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Selection: with tag organic-carbon [33 articles] 

 

How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-675-2016

Abstract

Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...

 

Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe

  
Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 69 (April 2013), pp. 94-108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.009

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Receptor models evolve towards tools with refined uncertainty treatment. [::] Positive Matrix Factorization and Chemical Mass Balance are the most used models. [::] Gas-to-particle conversion is the main PM mass and particulate organic carbon source. [::] To abate exceedances, secondary inorganic and traffic are the main sources to target. [::] More long term speciated PM datasets would foster source identification studies. [Abstract] A review was conducted of the published literature on source apportionment of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Europe using receptor ...

 

An approach towards an estimate of the impact of forest management and climate change on the European forest sector carbon budget: Germany as a case study

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 162, No. 1. (June 2002), pp. 87-103, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00052-x

Abstract

The increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the consequent warming of the Earth’s surface presents a threat to the environment and economic development. This paper discusses how regional level impacts of transient climate change on forest growth are assessed with process-based models and how these responses are then scaled up to country and European level using national forest inventory data in combination with the European forest information scenario (EFISCEN) model. Stem wood volume and increment in the EFISCEN ...

 

Methodological approach for the assessment of environmental effects of agroforestry at the landscape scale

  
Ecological Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 4. (April 2007), pp. 450-462, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.09.016

Abstract

Silvoarable agroforestry, the deliberate combined use of trees and arable crops on the same area of land, has been proposed in order to improve the environmental performance of agricultural systems in Europe. Based on existing models and algorithms, we developed a method to predict the environmental effects of SAF at a farm and landscape scale. The method is comprised of an assessment of soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration, and landscape diversity and allowed the comparison of the environmental performance of ...

 

Disturbance and the carbon balance of US forests: a quantitative review of impacts from harvests, fires, insects, and droughts

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 143 (August 2016), pp. 66-80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.06.002

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Available data suggest harvest is the leading disturbance impact on C in US forests then fire, windthrow, insects, and droughts. [::] Disturbances in US forests lead to the loss of at least 200 Tg C in live biomass each year on average. [::] Regrowth roughly balances disturbance emissions, with growth enhancements contributing significantly to the net change in forest carbon. [::] Natural disturbance events are likely to rise in the future, leading to net release of forest carbon. [Abstract] Disturbances are a major determinant of ...

 

The charcoal vision: a win–win–win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality

  
Agronomy Journal, Vol. 100, No. 1. (2008), 178, https://doi.org/10.2134/agrojnl2007.0161

Abstract

Processing biomass through a distributed network of fast pyrolyzers may be a sustainable platform for producing energy from biomass. Fast pyrolyzers thermally transform biomass into bio-oil, syngas, and charcoal. The syngas could provide the energy needs of the pyrolyzer. Bio-oil is an energy raw material (∼17 MJ kg−1) that can be burned to generate heat or shipped to a refinery for processing into transportation fuels. Charcoal could also be used to generate energy; however, application of the charcoal co-product to soils ...

 

Diversity increases carbon storage and tree productivity in Spanish forests

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3. (1 March 2014), pp. 311-322, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12126

Abstract

[Aim] Biodiversity loss could reduce primary productivity and the carbon storage provided by forests; however, the mechanisms underpinning the effects of biodiversity on multiple ecosystem functions are not completely understood. Spanish forests are of particular interest because of the broad variation in environmental conditions and management history. We tested for the existence of a relationship between diversity effects and both carbon storage and tree productivity, and examined the relative importance of complementarity and selection mechanisms in a wide variety of forests, ...

 

Above-ground carbon storage by urban trees in Leipzig, Germany: analysis of patterns in a European city

  
Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 104, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 95-104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.10.001

Abstract

Many aspects of global change, including carbon dioxide emissions, have been attributed to urban areas. On the other hand, cities have been found to provide valuable ecosystem services such as carbon storage. The aim of this study is to estimate the above-ground carbon storage in trees in the central European city of Leipzig and produce spatially explicit carbon storage maps. We used stratified random sampling across 19 land cover classes using 190 sample plots to measure carbon storage. In addition, we ...

