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Selection: with tag multiplicity [69 articles] 

 

Valuing nature's contributions to people: the IPBES approach

  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 26-27 (June 2017), pp. 7-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2016.12.006

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Nature and its contributions to people’s quality of life are associated with a wide diversity of values. [::] IPBES embraces this diversity of values, as well as the need to integrate and bridge them in its assessments. [::] Uncovering the values of nature’s contributions to people (NCP) can bridge notions of nature and a good quality of life. [::] Transformation towards sustainability requires addressing power relations among different perspectives on the values of NCP. [::] Intrinsic, instrumental and relational values need to be acknowledged ...

 

Attribution of recent temperature behaviour reassessed by a neural-network method

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (15 December 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18011-8

Abstract

Attribution studies on recent global warming by Global Climate Model (GCM) ensembles converge in showing the fundamental role of anthropogenic forcings as primary drivers of temperature in the last half century. However, despite their differences, all these models pertain to the same dynamical approach and come from a common ancestor, so that their very similar results in attribution studies are not surprising and cannot be considered as a clear proof of robustness of the results themselves. Thus, here we adopt a ...

 

On the use of cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria evaluation in ex-ante impact assessment

  
Vol. 28768 EN (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/311199

Abstract

When a public administration wishes to implement policies, there is a need of comparing different options and valuating and evaluating them to assess their social attractiveness. Traditionally, welfare economics has used cost-benefit analysis based on the Kaldor-Hicks compensation principle, which was invented to achieve two clear objectives: [::1] To compare individuals’ preferences according to the efficiency oriented utilitarian calculus, explicitly avoiding the principle one individual, one vote. [::2] To implement an objective evaluation criterion, that could be accepted in the framework of the ...

 

Seeking for the rational basis of the Median Model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

  
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 7, No. 24. (11 December 2007), pp. 6085-6098, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-6085-2007

Abstract

In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides. [\n] We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem) and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach ...

 

To be a responsible researcher, reach out and listen

  

Abstract

[Excerpt] Vietnam’s Red River is a lifeblood of the country’s economy. But managing its delta region—which is home to 17 million people; hosts the capital city Hanoi, as well as extensive industrial, agricultural, and navigational activities; and provides crucial environmental services—is also a source of conflict between local stakeholders, each with different needs and priorities. [\n] Rodolfo Soncini-Sessa isn’t a local himself—he’s a professor of natural resources management a continent away, at the Polytechnic University of Milan in Italy. But after he ...

 

Population regulation in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 94, No. 10. (13 May 1997), pp. 5147-5152

Abstract

The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx in the boreal forests of North America show 9- to 11-year density cycles. These are generally assumed to be linked to each other because lynx are specialist predators on hares. Based on time series data for hare and lynx, we show that the dominant dimensional structure of the hare series appears to be three whereas that of the lynx is two. The three-dimensional structure of the hare time series is hypothesized to be due ...

 

The real cost of energy

  
Nature, Vol. 553, No. 7682. (2017), pp. S145-S147, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-017-07510-3

Abstract

All energy production has environmental and societal effects. But calculating them — and pricing energy accordingly — is no easy task. [Excerpt] [...] Electricity production is rife with externalities. Mining for raw materials often causes water pollution, habitat destruction and socio-economic harm. Burning coal pollutes the air, sickening and killing people, and introduces toxic mercury into the aquatic food chain. Nuclear-power plants require the clean-up and maintenance of radioactive materials after decommissioning. Energy production uses water, sometimes at the expense of agriculture and ...

 

Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes

  
Science, Vol. 235, No. 4785. (09 January 1987), pp. 167-171, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.235.4785.167

Abstract

The species richness (diversity) of local plant and animal assemblages--biological communities--balances regional processes of species formation and geographic dispersal, which add species to communities, against processes of predation, competitive exclusion, adaptation, and stochastic variation, which may promote local extinction. During the past three decades, ecologists have sought to explain differences in local diversity by the influence of the physical environment on local interactions among species, interactions that are generally believed to limit the number of coexisting species. But diversity of the ...

