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Selection: with tag non-linearity [156 articles] 

 

Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions: II - Destabilizing processes

  
Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 47, No. 1. (February 1978), pp. 249-267, https://doi.org/10.2307/3934

Abstract

[::1] Three categories of biological processes are shown to have a destabilizing influence on the dynamical behaviour of model host-parasite associations: parasite induced reduction in host reproductive potential, parasite reproduction within a host which directly increases parasite population size and time delays in parasite reproduction and transmission. [::2] The importance of parasitic species as regulators of host population growth is examined in light of empirical evidence. Data from two particular laboratory studies used to indicate the magnitude of this regulatory influence. ...

 

Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions: I - Regulatory processes

  
Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 47, No. 1. (February 1978), pp. 219-247, https://doi.org/10.2307/3933

Abstract

[::1] Several models describing the dynamics of host-parasite associations are discussed. [::2] The models contain the central assumption that the parasite increases the rate of host mortalities. The parasite induced changes in this rate are formulated as functions of the parasite numbers per host and hence of the statistical distribution of the parasites within the host population. [::3] The parameters influencing the ability of the parasite to regulate the growth of its host's population, and the stability of parasite induced equilibria, ...

 

Scale-dependent portfolio effects explain growth inflation and volatility reduction in landscape demography

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 47. (21 November 2017), pp. 12507-12511, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704213114

Abstract

[Significance] Population demography is central to many problems in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology, yet there is a gap between the information needed about the demography of population over multiple spatial scales and the available data, which are largely local. Inspired by concepts from landscape ecology and Markowitz's investment portfolio theory, we address this lacuna by developing a method for quantifying and predicting the demography of multiple populations across spatial scales and apply it to gypsy moth populations. We show that population ...

 

Population biology of infectious diseases: part II

  
Nature, Vol. 280, No. 5722. (9 August 1979), pp. 455-461, https://doi.org/10.1038/280455a0

Abstract

In the first part of this two-part article (Nature 280, 361–367), mathematical models of directly transmitted microparasitic infections were developed, taking explicit account of the dynamics of the host population. The discussion is now extended to both microparasites (viruses, bacteria and protozoa) and macroparasites (helminths and arthropods), transmitted either directly or indirectly via one or more intermediate hosts. Consideration is given to the relation between the ecology and evolution of the transmission processes and the overall dynamics, and to the mechanisms ...

 

Climate-driven tree mortality: insights from the piñon pine die-off in the United States

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 200, No. 2. (October 2013), pp. 301-303, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12464

Abstract

The global climate is changing, and a range of negative effects on plants has already been observed and will likely continue into the future. One of the most apparent consequences of climate change is widespread tree mortality (Fig. 1). Extensive tree die-offs resulting from recent climate change have been documented across a range of forest types on all forested continents (Allen et al., 2010). The exact physiological mechanisms causing this mortality are not yet well understood (e.g. McDowell, 2011), but they ...

 

Behavioral self-organization underlies the resilience of a coastal ecosystem

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 8035-8040, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619203114

Abstract

[Significance] Theoretical models suggest that spatial self-organization enhances the resistance of ecosystems to disturbance. However, experiments investigating this important prediction are lacking. Our paper provides clear experimental evidence that spatial self-organization profoundly increases the ability of ecosystems to persist in the face of disturbance. The mechanisms underlying this positive impact of self-organization are driven by the combination of ecological and behavioral processes. Specifically, large-scale banded patterns in mussel beds created by ecological feedback processes facilitate fast behavioral aggregation of individual mussels into ...

 

Regular patterns link individual behavior to population persistence

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 7747-7749, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1709063114

Abstract

[Excerpt] Resisting and recovering from disturbances is a necessity for most species. The strategy is sometimes collective, depending on the aggregation of interacting individuals into regular patterns. However, relating patterns of abundance across scales to both individual behavior and population persistence remains a major challenge for ecology. Such patterns are found in many ecosystems, ranging from microbes to forests, with their regularity taking the form of evenly sized and spaced bands and patches of aggregated individuals. Regular patterns are said to ...