 

Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest

  
Science, Vol. 323, No. 5919. (06 March 2009), pp. 1344-1347, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1164033

Abstract

Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 23

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   nolina-recurvata   non-array-oriented   non-equilibrium   non-linearity   non-semantic-software-errors   non-stationarity   non-wood-products   nonadditive-measures   nonideal-neurons   nonlinear-correlation   nonlinear-response-to-bioclimatic-predictors   nonmarket-impacts   nonsteady-flame-convection   north-africa   north-america   northern-europe   northern-hemisphere   norway   not-automatic-workflow   notation   notation-as-a-tool-of-thought   nothofagus-cunninghamii   nothofagus-glauca   nothofagus-nervosa   nothofagus-procera   nothofagus-pumilio   nothofagus-spp   notholithocarpus-densiflorus   nothotsuga-spp   nreap-2020   nuclear-disasters   numerical-analysis   numpy   nurse-species   nut-producing-plants   nutrient-gradient   nutrient-recommendations   nutrient-rich-soil   nutrients   nutritional-composition   nyssa-spp   nyssa-sylvatica   oak-decline   oak-hornbeam-forest   oak-shake   object-oriented-programming   occam-razor   ocean-acidification   ocean-circulation   oceans   ochroma-pyramidale   oenothera-spp   off-site-effects   ogc   olea-europaea   olea-spp   oleoresin   olive-decline   olive-oil   ombrotrophic   on-site-effects   ononis-fruticosa   ontologies   open-access   open-access-embargo   open-data   open-field   open-loop-control   open-science   open-source   opengis   openlayers   openstreetmap   operational-research   operophtera-antiqua   operophtera-brumata   ophiostoma-novo-ulmi   ophiostoma-spp   ophiostoma-ulmi   opportunistic-plant-pests   optimization   opuntia-amyclaea   opuntia-ficus-indica   oregon   organic-carbon   organic-material   ornamental-plant   ornamental-trees   orthotomicus-laricis   ostrya-carpinifolia   ostrya-spp   ostryopsis-spp   otiorhynchus-scaber   outbreak   outdated-yield-tables   outputs-vs-outcomes   overexploited-fish-stocks   overfitting  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest

  
Science, Vol. 352, No. 6283. (14 April 2016), pp. 342-344, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad6188

Abstract

[Editor summary: Carbon trading between adult trees] Competition between individual plants for resources is well known, but sharing of resources may also occur. Klein et al. observed tree-to-tree carbon shuttling between roots of tall trees in a mixed temperate forest in Switzerland (see the Perspective by van der Heijden). By applying stable carbon isotope labeling to individual tree canopies, they show that up to 40% of the carbon in the fine roots of one individual may be derived from photosynthetic products of ...

 

Underground networking

  
Science, Vol. 352, No. 6283. (14 April 2016), pp. 290-291, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf4694

Abstract

Almost all land plants, including most trees, shrubs, and herbs, form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi (1). These soil fungi acquire nutrients that they transfer to their plant hosts in exchange for carbon (see the photo). Plants in natural vegetation can acquire up to 80% of nitrogen and phosphorus from their mycorrhizal associates (2). Individual mycorrhizal fungi can simultaneously colonize many plant hosts of the same species or different species. As a result, plants in natural communities are interconnected by mycorrhizal ...

 

Storage and drivers of organic carbon in forest soils of southeast Germany (Bavaria) – Implications for carbon sequestration

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 295 (May 2013), pp. 162-172, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.01.025

Abstract

[Abstract] Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1 m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative ...

 

Amount, distribution and driving factors of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in cropland and grassland soils of southeast Germany (Bavaria)

  
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 176 (August 2013), pp. 39-52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.05.012

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Drivers and distribution of agricultural SOC and N stocks of Bavaria were analyzed. [::] SOC differences between cropland and grassland are related to subsoil C. [::] Soil moisture controls SOC and N, temperature/precipitation are of minor importance. [::] Cropland and grassland soils in Bavaria store 242 and 134 Mt SOC and 19 and 12 Mt N. [::] For C sequestration soil types and topography are more important than land use. [Abstract] Agricultural soils have a high potential for sequestration of atmospheric carbon due to their volume ...

 

How temperature, precipitation and stand age control the biomass carbon density of global mature forests

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3. (March 2014), pp. 323-333, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12113

Abstract

[::Aim] To understand: (1) how temperature, precipitation and stand age control the above-ground biomass carbon density (BCDa) of mature forests and its macroecology patterns across latitudes; (2) the age threshold for old-growth forests at a global scale. [::Location] Global forests. [::Methods] We compiled a database (897 sites) of mature forests between 80 and 1200 years old. The site data include latitude, longitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, forest type, stand age, BCDa, living biomass (above- and below-ground biomass) carbon density and total (living plus dead) ...

 

Greenhouse gas emissions from managed peat soils: is the IPCC reporting guidance realistic?