 

Competing species leave many potential niches unfilled

  
Nature Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 1, No. 10. (18 September 2017), pp. 1495-1501, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0295-3

Abstract

A cornerstone of biology is that coexisting species evolve to occupy separate ecological niches. Classical theory predicts that interspecific competition should lead to all potential niches being occupied, yet observational data suggest that many niches are unfilled. Here we show that theory can be reconciled with observational data by reconceptualizing competition in the Hutchinsonian niche space to distinguish between substitutable and non-substitutable resources. When resources are substitutable (for example, seeds of different size), the components of competition along the niche axes ...

 

Sun in parts of UK and France blocked out the smoke from wildfires in Spain and Portugal

  
Severe Weather Europe, Vol. 2017 (2017), 111799

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Parts of Spain and Portugal are experiencing extreme fires, caused by a combination of a dry spring and summer and likely arson. The thick smoke was advected by southerly winds into the Bay of Biscay, northwestern France (Brittany) and across the United Kingdom. Residents of this area awoke to a dark orange and brown sky, with the Sun either completely blocked or strongly subdued. While smoke from fires being blown large distances is not rare, it is rare for ...

 

Bias correction in species distribution models: pooling survey and collection data for multiple species

  
Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, No. 4. (1 April 2015), pp. 424-438, https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12242

Abstract

[::] Presence-only records may provide data on the distributions of rare species, but commonly suffer from large, unknown biases due to their typically haphazard collection schemes. Presence–absence or count data collected in systematic, planned surveys are more reliable but typically less abundant. [::] We proposed a probabilistic model to allow for joint analysis of presence-only and survey data to exploit their complementary strengths. Our method pools presence-only and presence–absence data for many species and maximizes a joint likelihood, simultaneously estimating and adjusting ...

 

Ant-inspired density estimation via random walks

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10534-10541, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706439114

Abstract

[Significance] Highly complex distributed algorithms are ubiquitous in nature: from the behavior of social insect colonies and bird flocks, to cellular differentiation in embryonic development, to neural information processing. In our research, we study biological computation theoretically, combining a scientific perspective, which seeks to better understand the systems being studied, with an engineering perspective, which takes inspiration from these systems to improve algorithm design. In this work, we focus on the problem of population density estimation in ant colonies, demonstrating that extremely ...

 

The sustainable scientist

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6356. (15 September 2017), pp. 1202-1202, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.357.6356.1202

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] the goal is to stride across the finish line—whether you are completing a postdoc, getting tenure, or reaching some other career goal—with a smile on your face, not in a state of collapse. [\n] But how? A sustainable scientist is still a hard-working scientist. Combining hard work with laserlike focus and ruthless time management is an important step toward making your life sustainable. Even more important is opportunity management. [\n] [...] Similarly, developing a personal work philosophy can help you allocate your ...

 

Ecological stability of mixed-species forests

  
In Mixed-Species Forests (2017), pp. 337-382, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54553-9_7

Abstract

In many parts of the world, forests are likely to face novel disturbance regimes as a result of global change processes, and there is concern that the capacity of forest ecosystems to withstand, recover from, or adapt to these novel disturbance regimes may decline. Creation and maintenance of species-diverse forests is seen as an important option to adapt forests to uncertain future disturbances. However, it is not known whether benefits of mixed-species forests consist mainly of risk spreading among tree species ...

 

Using n-dimensional hypervolumes for species distribution modelling: a response to Qiao et al.

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 26, No. 9. (September 2017), pp. 1071-1075, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12611

Abstract

Hypervolume approaches are used to quantify functional diversity and quantify environmental niches for species distribution modelling. Recently, Qiao et al. ([1]) criticized our geometrical kernel density estimation (KDE) method for measuring hypervolumes. They used a simulation analysis to argue that the method yields high error rates and makes biased estimates of fundamental niches. Here, we show that (a) KDE output depends in useful ways on dataset size and bias, (b) other species distribution modelling methods make equally stringent but different assumptions ...

 

Oak decline as illustrated through plant–climate interactions near the northern edge of species range

  
The Botanical Review, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-23, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-016-9160-3

Abstract

This paper investigates historical growth and climate records among the oak sites representing the northern edge of species range in northernmost Europe (Finland). This is to characterize plant–climate interactions for a multitude of sites where oak decline has recently been observed and understand this most recent decline in the context of the past decline studies elsewhere. Further, our paper demonstrates the procedures the tree-ring data can be used in isolating those factors significantly contributing to decline. Our findings point towards complex ...

