. Methods We reconstructed the site's disturbance history using dendroecological methods in ...

 

Climate change increases the drought risk in Central European forests: what are the options for adaptation?

  
Forestry Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 January 2014), https://doi.org/10.2478/forj-2014-0001

Abstract

The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher ...

 

Effect of tree species mixing on the size structure, density, and yield of forest stands

  
European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 135, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-22, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-015-0913-z

Abstract

An increasing number of studies provide evidence that mixed-species stands can overyield monocultures. But it is still hardly understood, how the overyielding at the stand level emerges from the tree, canopy, and size structure. Analyses of 42 triplets with 126 mixed and mono-specific plots in middle-aged, two-species stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), and European beech (Fagus sylvativa L.) in Central Europe revealed that mixed-species compared with mono-specific stands ...

 

Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 311 (January 2014), pp. 3-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.06.047

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] C:N ratio in forest floor, peat and mineral topsoil mainly depend on tree species. [::] Most important differences in C:N ratios are seen between deciduous and evergreen species. [::] Either soil type, ecoregion or humus type was the second most important explanatory factor. [::] There was no consistent relationship between modelled deposition and C:N ratios. [Abstract] The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of ...

 

Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 1. (February 2008), pp. 35-48, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.08.015

Abstract

The knowledge of tree species effects on soil C and N pools is scarce, particularly for European deciduous tree species. We studied forest floor and mineral soil carbon and nitrogen under six common European tree species in a common garden design replicated at six sites in Denmark. Three decades after planting the six tree species had different profiles in terms of litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil C and N attributes. Three groups were identified: (1) ash, maple and lime, (2) ...

 

Root cohesion of forest species in the Italian Alps

  
Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 71-89, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9941-0

Abstract

Forests can prevent and/or mitigate hydrogeomorphic hazards in mountainous landscapes. Their effect is particularly relevant in the case of shallow landslides phenomena, where plants decrease the water content of the soil and increase its mechanical strength. Although such an effect is well known, its quantification is a relatively new challenge. The present work estimates the effect of some forest species on hillslope stability in terms of additional root cohesion by means of a model based on the classical Wu and Waldron ...

 

Dothistroma and Lecanosticta needle blight in the CR

  
SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal (2009), pp. 7-14

Abstract

Dothistroma needle blight is widespread in the Czech Republic now, although the first finding was noted in 2000. To date, it has been identified on 21 species of Pines, 4 species of Spruces and also on Douglas fir in the CR. Records on Scots pine were exceptionally rare in the CR and also in Europe up to spring 2008. Brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola was for the first time reported in the Czech Republic on June 2007, actually is known from ...

 

Snow forces on forest plants due to creep and glide

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 257, No. 2. (January 2009), pp. 546-552, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.035

Abstract

Snow forces impede afforestation in the subalpine region; in particular juvenescent trees can be damaged by extraction from the ground. Such forces are mainly triggered by intense snow gliding which is a frequent phenomenon on slopes with a smooth ground surface. In this article we have investigated the effects of snow gliding processes on forest plants. The study area was situated on a south-facing slope (altitude 1900 m, inclination 30°) in the Stubai valley, Tyrol, Austria. The site is characterized by a ...

 

Debris-flow mitigation measures

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 445-487, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_18

Abstract

[Excerpt] Integrated risk management is a tool to prevent, intervent, and avoid natural hazards (Amman, 2001). This includes a combination of land use planning and technical and bioengineering measures to guarantee an optimal cost-benefit ratio. An essential aspect of risk management is the design of mitigation measures which reduce the existing risk to an accepted level of residual risk. Two types of mitigation measures can be distinguished (Zollinger, 1985): active measures and passive measures. Active measures focus on the hazard, while passive measures focus on the potential damage (Huebl ...

 

Do tree species influence soil carbon stocks in temperate and boreal forests?

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 309 (December 2013), pp. 4-18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.01.017

Abstract

Information on tree species effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is scattered and there have been few attempts to synthesize results for forest floor and mineral soil C pools. We reviewed and synthesized current knowledge of tree species effects on SOC stocks in temperate and boreal forests based on common garden, retrospective paired stand and retrospective single-tree studies. There was evidence of consistent tree species effects on SOC stocks. Effects were clearest for forest floor C stocks (23 of 24 ...

