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Selection: with tag natural-hazards [57 articles] 

 

Thinking of wildfire as a natural hazard

  
Society & Natural Resources, Vol. 17, No. 6. (1 July 2004), pp. 509-516, https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920490452445

Abstract

Natural hazards theory with its emphasis on understanding the human–hazard interaction has much to offer in better understanding how individuals respond to the wildfire hazard. Ironically, very few natural hazards studies have actually looked at wildfires, despite the insights the field might offer. This report is structured around four interrelated questions that are often heard from individuals involved with wildfire management. Examining these four items through the natural hazards lens can demonstrate just a few of the ways the field can ...

 

Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry

  
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 15, No. 7. (10 July 2010), pp. 681-701, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9243-0

Abstract

Risks can generally be described as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Using this framework, we evaluated the historical and future development of risk of fire and wind damage in European forestry at the national level. Fire risk is expected to increase, mainly as a consequence of an increase in fire hazard, defined as the Fire Weather Index in summer. Exposure, defined as forest area, is expected to increase slightly as a consequence of active afforestation and abandonment of marginal ...

 

Living with wildfires: what science can tell us - A contribution to the science-policy dialogue

  
Vol. 15 (2009)
edited by Yves Birot

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Contrary to other natural hazards such as earthquakes or windstorms, wildfires are certainly among the most predictable ones. Therefore, it is a phenomenon which, in principle, should leave modern societies some degrees of freedom and margins of manoeuvre for implementing efficient counteracting strategies. However, this opportunity has not been properly used. Over the last decades, wildfires have proven to be a subject of growing concern for the Mediterranean Region. Woodlands, rangelands, maquis and garrigues in rural areas or at the interface with urban areas still ...

 

Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)

  
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 118, No. 1. (2013), pp. 317-328, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrg.20042

Abstract

We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) burned area data set, which provides global monthly burned area at 0.25°  spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily burned area for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS burned area maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of ...

 

Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 emission reduction

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, No. 5. (21 March 2016), pp. 520-525, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2964

Abstract

Evidence suggests that several elements of the climate system could be tipped into a different state by global warming, causing irreversible economic damages. To address their policy implications, we incorporated five interacting climate tipping points into a stochastic-dynamic integrated assessment model, calibrating their likelihoods and interactions on results from an existing expert elicitation. Here we show that combining realistic assumptions about policymakers’ preferences under uncertainty, with the prospect of multiple future interacting climate tipping points, increases the present social cost of ...

 

Projected changes in intense precipitation over Europe at the daily and subdaily time scales

  
Journal of Climate, Vol. 28, No. 15. (19 May 2015), pp. 6193-6203, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-14-00779.1

Abstract

Heavy precipitation is a major hazard over Europe. It is well established that climate model projections indicate a tendency toward more extreme daily rainfall events. It is still uncertain, however, how this changing intensity translates at the subdaily time scales. The main goal of the present study is to examine possible differences in projected changes in intense precipitation events over Europe at the daily and subdaily (3-hourly) time scales using a state-of-the-science climate model. The focus will be on one representative ...

 

Estimation of live fuel moisture content from MODIS images for fire danger assessment in Southern Gran Chaco

  
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (2016), pp. 1-11, https://doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2016.2575366

Abstract

Moisture content of live fuels (LFMC) is one of the main factors determining fuel flammability and, therefore, a key indicator of fire danger. In this study, we modeled the relationship between spectral indices derived from satellite imagery and field estimations of LFMC in the Chaco Serrano subregion; then, we analyzed the relationship between fire danger estimations based on LFMC calculations and fire activity. Empirical LFMC models fitted for grasslands, Chaco Serrano forests, and glossy privet forests may be considered very accurate ...

 

Fire hazard and flammability of European forest types

  
In Post-Fire Management and Restoration of Southern European Forests, Vol. 24 (2012), pp. 79-92, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2208-8_4

Abstract

This chapter discusses the fire hazard and flammability of the forest types of Europe. It does not present an in-depth treatment of the subject of fire hazard and fuel flammability but after briefly listing and discussing the factors affecting flammability and its relation to fire hazard it focuses on the specifics of the European forest types and on expected changes under a global warming scenario, in an effort to provide support for post-fire management decisions. ...