 

Robust projections of Fire Weather Index in the Mediterranean using statistical downscaling

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 120, No. 1-2. (2013), pp. 229-247, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0787-3

Abstract

The effect of climate change on wildfires constitutes a serious concern in fire-prone regions with complex fire behavior such as the Mediterranean. The coarse resolution of future climate projections produced by General Circulation Models (GCMs) prevents their direct use in local climate change studies. Statistical downscaling techniques bridge this gap using empirical models that link the synoptic-scale variables from GCMs to the local variables of interest (using e.g. data from meteorological stations). In this paper, we investigate the application of statistical ...

 

Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900–2010): its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 14, No. 1. (03 January 2014), pp. 21-32, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-21-2014

Abstract

Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894–2010) were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered as the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values) or below (negative values) the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyse the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence with meteorological extremes, we ...

 

Beyond pairwise mechanisms of species coexistence in complex communities

  
Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7656. (31 May 2017), pp. 56-64, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22898

Abstract

The tremendous diversity of species in ecological communities has motivated a century of research into the mechanisms that maintain biodiversity. However, much of this work examines the coexistence of just pairs of competitors. This approach ignores those mechanisms of coexistence that emerge only in diverse competitive networks. Despite the potential for these mechanisms to create conditions under which the loss of one competitor triggers the loss of others, we lack the knowledge needed to judge their importance for coexistence in nature. ...

 

Divergence of species responses to climate change

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 5. (17 May 2017), e1603055, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1603055

Abstract

Climate change can have profound impacts on biodiversity and the sustainability of many ecosystems. Various studies have investigated the impacts of climate change, but large-scale, trait-specific impacts are less understood. We analyze abundance data over time for 86 tree species/groups across the eastern United States spanning the last three decades. We show that more tree species have experienced a westward shift (73%) than a poleward shift (62%) in their abundance, a trend that is stronger for saplings than adult trees. The ...

 

Hybrid incompatibility caused by an epiallele

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 14. (04 April 2017), pp. 3702-3707, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700368114

Abstract

[Significance] Deleterious mutations in different copies of a duplicated gene pair have the potential to cause hybrid incompatibility between diverging subpopulations, contributing to reproductive isolation and speciation. This study demonstrates a case of epigenetic gene silencing rather than pseudogene creation by mutation, contributing to a lethal gene combination on hybridization of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings provide direct evidence that naturally occurring epigenetic variation can contribute to incompatible hybrid genotypes, reducing gene flow between subtypes of the same species. [Abstract] Hybrid incompatibility ...

 

Fitness of multidimensional phenotypes in dynamic adaptive landscapes

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 30, No. 8. (August 2015), pp. 487-496, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.06.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Integrating fitness into community ecology will improve trait-based predictions. [::] Dynamic adaptive landscapes link phenotypes to fitness across environments. [::] Fitness is a function of multidimensional phenotype–environment interactions. [::] Intraspecific trait covariation constrains environmental niche breadth. [Abstract] Phenotypic traits influence species distributions, but ecology lacks established links between multidimensional phenotypes and fitness for predicting species responses to environmental change. The common focus on single traits rather than multiple trait combinations limits our understanding of their adaptive value, and intraspecific trait covariation has been neglected in ...

 

Evolutionary and plastic responses to climate change in terrestrial plant populations

  
Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 7, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 123-139, https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12112

Abstract

As climate change progresses, we are observing widespread changes in phenotypes in many plant populations. Whether these phenotypic changes are directly caused by climate change, and whether they result from phenotypic plasticity or evolution, are active areas of investigation. Here, we review terrestrial plant studies addressing these questions. Plastic and evolutionary responses to climate change are clearly occurring. Of the 38 studies that met our criteria for inclusion, all found plastic or evolutionary responses, with 26 studies showing both. These responses, ...

 

Genetic divergence in forest trees: understanding the consequences of climate change

  
Functional Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 1. (February 2014), pp. 22-36, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12169

Abstract

[::] Predicted climate change is heading in many respects into untested environmental conditions for trees and to the reshuffling of species distributions. We explore the consequences that these changes are likely to have on population differentiation of adaptive traits. Superimposed on the spatial redistribution of the species, will there be a redistribution of their genetic variation? [::] We base our predictions on a conceptual framework, whose elements are the extant differentiation, and the predicted divergent evolution of populations along purposely chosen altitudinal/latitudinal ...