  
Mires and Peat, Vol. 8 (2011), 2

Abstract

Drainage of peatlands leads to the decomposition of peat, resulting in substantial losses of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. The conservation and restoration of peatlands can provide a major contribution to the mitigation of climate change. Improvements to guidance and capacity for reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands will be valuable in the context of the current negotiations towards a post-2012 climate agreement. This article evaluates IPCC approaches to greenhouse gas emissions from managed organic (peat) soils and presents ...

 

The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests

  
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 44, No. 1. (2013), pp. 593-622, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135914

Abstract

Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. We review the environmental factors controlling their structure and global distribution and evaluate their current and future trajectory. Adaptations of trees to climate and resource gradients, coupled with disturbances and forest dynamics, create complex geographical patterns in forest assemblages and structures. These patterns are increasingly discernible through new satellite and airborne observation systems, improved forest inventories, and global ecosystem models. Forest biomass is a complex property affected by forest distribution, structure, and ecological ...

 

Water-quality impacts from climate-induced forest die-off

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 3. (28 October 2012), pp. 218-222, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1724

Abstract

Increased ecosystem susceptibility to pests and other stressors has been attributed to climate change, resulting in unprecedented tree mortality from insect infestations. In turn, large-scale tree die-off alters physical and biogeochemical processes, such as organic matter decay and hydrologic flow paths, that could enhance leaching of natural organic matter to soil and surface waters and increase potential formation of harmful drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). Whereas previous studies have investigated water-quantity alterations due to climate-induced, forest die-off, impacts on water quality ...

 

Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 9. (3 August 2014), pp. 806-810, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2318

Abstract

Disturbances from wind, bark beetles and wildfires have increased in Europe’s forests throughout the twentieth century1. Climatic changes were identified as a key driver behind this increase2, yet how the expected continuation of climate change will affect Europe’s forest disturbance regime remains unresolved. Increasing disturbances could strongly impact the forest carbon budget3, 4, and are suggested to contribute to the recently observed carbon sink saturation in Europe’s forests5. Here we show that forest disturbance damage in Europe has continued to increase ...

 

A large-scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests

  
Glob Change Biol (1 May 2014), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12627

Abstract

Tropical rainforests store enormous amounts of carbon, the protection of which represents a vital component of efforts to mitigate global climate change. Currently, tropical forest conservation, science, policies, and climate mitigation actions focus predominantly on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation alone. However, every year vast areas of the humid tropics are disturbed by selective logging, understory fires, and habitat fragmentation. There is an urgent need to understand the effect of such disturbances on carbon stocks, and how stocks in disturbed forests ...

 

Steeper declines in forest photosynthesis than respiration explain age-driven decreases in forest growth

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 24. (17 June 2014), pp. 8856-8860, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1320761111

Abstract

[Significance] Advancing our understanding of how and why forests dynamically change in their productivity is important to predict the future change. The traditional view of forest dynamics originated by Kira, Shidei, and Odum suggests a decline in net primary productivity [or gross primary productivity (GPP) − autotrophic respiration (Ra)] in aging forests due to stabilized GPP and continuously increased Ra. We found that, in contrast to the traditional view, both GPP and Ra decline in aging forests while GPP decreases more ...

 

Cracking Brazil's Forest Code

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6182. (25 April 2014), pp. 363-364, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1246663

Abstract

Roughly 53% of Brazil's native vegetation occurs on private properties. Native forests and savannahs on these lands store 105 ± 21 GtCO2e (billion tons of CO2 equivalents) and play a vital role in maintaining a broad range of ecosystem services (1). Sound management of these private landscapes is critical if global efforts to mitigate climate change are to succeed. Recent approval of controversial revisions to Brazil's Forest Code (FC)—the central piece of legislation regulating land use and management on private properties—may ...

 

Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2

  
Nature Clim. Change, Vol. 4, No. 5. (6 May 2014), pp. 394-397, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2184

Abstract

Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas inducing climate change. Increased global CO2 emissions, estimated at 8.4 Pg C yr−1 at present, have accelerated from 1% yr−1 during 1990–1999 to 2.5% yr−1 during 2000–2009 (ref. 1). The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems is the greatest unknown in the global C budget because the actual magnitude, location and causes of terrestrial sinks are uncertain2; estimates of terrestrial C uptake, therefore, are often based on the residuals between direct measurements of the atmospheric ...

 

Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 143, No. 1-2. (16 March 2007), pp. 123-145, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.12.004

Abstract

The drought of 2003 was exceptionally severe in many regions of Europe, both in duration and in intensity. In some areas, especially in Germany and France, it was the strongest drought for the last 50 years, lasting for more than 6 months. We used continuous carbon and water flux measurements at 12 European monitoring sites covering various forest ecosystem types and a large climatic range in order to characterise the consequences of this drought on ecosystems functioning. As soil water content ...