 

Combining forest structure data and fuel modelling to classify fire hazard in Portugal

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 66, No. 4. (2009), pp. 415-415, https://doi.org/10.1051/forest%2f2009013

Abstract

Fire management activities can greatly benefit from the description of wildland fuel to assess fire hazard. [\n] A forest typology developed from the Portuguese National Forest Inventory that combines cover type (the dominant overstorey species) and forest structure defined as a combination of generic stand density (closed or open) and height (low or tall) is translated into fuel models. Fire behaviour simulations that accounted for the fire environment modification induced by stand structure resulted in an objective and quantitative assessment of fire ...

 

Natural hazards monitoring: forest fires, droughts and floods - The example of European pilot projects

  
Surveys in Geophysics, Vol. 21, No. 2-3. (2000), pp. 291-305, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1006750412500

Abstract

This paper reviews the subject of natural hazards and the use of existing remote sensing systems in the different phases of disaster management for some specific natural hazards: forest fires, droughts and floods. It centers on the applicability of remote sensing for increasing preparedness, providing early warnings, monitoring the hazards in real time, and assessing the damage so that relief can be provided. Comparison of the information provided by existing systems and that needed for operational use of remote sensing in ...

 

How does BGS classify landslides?

  
In Engineering geology (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt] The classification of landslides by the BGS currently follows the scheme based on Varnes (1978) and Cruden & Varnes (1996). The scheme terminology is also that suggested by the Unesco Working Party on the 'World Landslide Inventory' (WP/WLI 1990, 1993). [\n] The main classification criteria are: [::] type of movement (falls, topples, slides spreads, flows) [::] type of material involved in the movement (rock, debris, earth) [\n] Combining movement and material type terms enables an appropriately descriptive landslide name to be formulated. Naming can ...

Visual summary

 

Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9216-9221, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601611113

Abstract

[Significance] Ethnic divides play a major role in many armed conflicts around the world and might serve as predetermined conflict lines following rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. We find evidence in global datasets that risk of armed-conflict outbreak is enhanced by climate-related disaster occurrence in ethnically fractionalized countries. Although we find no indications that environmental disasters directly trigger armed conflicts, our results imply that disasters might act as a threat multiplier in several of the world’s ...

 

Wildfire-related debris flow from a hazards perspective

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 363-385, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_15

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Wildland fire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Consumption of the rainfall-intercepting canopy and of the soil-mantling litter and duff, intensive drying of the soil, combustion of soil-binding organic matter, and the enhancement or formation of water-repellent soils can change the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, leading to decreased rainfall infiltration, subsequent significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil (e.g., Swanson, 1981; Spittler, 1995; Doerr et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; ...

 

A review of drought concepts

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 391, No. 1-2. (September 2010), pp. 202-216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.07.012

Abstract

Owing to the rise in water demand and looming climate change, recent years have witnessed much focus on global drought scenarios. As a natural hazard, drought is best characterized by multiple climatological and hydrological parameters. An understanding of the relationships between these two sets of parameters is necessary to develop measures for mitigating the impacts of droughts. Beginning with a discussion of drought definitions, this paper attempts to provide a review of fundamental concepts of drought, classification of droughts, drought indices, ...

 

Drought under global warming: a review

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 45-65, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.81

Abstract

This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 to 2008. Projected future aridity is presented based on recent studies and our analysis of model simulations. Dry periods lasting for years to decades have occurred many times during the last millennium over, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs), with La Niña-like SST anomalies leading ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 22