 

Intraspecific trait variation across scales: implications for understanding global change responses

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 137-150, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13000

Abstract

Recognition of the importance of intraspecific variation in ecological processes has been growing, but empirical studies and models of global change have only begun to address this issue in detail. This review discusses sources and patterns of intraspecific trait variation and their consequences for understanding how ecological processes and patterns will respond to global change. We examine how current ecological models and theories incorporate intraspecific variation, review existing data sources that could help parameterize models that account for intraspecific variation in ...

 

A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.11.012

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...

 

Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science

  
Ecosphere, Vol. 5, No. 1. (January 2014), art1, https://doi.org/10.1890/es13-00182.1

Abstract

Complex systems science provides a transdisciplinary framework to study systems characterized by (1) heterogeneity, (2) hierarchy, (3) self-organization, (4) openness, (5) adaptation, (6) memory, (7) non-linearity, and (8) uncertainty. Complex systems thinking has inspired both theory and applied strategies for improving ecosystem resilience and adaptability, but applications in forest ecology and management are just beginning to emerge. We review the properties of complex systems using four well-studied forest biomes (temperate, boreal, tropical and Mediterranean) as examples. The lens of complex systems ...

 

Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (22 December 2016), 13736, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13736

Abstract

The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single ...

 

Complex responses to global change at alpine treeline

  
Physical Geography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (1 July 2001), pp. 333-342, https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2001.10642747

Abstract

A focus of geography is the study of complexity: we include many interacting processes when we study places. Another view of complexity in geography is that complex pattern, in particular spatial pattern, can arise from few or simple interactions, if they are nonlinear. Environmental responses to global change are likely to be nonlinear and thus complex. Shifts in ecotones–the boundaries of vegetation types or biomes–may be indicative of such complex response to global change. One reason for expecting nonlinearity is that ...

 

Framework for making better predictions by directly estimating variables’ predictivity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 50. (13 December 2016), pp. 14277-14282, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616647113

Abstract

[Significance] Good prediction, especially in the context of big data, is important. Common approaches to prediction include using a significance-based criterion for evaluating variables to use in models and evaluating variables and models simultaneously for prediction using cross-validation or independent test data. The first approach can lead to choosing less-predictive variables, because significance does not imply predictivity. The second approach can be improved through considering a variable’s predictivity as a parameter to be estimated. The literature currently lacks measures that do ...

 

Random forests

  
Machine Learning, Vol. 45, No. 1. (2001), pp. 5-32, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1010933404324

Abstract

Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees in the forest becomes large. The generalization error of a forest of tree classifiers depends on the strength of the individual trees in the forest and the correlation between them. Using a random ...

 

Statistical analysis

  
In Science: editorial policies (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Statistical analysis] Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. [::] Data pre-processing steps such as transformations, re-coding, re-scaling, normalization, truncation, and handling of below detectable level readings and outliers should be fully described; any removal or modification of data values must be fully acknowledged and justified. [::] [...] [::] The number of sampled units, N, upon which each reported statistic is based must be stated. [::] For continuous ...

 

Sequential disturbance effects of hailstorm and fire on vegetation in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 18, No. 7. (2015), pp. 1121-1134, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9886-5

Abstract

Frequency and intensity of disturbance is projected to increase for many ecosystems globally, with uncertain consequences, particularly when disturbances occur in rapid succession. We quantified community response (52 shrub species and the tree Eucalyptus todtiana) to a severe hailstorm followed 2 months later by prescribed fire for a Mediterranean-type shrubland in southwestern Australia. Partial overlap of hailstorm path and fire perimeter provided a unique opportunity to compare storm and fire effects along a storm severity gradient (high–moderate–none) with and without fire. ...

 

Ten steps to programming mastery

  
(2003)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Here are ten ways you can improve your coding. The overriding principle to improving your skill at coding, as well as almost endeavor, is open your mind and then fill it with better knowledge. Improvement necessarily implies change, yet it is human nature to fear and resist change. But overcoming that fear and embracing change as a way of life will enable you to reach new levels of achievement. [...] [::Big Rule 1: Break your own habits] When you began coding, you were much less experienced ...

 

Welcome to postnormal times

  
Futures, Vol. 42, No. 5. (20 June 2010), pp. 435-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2009.11.028

Abstract

All that was ‘normal’ has now evaporated; we have entered postnormal times, the in-between period where old orthodoxies are dying, new ones have not yet emerged, and nothing really makes sense. To have any notion of a viable future, we must grasp the significance of this period of transition which is characterised by three c's: complexity, chaos and contradictions. These forces propel and sustain postnormal times leading to uncertainty and different types of ignorance that make decision-making problematic and increase risks ...