 

Reconversion of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands into mixed forests: effects on soil properties and nutrient fluxes

  
In Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics (1999), pp. 46-57
 

Precipitation and temperature as factors in Gremmeniella abietina epidemics

  
Forest Pathology, Vol. 39, No. 1. (February 2009), pp. 56-72, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2008.00561.x

Abstract

The combination of temperature and precipitation during the growth season could be correlated with the occurrence of Gremmeniella abietina epidemics in Denmark. The Gremmeniella index value (GIV) is the result of the monthly rain in mm divided by average monthly temperature in centigrade (mm/°C) and it was created to facilitate easy prediction of epidemics in Denmark. The two most severe outbreaks of G. abietina in pine and other conifers in Denmark took place in 1963–64 and 1984–85, following years where low ...

 

How have exotic forest pests impacted Europe?

  
In Risks of Exotic Forest Pests and Their Impact on Trade (2001)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The forests of Europe, predominantly coniferous, span a wide range of age and species. For example, in the former USSR, forest cover has been present for many thousands of years, whereas in the UK, the present coniferous forest cover is typically less than 100 hundred years old. The range of pests present in any area and, more importantly, the damage they cause reflect this age and species range. Thus, efforts directed at either controlling or in some areas, keeping ...

 

Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Ips typographus (L.) on Picea abies [(L.) H. Karst.] and Pinus sylvestris L. in north-eastern Poland

  
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, Vol. 74, No. 4. (24 April 2011), pp. 345-350, https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2005.043

Abstract

This study dealt with the species distribution and frequency of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the bark beetle Ips typographus on Norway spruce and Scots pine in north-eastern Poland. At all locations high spruce bark beetle damage has occurred in 2002-2003. Fungi were isolated from beetles and from brood systems of trees infested by the spruce bark beetle. The ophiostomatoid fungi were represented by 13 species. A similar spectrum of ophiostomatoid fungi as that recorded from Picea abies was associated with I. ...

 

Phenotypic and DNA sequence data comparisons reveal three discrete species in the Ceratocystis polonica species complex

  
Mycological Research, Vol. 109, No. 10. (October 2005), pp. 1137-1148, https://doi.org/10.1017/s095375620500362x

Abstract

Ceratocystis polonica and C. laricicola are two morphologically similar species that occur on conifers and reside in the Ceratocystis coerulescens species complex. They, however, represent two ecologically distinct entities. C. polonica causes blue stain on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and other spruce species (Picea spp.) in Eurasia and is associated with the bark beetles Ips typographus, I. typographus japonicus, I. amitinus and I. duplicatus. In contrast, C. laricicola lives in a symbiotic relationship with the bark beetles Ips cembrae and I. ...

 

Pathogenicity of Four Blue-Stain Fungi Associated with Aggressive and Nonaggressive Bark Beetles

  
Phytopathology, Vol. 88, No. 1. (January 1998), pp. 39-44, https://doi.org/10.1094/phyto.1998.88.1.39

Abstract

The pathogenicity of two isolates of each of four bark beetle-associated blue-stain fungi was evaluated after mass inoculation of about 40-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies). Trees were inoculated with a different isolate of each fungus in 1995 and 1996 at a density of 400 inoculations per m2 in a 1.2-m-wide band on the lower bole (about 270 inoculations per tree). Trees were felled 15 weeks after inoculation. In 1995, Ceratocystis polonica was the only fungus that had stained the sapwood ...

 

A new Chionosphaera species associated with conifer inhabiting bark beetles

  
Mycological Research, Vol. 105, No. 11. (November 2001), pp. 1403-1408, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0953756201005019

Abstract

An undescribed species of the heterobasidiomycetous genus Chionosphaera is carried by the bark beetles Dryocoetus autographus, Hylurgops palliatus, Ips acuminatus, Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus, Orthotomicus laricis, Pityogenes chalcographus, Pityokteines spinidens, and Polygraphus poligraphus infesting conifers in Europe (Abies alba, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris). Chionosphaera cuniculicola sp. nov. differs morphologically from C. apobasidialis in the more slender basidiospores. The segregation of the two species is supported by comparison of partial sequences of the large subunit of the ribosomal gene. ...