 

Lexicographic optimisation for water resources planning: the case of Lake Verbano, Italy

  
In Proceedings of the iEMSs First Biennial Meeting: Integrated Assessment and Decision Support (2002), pp. 235-240

Abstract

Lake Verbano is a natural lake used as multipurpose reservoir. The lake supplies water for irrigation and hydropower generation to downstream users, while flood controls are applied to protect the lake shores and the downstream populations on the Ticino river, and environmental preservation constraints must be respected. All these objectives are conflicting and they have different priorities, as stated by the Italian regulation on water use. This paper explores a methodology aimed at solving this conflict. The stakeholders involvement in the ...

 

Beyond pairwise mechanisms of species coexistence in complex communities

  
Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7656. (31 May 2017), pp. 56-64, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22898

Abstract

The tremendous diversity of species in ecological communities has motivated a century of research into the mechanisms that maintain biodiversity. However, much of this work examines the coexistence of just pairs of competitors. This approach ignores those mechanisms of coexistence that emerge only in diverse competitive networks. Despite the potential for these mechanisms to create conditions under which the loss of one competitor triggers the loss of others, we lack the knowledge needed to judge their importance for coexistence in nature. ...

 

Divergence of species responses to climate change

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 5. (17 May 2017), e1603055, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1603055

Abstract

Climate change can have profound impacts on biodiversity and the sustainability of many ecosystems. Various studies have investigated the impacts of climate change, but large-scale, trait-specific impacts are less understood. We analyze abundance data over time for 86 tree species/groups across the eastern United States spanning the last three decades. We show that more tree species have experienced a westward shift (73%) than a poleward shift (62%) in their abundance, a trend that is stronger for saplings than adult trees. The ...

 

Multitrait successional forest dynamics enable diverse competitive coexistence

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 13. (28 March 2017), pp. E2719-E2728, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610206114

Abstract

[Significance] Walking through any forest, one is struck by the variety of plant forms coexisting. Given that all plants compete for the same basic resources, why is there not a single winner? Our study shows that when key ingredients common to all forests are accounted for—including disturbance events, competition for light, and two widely observed trait-based tradeoffs—models of niche differentiation predict forests of considerably greater diversity than was previously thought possible. In particular, our model accurately predicts the proliferation of species occupying ...

 

Overcoming catastrophic forgetting in neural networks

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 13. (14 March 2017), pp. 201611835-3526, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1611835114

Abstract

[Significance] Deep neural networks are currently the most successful machine-learning technique for solving a variety of tasks, including language translation, image classification, and image generation. One weakness of such models is that, unlike humans, they are unable to learn multiple tasks sequentially. In this work we propose a practical solution to train such models sequentially by protecting the weights important for previous tasks. This approach, inspired by synaptic consolidation in neuroscience, enables state of the art results on multiple reinforcement learning problems ...

 

A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 12. (01 December 2016), 124013, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124013

Abstract

We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement ...

 

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

  
Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  

Abstract

[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52013DC0659 , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to
 

Modeling the impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in Europe: sectorial results of the PESETA II Project

  

Abstract

This constitutes a sectorial analysis of the PESETA II project of the European Commission Joint Research Center in the area of wildfires. [\n] Wildfires are a serious threat to European forests, and climate is the most important driving factor affecting wildfire potential over time (Flannigan et al., 2000). Wildfires are an environmental, economic and social problem particularly in the southern European countries, where wildfires regularly burn thousands of hectares of forests and other lands. Changes in wildfire regimes may have strong impacts on natural resources and ecosystems stability, ...

 

Fitness of multidimensional phenotypes in dynamic adaptive landscapes

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 30, No. 8. (August 2015), pp. 487-496, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.06.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Integrating fitness into community ecology will improve trait-based predictions. [::] Dynamic adaptive landscapes link phenotypes to fitness across environments. [::] Fitness is a function of multidimensional phenotype–environment interactions. [::] Intraspecific trait covariation constrains environmental niche breadth. [Abstract] Phenotypic traits influence species distributions, but ecology lacks established links between multidimensional phenotypes and fitness for predicting species responses to environmental change. The common focus on single traits rather than multiple trait combinations limits our understanding of their adaptive value, and intraspecific trait covariation has been neglected in ...