 

Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 emission reduction

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, No. 5. (21 March 2016), pp. 520-525, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2964

Abstract

Evidence suggests that several elements of the climate system could be tipped into a different state by global warming, causing irreversible economic damages. To address their policy implications, we incorporated five interacting climate tipping points into a stochastic-dynamic integrated assessment model, calibrating their likelihoods and interactions on results from an existing expert elicitation. Here we show that combining realistic assumptions about policymakers’ preferences under uncertainty, with the prospect of multiple future interacting climate tipping points, increases the present social cost of ...

 

Climate, CO2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 1. (15 January 2016), pp. 267-282, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-267-2016

Abstract

Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather ...

 

Relationships between human population density and burned area at continental and global scales

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 12. (16 December 2013), e81188, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081188

Abstract

We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most ...

 

Defining pyromes and global syndromes of fire regimes

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 16. (16 April 2013), pp. 6442-6447, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211466110

Abstract

Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that is poorly understood. To date, a global-scale understanding of fire is largely limited to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multidimensional, and focus on a single metric belies its complexity and importance within the Earth system. To address this, we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes—size, frequency, intensity, season, and extent—and combined new and existing global datasets to represent each. We ...

 

System crash as dynamics of complex networks

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11726-11731, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612094113

Abstract

[Significance] System crash, as an essential part of system evolution, sometimes happens in peculiar manners: Weakened systems may survive for a surprisingly long time before suddenly meeting their final ends, whereas seemingly unbeatable giants may drastically crash to virtual nonexistence. We propose a model that describes system crash as a consequence of some relatively simple local information-based individual behaviors: Individuals leave networks according to some most straightforward assessment of current and future benefits/risks. Of note, such a simple rule may enable a ...

 

Simple dynamical models capturing the key features of the Central Pacific El Niño

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11732-11737, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1614533113

Abstract

[Significance] The Central Pacific El Niño (CP El Niño) has been frequently observed in recent decades. The phenomenon is characterized by an anomalous warm sea surface temperature (SST) confined to the central Pacific and has different teleconnections from the traditional El Niño with major societal impact. Here, a simple modeling framework is developed and shown to capture the key mechanisms of the CP El Niño. In addition to the SST, other major characteristics of the CP El Niño such as the rising ...

 

Meteorology: air particles boost rain extremes

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7620. (14 September 2016), pp. 282-282, https://doi.org/10.1038/537282b

Abstract

[Excerpt] As the climate warms, tiny particles suspended in the atmosphere may have a greater effect than greenhouse gases on increasing the frequency of extreme rain and snowfall. [\n] Greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosols both drive extreme precipitation, which is expected to increase with climate change. [...] ...

 

Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols

  
Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, No. 18. (28 September 2016), pp. 9860-9868, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016gl070869

Abstract

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols are the two most important anthropogenic forcing agents in the 21st century. The expected declines of anthropogenic aerosols in the 21st century from present-day levels would cause an additional warming of the Earth's climate system, which would aggravate the climate extremes caused by GHG warming. We examine the increased rate of precipitation extremes with global mean surface warming in the 21st century caused by anthropogenic GHGs and aerosols, using an Earth system model ensemble simulation. Similar ...

 

Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression

  
Ecological Applications, Vol. 25, No. 6. (September 2015), pp. 1478-1492, https://doi.org/10.1890/14-1430.1

Abstract

Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern–process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely ...

 

Increased wind erosion from forest wildfire: implications for contaminant-related risks

  
Journal of Environment Quality, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2 February 2006), pp. 468-478, https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0112

Abstract

Assessments of contaminant-related human and ecological risk require estimation of transport rates, but few data exist on wind-driven transport rates in nonagricultural systems, particularly in response to ecosystem disturbances such as forest wildfire and also relative to water-driven transport. The Cerro Grande wildfire in May of 2000 burned across ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P.&C. Lawson var. scopulorum Englem.) forest within Los Alamos National Laboratory in northern New Mexico, where contaminant transport and associated post-fire inhalation risks are of concern. ...