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   monitoring   monochamus-galloprovincialis   monochamus-spp   monography   monoterpenes   monsoon   montane-belt   monte-carlo   monte-carlo-trajectory   monumental-trees   mordwilkoja-vagabundus   morinda-citrifolia   moringa-oleifera   morocco   morphological-adaptations   morphological-traits   morphology   mortality   morus-alba   morus-nigra   morus-spp   mountainous-areas   muddy-floods   multi-criteria-decision-analysis   multi-objective-planning   multi-scale   multi-stakeholder-decision-making   multiauthor   multiple-adaptive-regression-splines   multiplicative-structure   multiplicity   mushrooms   mycorrhizal-fungi   mycosphaerella-dearnessii   mycosphaerella-pini   myopic-heuristics   myrica-cerifera   myrica-gale   myricaria-germanica   myristica-fragrans   myrrhoides-nodosa   myrtus-communis   myths   myzocallis-coryli   nasa   native-vegetation   natura-2000   natural-disasters   natural-disturbance   natural-ecosystems   natural-hazards   natural-loss   natural-product-herbicides   natural-resources-interactions   naturalised-species   nauclea-diderichii   ndvi   neanderthals   near-surface-flowpaths   nectaroscordum-siculum   nectria-coccinea   negative-emissions   negative-learning   negative-studies   neglecting-non-monetary-criteria   negotiation   neighbourhood-analysis   nematus-melanaspis   nematus-oligospilus   nemoral-climate   neocallitropsis-pancheri   neodiprion-sertifer   neofusicoccum-parvum   neogene   neonicotinoid   nepal   nephelium-lappaceum   nerium-oleander   nested-loops-and-conditional-structures   netherlands   network-representation-capability   networks   neural-networks   neuro-dynamic-programming   neuroterus-spp   new-forested-areas   new-species   new-zealand   niche-model   niche-modelling   niche-sourcing   nickel   nitrogen   nitrogen-deposition   nitrogen-fixation   nitrogen-leaching   nitrogen-partitioning   no-analogue   no-free-lunch-theorem  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

The state and fate of Himalayan glaciers

  
Science, Vol. 336, No. 6079. (2012), pp. 310-314, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1215828

Abstract

Himalayan glaciers are a focus of public and scientific debate. Prevailing uncertainties are of major concern because some projections of their future have serious implications for water resources. Most Himalayan glaciers are losing mass at rates similar to glaciers elsewhere, except for emerging indications of stability or mass gain in the Karakoram. A poor understanding of the processes affecting them, combined with the diversity of climatic conditions and the extremes of topographical relief within the region, makes projections speculative. Nevertheless, it ...

 

Multiaged forest stands for protection forests: Concepts and applications

  
Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 45-55

Abstract

Multiaged stands have two or more age classes that are the result of partial natural and anthropogenic disturbances that do not destroy all trees in a stand. Multiaged stands represent a more static structure than comparable even-aged stands because they fluctuate in a narrower range of variability in stand structure over time. For protection forests, potential benefits of multiaged stands are their resistance and resilience to disturbances. Resistance comes from the capacity to withstand or avoid disturbance effects. A variety of ...

 

The role of forests in reducing hydrogeomorphic hazards

  
Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 11-22

Abstract

Increasingly, forests are being valued for goods and services beyond wood fibre; one of these is protection forests. Functions provided by natural and managed forests have been associated with reduced hazards from floods, debris floods, debris flows, snow avalanches and rockfalls. Maintaining a high level of protection may require active management, as forests are dynamic and the protection capabilities are strongly determined by forest condition. The nature of protection provided varies depending upon the hazard processes and pathways, and the relative ...

 

Root cohesion of forest species in the Italian Alps

  
Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 71-89, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9941-0

Abstract

Forests can prevent and/or mitigate hydrogeomorphic hazards in mountainous landscapes. Their effect is particularly relevant in the case of shallow landslides phenomena, where plants decrease the water content of the soil and increase its mechanical strength. Although such an effect is well known, its quantification is a relatively new challenge. The present work estimates the effect of some forest species on hillslope stability in terms of additional root cohesion by means of a model based on the classical Wu and Waldron ...

 

Towards a cross-domain interoperable framework for natural hazards and disaster risk reduction information

  
Natural Hazards (2015), pp. 1-19, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1786-7

Abstract

According to the United Nations’ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, “natural hazards are processes or phenomena that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage”. They are at the interface between human and natural systems. From this perspective, natural hazards are a multidimensional domain including environmental issues, the private and public sector and citizens and governance ranging from local to supranational. The vast amount of ...