 

Climate twins - An attempt to quantify climatological similarities

  
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology In Environmental Software Systems. Frameworks of eEnvironment, Vol. 359 (2011), pp. 428-436, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22285-6_46

Abstract

As climate change appears, strategies and actions will be necessary to cope with its effects on environment and society in the coming decades. Current climate conditions can be observed everywhere in the world but future climate conditions can only be estimated through climate simulations which produce huge amounts of quantitative data. This data leads to statements like “temperature increase is expected to exceed 2.6°C” or similar and remain fuzzy to non-experts in climate research. The Climate Twins application is designed to ...

 

Post-normal institutional identities: quality assurance, reflexivity and ethos of care

  

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Given the current crises of legitimacy and quality in mainstream science, institutions that produce and govern science and those that provide scientific advice to policy need to change their modus operandis; we advocate for an ethos of care. [::] Post-normal science and other frameworks of scientific knowledge production may inspire trustfulness in institutions that provide scientific advice to policy. [::] In Europe, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has the necessary scaffolding to advise policy in view of public interest, ...

 

Individuals and the variation needed for high species diversity in forest trees

  
Science, Vol. 327, No. 5969. (25 February 2010), pp. 1129-1132, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1183506

Abstract

In the past, explanations for high species diversity have been sought at the species level. Theory shows that coexistence requires substantial differences between species, but species-level data rarely provide evidence for such differences. Using data from forests in the southeastern United States, I show here that variation evident at the individual level provides for coexistence of large numbers of competitors. Variation among individuals within populations allows species to differ in their distributions of responses to the environment, despite the fact that ...

 

Resolving the biodiversity paradox

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 8. (August 2007), pp. 647-659, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01041.x

Abstract

The paradox of biodiversity involves three elements, (i) mathematical models predict that species must differ in specific ways in order to coexist as stable ecological communities, (ii) such differences are difficult to identify, yet (iii) there is widespread evidence of stability in natural communities. Debate has centred on two views. The first explanation involves tradeoffs along a small number of axes, including ‘colonization-competition’, resource competition (light, water, nitrogen for plants, including the ‘successional niche’), and life history (e.g. high-light growth vs. ...

 

Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche

  
Acta Biotheoretica, Vol. 31, No. 3. (1982), pp. 165-179, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01857239

Abstract

This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of ...

 

Ecology and the ratchet of events: climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. Supplement 2. (17 November 2009), pp. 19685-19692, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0901644106

Abstract

Climate change in the coming centuries will be characterized by interannual, decadal, and multidecadal fluctuations superimposed on anthropogenic trends. Predicting ecological and biogeographic responses to these changes constitutes an immense challenge for ecologists. Perspectives from climatic and ecological history indicate that responses will be laden with contingencies, resulting from episodic climatic events interacting with demographic and colonization events. This effect is compounded by the dependency of environmental sensitivity upon life-stage for many species. Climate variables often used in empirical niche models ...

 

Multiple dimensions of climate change and their implications for biodiversity

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6183. (01 May 2014), pp. 1247579-1247579, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247579

Abstract

[Structured Abstract] [::Background] Changes in Earth’s climate over time can be measured in many ways. The different metrics available represent alternative dimensions of climate change, each with distinct implications for biodiversity conservation and other sectors. However, this diversity is rarely recognized. At any given locality, average temperature or precipitation can increase or decrease, extreme values can become more intense or frequent, and the timing of specific climatic events can shift. At the same time, climatic conditions are redistributed at broader spatial extents. Across ...

 

Do hypervolumes have holes?

  
The American Naturalist, Vol. 187, No. 4. (15 February 2016), pp. E93-E105, https://doi.org/10.1086/685444

Abstract

Hypervolumes are used widely to conceptualize niches and trait distributions for both species and communities. Some hypervolumes are expected to be convex, with boundaries defined by only upper and lower limits (e.g., fundamental niches), while others are expected to be maximal, with boundaries defined by the limits of available space (e.g., potential niches). However, observed hypervolumes (e.g., realized niches) could also have holes, defined as unoccupied hyperspace representing deviations from these expectations that may indicate unconsidered ecological or evolutionary processes. Detecting ...

 

A cautionary note on the use of hypervolume kernel density estimators in ecological niche modelling

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography (August 2016), https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12492

Abstract

Blonder et al. (2014, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 595–609) introduced a new multivariate kernel density estimation (KDE) method to infer Hutchinsonian hypervolumes in the modelling of ecological niches. The authors argued that their KDE method matches or outperforms several methods for estimating hypervolume geometries and for conducting species distribution modelling. Further clarification, however, is appropriate with respect to the assumptions and limitations of KDE as a method for species distribution modelling. Using virtual species and controlled environmental scenarios, we show ...