 

Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7618. (24 August 2016), pp. 93-96, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19324

Abstract

Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversitymore niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource eliminates potential trade-offs, reducing the number of species that can coexist. Multiple nutrient limitation of plant production is common and therefore fertilization may reduce diversity by reducing the number or dimensionality of belowground limiting factors. At the same time, ...

 

Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension

  
Nature, Vol. 446, No. 7137. (25 March 2007), pp. 791-793, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05684

Abstract

Intact ecosystems contain large numbers of competing but coexisting species. Although numerous alternative theories have provided potential explanations for this high biodiversity, there have been few field experiments testing between these theories. In particular, theory predicts that higher diversity of coexisting competitors could result from greater niche dimensionality1, for example larger numbers of limiting resources or factors. Alternatively, diversity could be independent of niche dimensionality because large numbers of species can coexist when limited by just one or two factors if ...

 

Size asymmetry of resource competition and the structure of plant communities

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 899-910, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12557

Abstract

Plant communities show two general responses to gradients of soil resources: a decrease in species richness at high levels of resource availability and an associated shift in species composition from small and slow-growing species to large and fast-growing species. Models attempting to explain these responses have usually focused on a single pattern and provided contradicting predictions concerning the underlying mechanisms. [\n] We use an extension of Tilman's resource competition model to investigate the hypothesis that both patterns may ...

 

Size asymmetry of resource competition and the structure of plant communities: commentary on DeMalach et al 2016

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 911-912, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12591

Abstract

[Excerpt] The hump-back relationship between diversity and productivity is one of the well-known patterns in ecology that have defied unequivocal explanation (Mittelbach et al. 2001; Šímová, Li & Storch 2013). While it has often been argued that the decline of species richness under high productivity is due to more intense competition, it has never been made fully clear why extinction under high productivity should be more likely compared to low productivity. DeMalach et al. (2016) present a simple and elegant explanation: it ...

 

Effects of resource additions on species richness and ANPP in an alpine meadow community

  
Journal of Plant Ecology, Vol. 3, No. 1. (01 March 2010), pp. 25-31, https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtp034

Abstract

[Aims] Theories based on resource additions indicate that plant species richness is mainly determined by the number of limiting resources. However, the individual effects of various limiting resources on species richness and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) are less well understood. Here, we analyzed potential linkages between additions of limiting resources, species loss and ANPP increase and further explored the underlying mechanisms. [Methods] Resources (N, P, K and water) were added in a completely randomized block design to alpine meadow plots in ...

 

Nutrient co-limitation of primary producer communities

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 9. (September 2011), pp. 852-862, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01651.x

Abstract

Synergistic interactions between multiple limiting resources are common, highlighting the importance of co-limitation as a constraint on primary production. Our concept of resource limitation has shifted over the past two decades from an earlier paradigm of single-resource limitation towards concepts of co-limitation by multiple resources, which are predicted by various theories. Herein, we summarise multiple-resource limitation responses in plant communities using a dataset of 641 studies that applied factorial addition of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ...

 

Where, why and how? Explaining the low-temperature range limits of temperate tree species

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 1076-1088, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12574

Abstract

Attempts at explaining range limits of temperate tree species still rest on correlations with climatic data that lack a physiological justification. Here, we present a synthesis of a multidisciplinary project that offers mechanistic explanations. Employing climatology, biogeography, dendrology, population and reproduction biology, stress physiology and phenology, we combine results from in situ elevational (Swiss Alps) and latitudinal (Alps vs. Scandinavia) comparisons, from reciprocal common garden and phytotron studies for eight European broadleaf tree species. [\n] We show that ...

 

Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9204-9209, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524888113

Abstract

[Significance] The 2015 Indonesian fire season, in terms of fire activity and pollution, was the most severe since the NASA Earth Observing satellite system began observations in the early 2000s. Our estimates show that the 2015 CO2-equivalent biomass burning emissions for all of Indonesia were between the 2013 annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions of Japan and India. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of dry season rainfall shows ...

 

Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8927-8932, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601472113

Abstract

[Significance] Assessing the response of clouds to global warming remains a challenge of climate science. Past research has elucidated what controls the height and temperature of high-level anvil clouds, but the factors that control their horizontal extent remained uncertain. We show that the anvil cloud amount is expected to shrink as the climate warms or when convection becomes more clustered, due to a mechanism rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. It is supported by three climate models and ...