 

Landslide hazard assessment: summary review and new perspectives

  
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol. 58, No. 1. (1999), pp. 21-44, https://doi.org/10.1007/s100640050066

Abstract

This paper deals with several aspects of the assessment of hazard and risk of landsliding. In recent years the interest in this topic has increased greatly and there are many technical papers dealing with this subject in the literature. This article presents a summary review and a classification of the main approaches that have been developed world-wide. The first step is the subdivision between qualitative and quantitative methods. The first group is mainly based on the site-specific experience of experts with ...

 

Development of indicators reflecting criteria of spatial differentiation - 1.6. Natural assets environmental indicators

  
(1999)

Abstract

[Excerpt] In the task sharing established at the Preparatory Meeting of the Study Programme on European Spatial Planning (SPESP), Brussels, 7 December 1998, it was agreed that the Work Group in charge of the development of theme 1.6, Indicators on Natural Assets, would be made up of the National Focal Points (NFP’s) of Spain and Denmark. Furthermore, it was planned that the work would be carried out in close collaboration with the European Environment Agency (EEA), given the obvious relationship of this organisation with the theme under study. Apart ...

 

GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository

  
Geophysical Research Abstracts In European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2013, Vol. 17 (2015), 8314

Abstract

Geographical Information System (GIS) is known for its capacity to spatially enhance the management of natural resources. While being often used as an analytical tool, it also represents a collaborative scientific platform to develop new algorithms. Thus, it is critical that GIS software as well as the algorithms are open and accessible to anybody [18]. We present how GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists to implement and perform geoprocessing tasks. We will show how integrating scientific algorithms into ...

References

  1. Baker, W.L., Cai, Y., 1992. The r.le programs for multiscale analysis of landscape structure using the GRASS geographical information system. Landscape Ecology 7(4), 291-302.
  2. Cannata M., Marzocchi R., 2012. Two-dimensional dam break flooding simulation: a GIS embedded approach. Natural Hazards 61(3), 1143-1159.
  3. Chemin, Y.H., 2012. A Distributed Benchmarking Framework for Actual ET Models. In Evapotranspiration - Remote Sensing and Modeling, Intech (Eds).
  4. Chemin, Y.H., 2014.
 

Science for Disaster Risk Reduction - JRC thematic report

  

Abstract

This report aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the work of the Commission’s in-house science service, the Joint Research Centre (JRC), in relation to disaster risk reduction and response. The JRC develops tools and methodologies to help in all phases of disaster management, from preparedness and risk assessment to recovery and reconstruction through to forecasting and early warning. ...

 

Engineering ecological protection against landslides in diverse mountain forests: Choosing cohesion models

  
Ecological Engineering, Vol. 45 (August 2012), pp. 55-69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.03.026

Abstract

Vegetation is increasingly used to protect artificial and natural slopes against shallow landslides. Mechanically, plant roots reinforce soil along a slope by providing cohesion (cr). cr is usually estimated using either of two models: a Wu and Waldron's Model (WWM) or a Fiber Bundle Model (FBM). The WWM assumes that all fine and medium roots break simultaneously during shearing, whereas the FBM assumes progressive breakage of these roots. Both models are based on measurements of root density (RD), root tensile strength ...

 

Root strength and density decay after felling in a Silver Fir-Norway Spruce stand in the Italian Alps

  
Plant and Soil, Vol. 377, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 63-81, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1860-4

Abstract

Aims Forests induce a mechanical reinforcement of soil, generally quantified in terms of additional root cohesion (c r ), which decreases due to root decay after felling. The aim of this work is providing new field data on soil reinforcement by roots after trees cutting. Methods The present work investigated c r decay in a mixed Silver Fir-Norway Spruce (Abies alba Mill. Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in the Italian Alps over a period of 3 years after felling by monitoring ...

 

Hydrogeomorphic processes and vegetation: disturbance, process histories, dependencies and interactions

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 January 2012), pp. 9-22, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2163

Abstract

Riparian vegetation and hydrogeomorphic processes are intimately connected parts of upland catchment and fan environments. Trees, shrubs and grasses and hydrogeomorphic processes interact and depend on each other in complex ways on the hillslopes, channels and cone-shaped fans of torrential watersheds. While the presence and density of vegetation have a profound influence on hydrogeomorphic processes, the occurrence of the latter will also exert control on the presence, vitality, species, and age distribution of vegetation. This contribution aims at providing a review ...