 

Keep it complex

  
Nature, Vol. 468, No. 7327. (23 December 2010), pp. 1029-1031, https://doi.org/10.1038/4681029a

Abstract

When knowledge is uncertain, experts should avoid pressures to simplify their advice. Render decision-makers accountable for decisions, says Andy Stirling. ...

 

The tragedy of the commons

  
Science, Vol. 162, No. 3859. (13 December 1968), pp. 1243-1248, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3859.1243

Abstract

The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality. [Excerpt] [...] A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is ...

 

Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (22 December 2016), 13736, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13736

Abstract

The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single ...

 

Framework for making better predictions by directly estimating variables’ predictivity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 50. (13 December 2016), pp. 14277-14282, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616647113

Abstract

[Significance] Good prediction, especially in the context of big data, is important. Common approaches to prediction include using a significance-based criterion for evaluating variables to use in models and evaluating variables and models simultaneously for prediction using cross-validation or independent test data. The first approach can lead to choosing less-predictive variables, because significance does not imply predictivity. The second approach can be improved through considering a variable’s predictivity as a parameter to be estimated. The literature currently lacks measures that do ...

 

The world's simplest impossible problem

  
MathWorks Technical Articles and Newsletters, Vol. 1 (1990), 92036v00

Abstract

If the average of two numbers is three, what are the numbers? The solution to this problem is not unique, and the problem is ill-defined, but that does not mean that MATLAB® cannot solve it. [\n] In this article from 1990, Cleve Moler explores this simple yet impossible problem and others like it using MATLAB to find answers with the fewest nonzero components and other “nice” solutions. ...

 

US exposure to multiple landscape stressors and climate change

  
Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 16, No. 7. (2016), pp. 2129-2140, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-0934-2

Abstract

We examined landscape exposure to wildfire potential, insects and disease risk, and urban and exurban development for the conterminous US (CONUS). Our analysis relied on spatial data used by federal agencies to evaluate these stressors nationally. We combined stressor data with a climate change exposure metric to identify when temperature is likely to depart from historical conditions and become “unprecedented.” We used a neighborhood analysis procedure based on key stressor thresholds within a geographic information system to examine the extent of ...

 

Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece

  
Environmental Management In Environmental Management, Vol. 47, No. 3. (4 February 2011), pp. 384-397, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9614-7

Abstract

Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system’s post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are ...

 

Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 27, No. 1. (1 January 2012), pp. 19-26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.08.006

Abstract

The relationship between biodiversity and the rapidly expanding research and policy field of ecosystem services is confused and is damaging efforts to create coherent policy. Using the widely accepted Convention on Biological Diversity definition of biodiversity and work for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment we show that biodiversity has key roles at all levels of the ecosystem service hierarchy: as a regulator of underpinning ecosystem processes, as a final ecosystem service and as a good that is subject to valuation, whether ...

 

Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7618. (24 August 2016), pp. 93-96, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19324

Abstract

Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversitymore niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource eliminates potential trade-offs, reducing the number of species that can coexist. Multiple nutrient limitation of plant production is common and therefore fertilization may reduce diversity by reducing the number or dimensionality of belowground limiting factors. At the same time, ...

 

Ecology: more is less

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7618. (31 August 2016), pp. 42-42, https://doi.org/10.1038/537042a

Abstract

[Excerpt] Plants compete for the same resources, such as nutrients, light and water. Because these resources are often limited, the coexistence of plant species requires the creation of trade-offs in resource use. In this issue, Harpole et al. report that increasing a limited nutrient in grassland can eliminate these potential trade-offs, reducing overall species diversity (W. S. Harpole et al. Nature 537, 93–96; 2016). [\n] The authors considered 45 grassland sites across 6 continents, and measured species diversity in response to various ...

 

Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension

  
Nature, Vol. 446, No. 7137. (25 March 2007), pp. 791-793, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05684

Abstract

Intact ecosystems contain large numbers of competing but coexisting species. Although numerous alternative theories have provided potential explanations for this high biodiversity, there have been few field experiments testing between these theories. In particular, theory predicts that higher diversity of coexisting competitors could result from greater niche dimensionality1, for example larger numbers of limiting resources or factors. Alternatively, diversity could be independent of niche dimensionality because large numbers of species can coexist when limited by just one or two factors if ...