 

Flooding tolerance of Central European tree and shrub species

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (November 2006), pp. 1-13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.065
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-campestre   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanus   aesculus-hippocastanum   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   betula-pendula   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   cornus-sanguinea   corylus-avellana   crataegus-monogyna   disturbances   fagus-sylvatica   floods   forest-resources   frangula-alnus   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-communis   larix-decidua   malus-sylvestris   picea-abies   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   prunus-domestica   prunus-mahaleb   prunus-padus   prunus-spinosa   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   robinia-pseudoacacia   salix-alba   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sambucus-nigra   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   taxus-baccata   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   tolerance   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   viburnum-opulus   water-resources  

Abstract

Extensive efforts have been made in recent years to restore rivers with a view to increasing the ecological value of riparian areas and the surrounding landscape and to improving the protection provided against extreme flooding events. One of the important factors for the successful establishment and survival of tree and shrub species in enlarged river corridors (particularly in lowlands) – and in retention basins – is their capacity to survive in anoxic conditions, i.e. their flooding tolerance. The importance of improving ...

 

Regional spread and stand-scale establishment of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in scandinavia : Paleoperspective in ecology

  
Ecology, Vol. 87 (1999), pp. 1679-1686

Abstract

Palaeoecological studies are yielding fresh insights into slow forest ecosystem processes that are rarely observed using standard ecological methods, yet have major impacts on ecosystem function. Regional pollen data describe the broad features of the regional spread of trees but yield few insights into the processes of stand invasion and the facilitating role of disturbance. Pollen and charcoal data from small forest hollows are used to complement regional data in the study of the spread of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica ...

 

The Holocene spread of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Fennoscandia and adjacent areas

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 31, No. 9. (1 September 2004), pp. 1523-1548, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01095.x
Keywords: fennoscandia   holocene   picea-abies  

Abstract

Aim  The Holocene spread of Picea abies in Fennoscandia is well established from many sites and thus provides an opportunity for detailed study of the dynamics of tree spread and population expansion. Early- and mid-Holocene macrofossil evidence for presence of P. abies in Fennoscandia has questioned traditional interpretations of the timing and direction of its spread. This paper aims to determine when, from where and by which pathways P. abies spread into Fennoscandia. Understanding the character and dynamics of this spread ...

 

The Holocene spread of spruce in Scandinavia

  
(2004)

Abstract

The Holocene spread of Picea abies in Scandinavia provides an excellent opportunity for detailed study of the dynamics of tree spread and population expansion. Early- and mid-Holocene macrofossil evidence for the presence of Picea abies in Scandinavia has questioned traditional interpretations of the timing and direction of its spread. This study aims to determine the pattern of the spread of Picea abies in Scandinavia from pollen and other data, to evaluate the significance of possible early outpost populations and to deduce ...

 

Invasion of Norway spruce diversifies the fire regime in boreal European forests

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 99, No. 2. (1 March 2011), pp. 395-403, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01780.x

Abstract

1. Global wildfire activity and biomass burning have varied substantially during the Holocene in both time and space. At the regional to continental scale, macroclimate is considered to be the predominant control regulating wildfire activity. By contrast, the role of forest tree composition is often considered as a subsidiary factor in studies addressing temporal variation in regional wildfire activity. 2. Here, we assemble a spatially comprehensive data set of 75 macroscopic charcoal records that reflect local burning and forest landscapes that are spread ...

 

Distribution map of Norway spruce (Picea abies)

  
(2013)

Abstract

The distribution maps on this page were compiled by experts contributing to EUFORGEN activities, based on existing bibliography and other information sources. Individuals may use the distribution maps for personal, educational, scientific or other non-commercial purposes without prior permission from the EUFORGEN Secretariat but they must acknowledge EUFORGEN as the source of information. In case the distribution maps are used for a publication, the EUFORGEN Secretariat would appreciate receiving a notification or a copy of the publication. ...

 

Picea abies

  
In Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie (2002)

Abstract

Die Europäische Fichte gehört in Europa zu den wichtigsten Nadelbäumen. Als bestandesbildende Baumart beherrscht sie einerseits Nadelwälder der borealen Zone Nord- und Osteuropas und prägt andererseits die hochmontan-subalpine Stufe ("Fichtenstufe") mittel- und sÜdeuropäischer Gebirge. Sie gehört in vielen Ländern zu den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbaumarten und wird weit Über ihr natÜrliches Areal hinaus angebaut. Die kÜnstliche BegrÜndung gleichaltriger, im Kahlschlag bewirtschafteter Nadelbaum-Reinbestände fÜhrte in den vergangenen beiden Jahrhunderten zur Ausdehnung instabiler Fichtenforste auf Laubwald- und Mischwald-Standorte. Dadurch wurde die Fichte selbst in ehemals ...