 

Species selection for soil reinforcement and protection

  
In Slope Stability and Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions (2008), pp. 167-210, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6676-4_6

Abstract

Species selection is vitally important for ensuring the success of any ecotechnological solution that may be employed on a particular site. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the engineer with a database of plant species that are suitable for both soil and slope stability by either mechanical or hydrological means, i.e., anchoring and buttressing of deep tap roots; bank and channel reinforcement; deep reinforcement and soil strength enhancement; removing soil moisture, surface protection, shallow reinforcement and erosion control. Protection ...

 

Selecting tree species for use in rockfall-protection forests

  
Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 77-88

Abstract

Research on protection forests designed to alleviate rockfall hazard has increased enormously over the last decade. Data are available concerning the most suitable stem spacing and density regimes in stands.The species used in protection forests can also influence enormously the effectiveness of the forest in conferring a protective role. Little information exists, however, about either the mechanical resistance of different species to rock impacts or the recovery processes after sustaining a wound. This paper provides a short review of the work ...

 

Watershed and forest management for landslide risk reduction

  
In Landslides – Disaster Risk Reduction (2009), pp. 633-649, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69970-5_33

Abstract

Landslide hazard can be influenced by natural resource management and rural development related activities, such as forest management, road construction, agricultural practices and river management. Vegetation cover and its utilizations may play a role in mitigating the risk of landsliding. Moreover and above all, it does play a role in mitigating the processes leading to increased landslide hazard, such as gully erosion. Thus, forest management and development are of particular concern. But all people living in mountain areas rely on the ...

 

Mountain protection forests against natural hazards and risks: new French developments by integrating forests in risk zoning

  
Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 33, No. 3. (2004), pp. 395-404, https://doi.org/10.1023/b:nhaz.0000048468.67886.e5

Abstract

Forests can play a very significant role in protection against natural hazards and risks in mountain lands, especially against erosion and rockfalls. This paper first assesses knowledge concerning the capacity of forests to control natural hazards, with emphasis placed on forest location in catchments or slopes. Zoning aspects are then presented; based on the use of GIS, they allow determining priorities for forestry operations (cuts and biological engineering), in view to setting up an ”optimal management” of mountain forest ecosystems. Finally, ...

 

Architecture of Environmental Risk Modelling: for a faster and more robust response to natural disasters

  
In 3rd Conference of Computational Interdisciplinary Sciences (2014), pp. 46-57

Abstract

Demands on the disaster response capacity of the European Union are likely to increase, as the impacts of disasters continue to grow both in size and frequency. This has resulted in intensive research on issues concerning spatially-explicit information and modelling and their multiple sources of uncertainty. Geospatial support is one of the forms of assistance frequently required by emergency response centres along with hazard forecast and event management assessment. Robust modelling of natural hazards requires dynamic simulations under an array of ...

Visual summary

 

'Wicked', 'messy', and 'clumsy': long-term frameworks for sustainability

  
Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Vol. 26, No. 6. (2008), pp. 1113-1128, https://doi.org/10.1068/c0790s

Abstract

Society requires new forms of science and technology to productively accommodate the intrinsic value-laden judgments needed to manage the high uncertainties and considerable long-term impacts of sustainable urban planning. Responses to these 'wicked' problems include the development of postnormal science in the early 1990s. In subsequent literature on postnormal sustainability technologies, multiactor approaches to decision making are beginning to emerge. I examine an example: the development in New Zealand of a 100-year vision: the Auckland Sustainability Framework. Developed over fifteen months ...

 

The effect of problem severity, managerial and organizational capacity, and agency structure on intergovernmental collaboration: evidence from local emergency management

  
Public Administration Review, Vol. 70, No. 2. (March 2010), pp. 279-288, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02134.x

Abstract

Like most public managers nowadays, local emergency managers operate within complex, uncertain environments. Rapid changes in the scope and severity of the issues increase the extent of intergovernmental collaboration necessary to address such challenges. Using a large data set of county emergency management agency directors, variations in intergovernmental collaboration reflect influences from problem severity, managerial capacity, and structural factors. The results demonstrate that public managers who perceive problems as severe, possess specific managerial skills, lead high-capacity organizations, and operate in less ...