 

Carbon profiles of typical forest types across Europe assessed with CO2FIX

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 1, No. 3. (March 2002), pp. 213-223, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-160x(02)00007-9

Abstract

This paper presents for 16 typical forest types across Europe a standard carbon sequestration profile. The study was carried out with the model CO2FIX which was parameterised with local yield table data and additional required parameters. CO2FIX quantifies the carbon of the forest ecosystem–soil–wood products chain at the stand level. To avoid misleading results annual net sequestration rates are not presented here, because these strongly fluctuate in time. Therefore, only its advancing mean is presented as a more reliable indicator. This ...

 

Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season

  
Nature (5 February 2014), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13006

Abstract

The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests1. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity2, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data3, 4, 5, 6, 7. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area5, 6, 7 or leaf reflectance3, 4, 6, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model8 and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical ...

 

Trick of the light

  
Nature, Vol. 506, No. 7486. (6 February 2014), pp. 6-6, https://doi.org/10.1038/506006b

Abstract

The Amazon doesn’t absorb extra carbon in the dry season after all. It can become a carbon source. ...

 

Disturbance legacies and climate jointly drive tree growth and mortality in an intensively studied boreal forest

  
Global Change Biology (1 September 2013), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12404

Abstract

Most North American forests are at some stage of post-disturbance regrowth, subject to a changing climate, and exhibit growth and mortality patterns that may not be closely coupled to annual environmental conditions. Distinguishing the possibly interacting effects of these processes is necessary to put short-term studies in a longer-term context, and particularly important for the carbon-dense, fire-prone boreal forest. The goals of this study were to combine dendrochronological sampling, inventory records, and machine-learning algorithms to understand how tree growth and death ...

 

Historical warming reduced due to enhanced land carbon uptake

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 42. (15 September 2013), pp. 16730-16735, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314047110

Abstract

[Significance] This article provides estimates of the climate benefits due to CO2 fertilization of the terrestrial biosphere. Without these benefits, the atmospheric CO2 concentration would have risen by ∼200 ppm since the preindustrial period instead of the observed ∼115 ppm (an 80% increase), and the global climate would have warmed by an additional 0.31 ± 0.06 °C (a 40% increase). These findings were obtained with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory comprehensive Earth System Model ESM2G. [Abstract] Previous studies have demonstrated ...

 

Altitudinal increase of mobile carbon pools in Pinus cembra suggests sink limitation of growth at the Swiss treeline

  
Oikos, Vol. 98, No. 3. (September 2002), pp. 361-374, https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.980301.x

Abstract

Low temperature driven carbon shortage is often assumed to explain slow growth and treeline formation at high elevations. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mobile carbon pools in Pinus cembra across the treeline ecotone in the Swiss Alps. Concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in needles, branches, stems and roots, as well as lipids (acylglycerols) in all woody tissues were measured throughout the growing season. Starch was the most prominent non-structural carbon compound in needles, whereas lipids represented 50-75% of the mobile ...

 

Carbon stocks and soil respiration rates during deforestation, grassland use and subsequent Norway spruce afforestation in the Southern Alps, Italy

  
Tree Physiology, Vol. 20, No. 13. (01 July 2000), pp. 849-857, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/20.13.849

Abstract

Changes in carbon stocks during deforestation, reforestation and afforestation play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Cultivation of forest lands leads to substantial losses in both biomass and soil carbon, whereas forest regrowth is considered to be a significant carbon sink. We examined below- and aboveground carbon stocks along a chronosequence of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands (0–62 years old) regenerating on abandoned meadows in the Southern Alps. A 130-year-old mixed coniferous Norway spruce–white fir (Abies alba ...

 

Aboveground Forest Biomass and the Global Carbon Balance

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 6. (1 June 2005), pp. 945-958, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00955.x

Abstract

The long-term net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere has been dominated by two factors: changes in the area of forests and per hectare changes in forest biomass resulting from management and regrowth. While these factors are reasonably well documented in countries of the northern mid-latitudes as a result of systematic forest inventories, they are uncertain in the tropics. Recent estimates of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation have focused on the uncertainty in rates of deforestation. By using ...

 

Soot is warming the world even more than thought

  
Science, Vol. 339, No. 6118. (25 January 2013), pp. 382-382, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.339.6118.382

Abstract

The roughly 8 million tons of soot produced each year by burning everything from coal in power plants to oil in ship's boilers is bad news for the planet. A new study finds that soot is warming the climate about twice as fast as scientists had estimated and, for the first time, points policymakers to the soot sources that will make the best targets for climate regulations. ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/organic-carbon

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.