 

Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 9. (1 September 2007), pp. 835-848, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01073.x
Keywords: abies-balsamea   acalitus-rudis   albizia-guachapele   alsophila-pometaria   amblypelta-cocophaga   atta-cephalotes   betula-pendula   biodiversity   callophylum-brasiliense   cardiaspina-fiscella   cecidomyiidae   choristoneura-fumiferana   choristoneura-spp   chrysoptharta-bimaculata   corylus-avellana   curculio-elephas   dendroctonus-frontalis   dipteryx-panamensis   diversity   euclystis-spp   forest-pests   forest-resources   genipa-americana   hylobius-abietis   hypsipyla-robusta   lepidoptera   lymantria-dispar   matsucoccus-feytaudi   milicia-excelsa   myzocallis-coryli   neuroterus-spp   phyllobius-argentatus   phyllonorycter-spp   phytolyma-lata   picea-abies   picea-glauca   picea-sitchensis   pinus-densiflora   pinus-nigra-laricio   pinus-pinaster   pinus-strobus   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-taeda   pissodes-strobi   plant-pests   populus-angustifolia   pseudotsuga-menziesii   quercus-petraea   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-suber   rhyacionia-frustrana   sonneratia-apetala   stigmella-spp   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   thaumetopoea-pytiocampa   thecodiplosis-japonensis   toona-ciliata   virola-koschnyi   vochysia-ferruginea   vochysia-guatemalensis   zeuzera-conferta  

Abstract

Biodiversity loss from plant communities is often acknowledged to affect primary production but little is known about effects on herbivores. We conducted a meta-analysis of a worldwide data set of 119 studies to compare herbivory in single-species and mixed forests. This showed a significant reduction of herbivory in more diverse forests but this varied with the host specificity of insects. In diverse forests, herbivory by oligophagous species was virtually always reduced, whereas the response of polyphagous species was variable. Further analyses ...

 

Influence of patch scarification and insect herbivory on growth and survival in Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L. Karst. and Quercus robur L. seedlings following a Norway spruce forest

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 134, No. 1-3. (September 2000), pp. 111-123, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(99)00250-9

Abstract

Southern Sweden is dominated by relatively uniform coniferous forests where Norway spruce is the most common tree species. Ecological and economic considerations have created an interest in re-establishing broadleaves in these forests. To study the influence of patch scarification and compare the influence of insect herbivory on growth and survival in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings, a field experiment was established. The experiment was carried out on a new clear-cut ...

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Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden

  
Silva Fennica, Vol. 48, No. 4. (2014), 1188, https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1188

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Both native and introduced confer species in Sweden can be highly susceptible to damage by the pine weevil [::] Douglas fir and Sitka spruce were generally the most damaged among six studied conifer species [::] The results highlight some of the risks in establishing exotic tree species for forest production. [Abstract] There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of ...

Visual summary

 

Adult large pine weevils Hylobius abietis feed on silver birch Betula pendula even in the presence of conifer seedlings

  
Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 8, No. 2. (May 2006), pp. 121-128, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9563.2006.00290.x

Abstract

[::] The feeding preference of the adult pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Betula pendula Roth was studied in no-choice and paired-choice feeding experiments. [::] In the first no-choice test, large quantities of silver birch bark in Petri dishes were consumed; on average, the daily consumption of each weevil was 67 mm2. [::] In the second no-choice test, the weevils were offered 1-year-old silver birch seedlings for 6 days. Initially, the weevils fed mostly on the stem bases; later, ...

 

Significance of tree root decomposition for shallow landslides

  
Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2009), pp. 79-94

Abstract

Tree-root systems can prevent shallow landslides. In layers permeated by roots, the soil shows greater stability as roots are able to absorb forces. When protective forests die off extensively as a consequence of a bark beetle outbreak or of another disturbance (e.g. storms or fires), their protective power on the slope stability decreases with the decomposition of the roots of the dead trees. By determining the relation between the tensile strength of roots and the tree's time of death, the decrease ...