 

As volcano rumbles, scientists plan for aviation alerts

  
Science, Vol. 345, No. 6200. (29 August 2014), pp. 990-990, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.345.6200.990

Abstract

Iceland's Bárðarbunga volcano, buried under the giant Vatnajökull glacier, has been holding scientists in suspense over the last 2 weeks, producing frequent seismic rumbles but no signs yet of an actual eruption. But scientists at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) in Reykjavík are now seasoned by back-to-back eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and Grímsvötn in 2011 that produced large ash clouds and caused costly air traffic snarls. IMO is leading a European Union–funded effort called FUTUREVOLC to build a comprehensive database ...

 

Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change

  
Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7515. (27 August 2014), pp. 416-418, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13625

Abstract

Snowfall is an important element of the climate system, and one that is expected to change in a warming climate1, 2, 3, 4. Both mean snowfall and the intensity distribution of snowfall are important, with heavy snowfall events having particularly large economic and human impacts5, 6, 7. Simulations with climate models indicate that annual mean snowfall declines with warming in most regions but increases in regions with very low surface temperatures3, 4. The response of heavy snowfall events to a changing ...

 

Natural hazard chain research in China: A review

  
Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 70, No. 2. (2014), pp. 1631-1659, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0881-x

Abstract

Most catastrophic disasters are triggered by multi-hazards that occur simultaneously or sequentially rather than singly; this can result in more severe consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the occurrence, development, and transformation of hazard chains and comprehend their rules in order to predict secondary hazards. An effective action for reducing potential losses can be taken to block a hazard chain before it expands and transforms. Many studies have been conducted on hazard chains, some of which are of great significance. ...

 

Remote Sensing and GIS for Natural Hazards Assessment and Disaster Risk Management

  
In Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology, Vol. 3 (2013), pp. 259-298, https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-374739-6.00051-8

Abstract

The world has experienced an increasing impact of disasters in the past decades. Many regions are exposed to natural hazards, each with unique characteristics. The main causes for this increase can be attributed to a higher frequency of extreme hydro-meteorological events, most probably related to climate change and an increase in a vulnerable population. To reduce disaster losses, more efforts should be applied toward disaster-risk management, with a focus on hazard assessment, elements-at-risk mapping, and vulnerability and risk assessment, all of ...

 

Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Management Methodologies Review: Europe

  
In Sustainable Cities and Military Installations (2014), pp. 329-358, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7161-1_16
edited by Igor Linkov

Abstract

In the last decade, Europe-wide natural hazards have accounted for large numbers of the most serious causes of mortality; this death toll accompanies several billions of euros in damages. These facts support the need to reduce natural hazard impacts on the European territory in which, by in large, are going to augment in the future primarily due to climatic change and inappropriate land use management. In this context risk assessment and management through appropriate prevention and protection measures play fundamental roles ...

 

Beyond climatological extremes - assessing how the odds of hydrometeorological extreme events in South-East Europe change in a warming climate

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 125, No. 3-4. (2014), pp. 381-398, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1153-9

Abstract

With record breaking heat waves, dryness, and floods in several parts of the world in recent years the question arises whether and to what extent the hazard of hydrometeorological extreme weather events has changed, and if changes can be attributed to specific causes. The methodology of probabilistic event attribution allows to evaluate such potential changes in the occurence probabilities of particular types of extreme events. We show that such a probabilistic assessment not only provides information on changing hazards in hydrometerological ...

 

A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 100, No. 14. (08 July 2003), pp. 8074-8079, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1231335100

Abstract

Global environmental change and sustainability science increasingly recognize the need to address the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere. These changes raise questions such as: Who and what are vulnerable to the multiple environmental changes underway, and where? Research demonstrates that vulnerability is registered not by exposure to hazards (perturbations and stresses) alone but also resides in the sensitivity and resilience of the system experiencing such hazards. This recognition requires revisions and enlargements in ...