 

Effects of resource additions on species richness and ANPP in an alpine meadow community

  
Journal of Plant Ecology, Vol. 3, No. 1. (01 March 2010), pp. 25-31, https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtp034

Abstract

[Aims] Theories based on resource additions indicate that plant species richness is mainly determined by the number of limiting resources. However, the individual effects of various limiting resources on species richness and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) are less well understood. Here, we analyzed potential linkages between additions of limiting resources, species loss and ANPP increase and further explored the underlying mechanisms. [Methods] Resources (N, P, K and water) were added in a completely randomized block design to alpine meadow plots in ...

 

Nutrient co-limitation of primary producer communities

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 9. (September 2011), pp. 852-862, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01651.x

Abstract

Synergistic interactions between multiple limiting resources are common, highlighting the importance of co-limitation as a constraint on primary production. Our concept of resource limitation has shifted over the past two decades from an earlier paradigm of single-resource limitation towards concepts of co-limitation by multiple resources, which are predicted by various theories. Herein, we summarise multiple-resource limitation responses in plant communities using a dataset of 641 studies that applied factorial addition of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ...

 

How green are biofuels?

  
Science, Vol. 319, No. 5859. (04 January 2008), pp. 43-44, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1153103

Abstract

Many biofuels are associated with lower greenhouse-gas emissions but have greater aggregate environmental costs than gasoline. [Excerpt] Global warming and escalating petroleum costs are creating an urgent need to find ecologically friendly fuels. Biofuels—such as ethanol from corn (maize) and sugarcane—have been increasingly heralded as a possible savior. But others have argued that biofuels will consume vast swaths of farmland and native habitats, drive up food prices, and result in little reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions . An innovative study by Zah et ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 25

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   miocene   mires   miridae   missing-full-author-list   mistletoe   misuse-of-modelling-tools-by-nonexperts   mitigation   mitochondrial-dna   mixed-forest   mixed-models   mixed-species-stand   mobile-communication   mobility   mode   model   model-assessment   model-comparison   model-drift   modelling   modelling-uncertainty   modelling-vs-management   moderate-floods   modern-analogue   modis   modularization   moist-convection   molinia-caerulea   molluscs   monetarisation   mongolia   monitoring   monochamus-galloprovincialis   monochamus-spp   monography   monoterpenes   monsoon   montane-belt   monte-carlo   monte-carlo-trajectory   monumental-trees   moorland   mordwilkoja-vagabundus   morinda-citrifolia   moringa-oleifera   morocco   morphological-adaptations   morphological-traits   morphology   mortality   morus-alba   morus-nigra   morus-spp   motor-vehicles   mountainous-areas   mozambique   muddy-floods   multi-criteria-decision-analysis   multi-objective-planning   multi-scale   multi-stakeholder-decision-making   multiauthor   multiple-adaptive-regression-splines   multiplicative-structure   multiplicity   mushrooms   mutualism   mycorrhizal-fungi   mycosphaerella-dearnessii   mycosphaerella-pini   myopic-heuristics   myrica-cerifera   myrica-gale   myricaria-germanica   myristica-fragrans   myrrhoides-nodosa   myrtus-communis   myths   mytilus-edulis   myzocallis-coryli   nanoparticles   nasa   natech   national-fire-danger-rating-system   native-vegetation   natura-2000   natural-disaster   natural-disasters   natural-disturbance   natural-ecosystems   natural-hazard-triggering-technological-disasters   natural-hazards   natural-loss   natural-product-herbicides   natural-resources-interactions   naturalised-species   nauclea-diderichii   ndvi   neanderthals   near-surface-flowpaths  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes

  
Science, Vol. 342, No. 6155. (2013), pp. 247-250, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1242575

Abstract

The negative consequences of increased loading of nitrogen and phosphorus into aquatic ecosystems are well known. Management strategies aimed at reducing the sources of these excess nutrients, such as fertilizer runoff or sewage outflows, can largely mitigate the increases in nitrogen and phosphorus levels; however, it is unclear if these strategies are influencing other spects of these ecosystems. Using a global lake data set, Finlay et al. (p. 247; see the Perspective by Bernhardt) found that reducing phosphorus inputs reduced a ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/multiplicity

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.