 

Mechanisms, effects and management implications of rockfall in forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 215, No. 1-3. (August 2005), pp. 183-195, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.05.012

Abstract

At the scale of forest stands, there is a lack of quantitative, statistically valid data on the protective effect of forests against rockfall. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to quantify the velocities, rebound heights as well as the residual hazard of rockfall on a forested and a non-forested slope. The second objective was to evaluate existing rockfall protection forest management guidelines, as well as the underlying criteria. We carried out and analysed 100 real size rockfall experiments at ...

 

Structural dynamics and synchronous silver fir decline in mixed old-growth mountain forests in Eastern and Southeastern Europe

  
Forestry, Vol. 84, No. 5. (01 December 2011), pp. 479-491, https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpr030

Abstract

Studies of old-growth forests are becoming increasingly important for the improvement of silviculture and for understanding environmental changes. However, in Europe such forests are rare, fragmented and influenced by millennia of human activity. Comparative studies of old-growth forests across Europe are needed to improve knowledge on how direct and indirect anthropogenic factors influence their structure. We analysed structural dynamics in 15 silver fir-beech-Norway spruce old-growth forests in Slovenia, Croatia, Slovakia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Changes in diameter distributions, stand parameters and regeneration were ...

 

Oak (Quercus robur L.) regeneration as a response to natural dynamics of stands in European hemiboreal zone

  
European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 130, No. 5. (10 February 2011), pp. 785-797, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-010-0471-3

Abstract

The oak (Quercus robur L.) regeneration intensity was assessed in the core area of the Białowieża National Park (BNP) in Poland with respect to the selected ecological factors. The emphasis was placed on the response of oak regeneration to disturbances, including the large-scale dieback of spruce stands. Defining their effect could help predicting the role of oak in naturally developing lowland forest ecosystems in the European hemiboreal zone. The results of the study challenge the opinion that the ‘lime-oak-hornbeam forest’ is ...

 

Impact of several common tree species of European temperate forests on soil fertility

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 59, No. 3. (April 2002), pp. 233-253, https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2002020

Abstract

The aim of the present work was to provide a synopsis of the scientific literature concerning the effects of different tree species on soil and to quantify the effect of common European temperate forest species on soil fertility. The scientific literature dealing with the tree species effect on soil has been reviewed. The composition of forest overstory has an impact on the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of soil. This impact was highest in the topsoil. Different tree species had significantly ...

 

Deterioration of Norway spruce vitality despite a sharp decline in acid deposition: a long-term integrated perspective

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 18, No. 2. (February 2012), pp. 711-725, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02550.x

Abstract

Since the late 1970s, several long-term ecological studies were conducted to better understand the biogeochemical functioning of Norway spruce stands in the Ardennes as these nutrient-poor ecosystems were subject to high levels of acid deposition and exhibited symptoms of tree health decline. Between 1978 and 2009, acid deposition declined sharply, especially sulfur and to a lesser extent nitrogen deposition. The aim of this study was (i) to determine if the Norway spruce stands recovered after the reduction of acid deposition and ...

 

An evaluation of forest decline based on field observations focussed on Norway spruce, Picea abies

  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Section B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 97 (January 1990), pp. 155-168, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0269727000005339

Abstract

Forest decline in Europe is centred around areas where air pollution is heaviest. Although statistical relations are still debatable at the stand level, they are a basis for the discussion of mechanisms by which air pollutants affect forest health. The aetiologies of different syndromes of decline are discussed. Exposure to large concentrations of gaseous pollutants appears to have short-term rather than long-lasting effects, whereas pathogens seem to be of only secondary importance. The deposition of sulphur and nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) ...

 

Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (1 March 2015), pp. 281-295, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12354

Abstract

[Summary] [::] The resilience, diversity and stability of mountain ecosystems are threatened by climatic as well as land-use changes, but the combined effects of these drivers are only poorly understood. [::] We combine two high-resolution sediment records from Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) and Lauenensee (1382 m a.s.l.) at different elevations in the Northern Swiss Alps to provide a detailed history of vegetational changes during the period of first pastoralism (ca. 7000–5000 cal. BP, 5000–3000 BC) in order to understand ongoing and future changes ...

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