 

Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

  
Hydrological Processes, Vol. 28, No. 13. (30 June 2014), pp. 4067-4077, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9947

Abstract

Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing ...

 

ObsPy: A Python Toolbox for Seismology

  
Seismological Research Letters, Vol. 81, No. 3. (01 May 2010), pp. 530-533, https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.81.3.530

Abstract

[excerpt] The wide variety of computer platforms, file formats, and methods to access seismological data often requires considerable effort in preprocessing such data. Although preprocessing work-flows are mostly very similar, few software standards exist to accomplish this task. The objective of ObsPy is to provide a Python toolbox that simplifies the usage of Python programming for seismologists. It is conceptually similar to SEATREE (Milner and Thorsten 2009) or the exploration seismic software project MADAGASCAR (http://www.reproducibility.org). In ObsPy the following essential seismological ...

 

Potential hazard analysis and risk assessment of debris flow by fuzzy modeling

  
Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 64, No. 1. (17 June 2012), pp. 273-282, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0236-z

Abstract

Taiwan is a mountainous country, so there is an ever present danger of landslide disasters during the rainy seasons or typhoons. This study aims to develop a fuzzy-rule-based risk assessment model for debris flows and to verify the accuracy of risk assessment so as to help related organizations reduce losses caused by debris flows. The database is comprised of information from actual cases of debris flows that occurred in the Hualien area of Taiwan from 2007 to 2008. The established models ...

 

Cellular‐Automata Models Applied to Natural Hazards

  
Computing in Science & Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3. (01 May 2000), pp. 42-51, https://doi.org/10.1109/5992.841795

Abstract

The concept of self‐organized criticality evolved from studies of three simple cellular‐automata models: the forest‐fire, slider‐block, and sandpile models. Each model is associated with natural hazards, which have frequency‐size statistics that are well approximated by power‐law distributions. These distributions have important implications for probabilistic hazard assessments. ...

 

A 7000 yr perspective on volcanic ash clouds affecting northern Europe

  
Geology, Vol. 39, No. 9. (05 August 2011), pp. 887-890, https://doi.org/10.1130/g32146.1

Abstract

The ash cloud resulting from the A.D. 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland caused severe disruption to air travel across Europe, but as a geological event it is not unprecedented. Analysis of peats and lake sediments from northern Europe has revealed the presence of microscopic layers of Icelandic volcanic ash (tephra). These sedimentary records, together with historical records of Holocene ash falls, demonstrate that Icelandic volcanoes have generated substantial ash clouds that reached northern Europe many times. Here we present the ...

 

The effects and consequences of very large explosive volcanic eruptions

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 364, No. 1845. (15 August 2006), pp. 2073-2097, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2006.1814

Abstract

Every now and again Earth experiences tremendous explosive volcanic eruptions, considerably bigger than the largest witnessed in historic times. Those yielding more than 450 km3 of magma have been called super-eruptions. The record of such eruptions is incomplete; the most recent known example occurred 26 000 years ago. It is more likely that the Earth will next experience a super-eruption than an impact from a large meteorite greater than 1 km in diameter. Depending on where the volcano is located, the effects will be ...

 

Climate change impact on flood hazard in Europe: An assessment based on high-resolution climate simulations

  
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No. D19. (08 October 2008), D19105, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd009719

Abstract

[1] Global warming is generally expected to increase the magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation events, which may lead to more intense and frequent river flooding. This work assesses the implications of climate change for future flood hazard in Europe. Regional climate simulations from the HIRHAM model with 12-km horizontal resolution were used to drive the hydrological model LISFLOOD, and extreme value techniques were applied to the results to estimate the probability of extreme discharges. It was found that by the ...

 

Data specification on natural risk zones - Technical guidelines

  
No. D2.8.III.12_v3.0. (2013)
edited by Florian Thomas

Abstract

[Interoperability of Spatial Data Sets and Services - General Executive Summary] The challenges regarding the lack of availability, quality, organisation, accessibility, and sharing of spatial information are common to a large number of policies and activities and are experienced across the various levels of public authority in Europe. In order to solve these problems it is necessary to take measures of coordination between the users and providers of spatial information. The Directive 2007/2/EC of the Europe an Parliament and of the ...

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