 

Tropical anvil clouds and climate sensitivity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8897-8899, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610455113

Abstract

[Excerpt] The surface temperature of Earth is being increased by human activities, principally by the release of greenhouse gases (1). Future warming will depend upon the rate at which greenhouse gases are released and the sensitivity of Earth’s surface temperature to those increased greenhouse gases. An often used metric of the sensitivity of Earth’s climate is the equilibrium climate sensitivity, the amount of global average surface warming that is the steady, long-term response to a doubling of carbon dioxide. The equilibrium ...

 

Bistability, spatial interaction, and the distribution of tropical forests and savannas

  
Ecosystems (2016), pp. 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-016-0011-1

Abstract

Recent work has indicated that tropical forest and savanna can be alternative stable states under a range of climatic conditions. However, dynamical systems theory suggests that in case of strong spatial interactions between patches of forest and savanna, a boundary between both states is only possible at conditions in which forest and savanna are equally stable, called the ‘Maxwell point.’ Frequency distributions of MODIS tree-cover data at 250 m resolution were used to estimate such Maxwell points with respect to the ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 23

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   nolina-recurvata   non-array-oriented   non-equilibrium   non-linearity   non-semantic-software-errors   non-stationarity   non-wood-products   nonadditive-measures   nonideal-neurons   nonlinear-correlation   nonlinear-response-to-bioclimatic-predictors   nonmarket-impacts   nonsteady-flame-convection   north-africa   north-america   northern-europe   northern-hemisphere   norway   not-automatic-workflow   notation   notation-as-a-tool-of-thought   nothofagus-cunninghamii   nothofagus-glauca   nothofagus-nervosa   nothofagus-procera   nothofagus-pumilio   nothofagus-spp   notholithocarpus-densiflorus   nothotsuga-spp   nreap-2020   nuclear-disasters   numerical-analysis   numpy   nurse-species   nut-producing-plants   nutrient-gradient   nutrient-recommendations   nutrient-rich-soil   nutrients   nutritional-composition   nyssa-spp   nyssa-sylvatica   oak-decline   oak-hornbeam-forest   oak-shake   object-oriented-programming   occam-razor   ocean-acidification   ocean-circulation   oceans   ochroma-pyramidale   oenothera-spp   off-site-effects   ogc   olea-europaea   olea-spp   oleoresin   olive-decline   olive-oil   ombrotrophic   on-site-effects   ononis-fruticosa   ontologies   open-access   open-access-embargo   open-data   open-field   open-loop-control   open-science   open-source   opengis   openlayers   openstreetmap   operational-research   operophtera-antiqua   operophtera-brumata   ophiostoma-novo-ulmi   ophiostoma-spp   ophiostoma-ulmi   opportunistic-plant-pests   optimization   opuntia-amyclaea   opuntia-ficus-indica   oregon   organic-carbon   organic-material   ornamental-plant   ornamental-trees   orthotomicus-laricis   ostrya-carpinifolia   ostrya-spp   ostryopsis-spp   otiorhynchus-scaber   outbreak   outdated-yield-tables   outputs-vs-outcomes   overexploited-fish-stocks   overfitting  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Cholera dynamics and El Niño-Southern Oscillation

  
Science, Vol. 289, No. 5485. (2000), pp. 1766-1769, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.289.5485.1766

Abstract

Analysis of a monthly 18-year cholera time series from Bangladesh shows that the temporal variability of cholera exhibits an interannual component at the dominant frequency of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results from nonlinear time series analysis support a role for both ENSO and previous disease levels in the dynamics of cholera. Cholera patterns are linked to the previously described changes in the atmospheric circulation of south Asia and, consistent with these changes, to regional temperature anomalies. ...

 

Snowfall-driven growth in East Antarctic ice sheet mitigates recent sea-level rise

  
Science, Vol. 308, No. 5730. (2005), pp. 1898-1901, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1110662

Abstract

Satellite radar altimetry measurements indicate that the East Antarctic ice-sheet interior north of 81.6°S increased in mass by 45 ± 7 billion metric tons per year from 1992 to 2003. Comparisons with contemporaneous meteorological model snowfall estimates suggest that the gain in mass was associated with increased precipitation. A gain of this magnitude is enough to slow sea-level rise by 0.12 ± 0.02 millimeters per year. ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/non-linearity

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Publication metadata

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.