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Selection: with tag multi-scale [53 articles] 

 

A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index

  
Journal of Climate In Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, No. 7. (19 November 2009), pp. 1696-1718, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jcli2909.1

Abstract

The authors propose a new climatic drought index: the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The SPEI is based on precipitation and temperature data, and it has the advantage of combining multiscalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. The procedure to calculate the index is detailed and involves a climatic water balance, the accumulation of deficit/surplus at different time scales, and adjustment to a log-logistic probability distribution. Mathematically, the SPEI is similar to the ...

 

Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

  
Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1727

Abstract

[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...

 

Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change

  
Global Change Biology (March 2017), https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13679

Abstract

As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different ...

 

Forest resilience and tipping points at different spatio-temporal scales: approaches and challenges

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 5-15, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12337

Abstract

[::] Anthropogenic global change compromises forest resilience, with profound impacts to ecosystem functions and services. This synthesis paper reflects on the current understanding of forest resilience and potential tipping points under environmental change and explores challenges to assessing responses using experiments, observations and models. [::] Forests are changing over a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, but it is often unclear whether these changes reduce resilience or represent a tipping point. Tipping points may arise from interactions across scales, as processes such as ...

 

Fine-grain modeling of species’ response to climate change: holdouts, stepping-stones, and microrefugia

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 7. (July 2014), pp. 390-397, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2014.04.006

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Understanding of microclimates may revolutionize climate change biology. [::] Microrefugia will be rare under future climate change. [::] Conservation strategies should focus on managing holdouts and stepping stones. [Abstract] Microclimates have played a critical role in past species range shifts, suggesting that they could be important in biological response to future change. Terms are needed to discuss these future effects. We propose that populations occupying microclimates be referred to as holdouts, stepping stones and microrefugia. A holdout is a population that persists in a ...

 

Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful?

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 12, No. 5. (1 September 2003), pp. 361-371, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822x.2003.00042.x

Abstract

Modelling strategies for predicting the potential impacts of climate change on the natural distribution of species have often focused on the characterization of a species’ bioclimate envelope. A number of recent critiques have questioned the validity of this approach by pointing to the many factors other than climate that play an important part in determining species distributions and the dynamics of distribution changes. Such factors include biotic interactions, evolutionary change and dispersal ability. This paper reviews and evaluates criticisms of bioclimate ...

 

Towards a bioeconomy in Europe: national, regional and industrial strategies

  
Sustainability, Vol. 7, No. 8. (05 August 2015), pp. 10461-10478, https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810461

Abstract

Establishing an advanced European bioeconomy is an important step in achieving the transition towards sustainable development and away from fossil fuels. The bioeconomy can be defined as an economy based on the sustainable production and conversion of renewable biomass into a range of bio-based products, chemicals, and energy. Several strategies have been produced in Europe from different perspectives that outline visions, intentions, and recommendations for the transition to a bioeconomy. An analysis of twelve of these strategies was conducted using a ...

 

From local scenarios to national maps: a participatory framework for envisioning the future of Tanzania

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 21, No. 3. (2016), https://doi.org/10.5751/es-08565-210304

Abstract

Tackling societal and environmental challenges requires new approaches that connect top-down global oversight with bottom-up subnational knowledge. We present a novel framework for participatory development of spatially explicit scenarios at national scale that model socioeconomic and environmental dynamics by reconciling local stakeholder perspectives and national spatial data. We illustrate results generated by this approach and evaluate its potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the relationship between development pathways and sustainability. Using the lens of land use and land cover ...

 

Multiscale performance of landscape metrics as indicators of species richness of plants, insects and vertebrates

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 31 (August 2013), pp. 41-48, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.04.012

Abstract

Landscape metrics are widely used to investigate the spatial structure of landscapes. Numerous metrics are currently available, yet only little empirical research has comparatively examined their indicator value for species richness for several taxa at several scales. Taking a Mediterranean forest landscape – Dadia National Park (Greece) – as a case study area, we explored the performance of 52 landscape level landscape metrics as indicators of species richness for six taxa (woody plants, orchids, orthopterans, amphibians, reptiles, and small terrestrial birds) ...

 

How does forest landscape structure explain tree species richness in a Mediterranean context?

  
Biodiversity and Conservation In Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 17, No. 5. (1 May 2008), pp. 1227-1240, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-007-9277-0

Abstract

Although the strong relationship between vegetation and climatic factors is widely accepted, other landscape composition and configuration characteristics could be significantly related with vegetation diversity patterns at different scales. Variation partitioning was conducted in order to analyse to what degree forest landscape structure, compared to other spatial and environmental factors, explained forest tree species richness in 278 UTM 10 × 10 km cells in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia (NE Spain). Tree species richness variation was decomposed through linear regression into three groups of ...

 

Multi-scale land-use disaggregation modelling: concept and application to EU countries

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 82 (August 2016), pp. 183-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.04.028

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Development of a scale independent model to disaggregate land use data. [::] Generate high resolution maps for crops cultivated in EU-28. [::] Validation of model results by comparison with detailed survey data. [Abstract] Changes of carbon stocks in agricultural soils, emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, and the delivery of ecosystem services of agricultural landscapes depend on combinations of land-use, livestock density, farming practices, climate and soil types. Many environmental processes are highly non-linear. If the analysis of the environmental impact is based on ...

 

The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales

  
In Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology (January 1993)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The definition of drought has continually been a stumbling block for drought monitoring and analysis. Wilhite and Glantz (1985) completed a thorough review of dozens of drought definitions and identified six overall categories: meteorological, climatological, atmospheric, agricultural, hydrologic and water management. Dracup et al. (1980) also reviewed definitions. All points of view seem to agree that drought is a condition of insufficient moisture caused by a deficit in precipitation over some time period. Difficulties are primarily related to the time period over which deficits accumulate and to the connection of the deficit in precipitation to deficits in usable ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 22

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   monitoring   monochamus-galloprovincialis   monochamus-spp   monography   monoterpenes   monsoon   montane-belt   monte-carlo   monte-carlo-trajectory   monumental-trees   mordwilkoja-vagabundus   morinda-citrifolia   moringa-oleifera   morocco   morphological-adaptations   morphological-traits   morphology   mortality   morus-alba   morus-nigra   morus-spp   mountainous-areas   muddy-floods   multi-criteria-decision-analysis   multi-objective-planning   multi-scale   multi-stakeholder-decision-making   multiauthor   multiple-adaptive-regression-splines   multiplicative-structure   multiplicity   mushrooms   mycorrhizal-fungi   mycosphaerella-dearnessii   mycosphaerella-pini   myopic-heuristics   myrica-cerifera   myrica-gale   myricaria-germanica   myristica-fragrans   myrrhoides-nodosa   myrtus-communis   myths   myzocallis-coryli   nasa   native-vegetation   natura-2000   natural-disasters   natural-disturbance   natural-ecosystems   natural-hazards   natural-loss   natural-product-herbicides   natural-resources-interactions   naturalised-species   nauclea-diderichii   ndvi   neanderthals   near-surface-flowpaths   nectaroscordum-siculum   nectria-coccinea   negative-emissions   negative-learning   negative-studies   neglecting-non-monetary-criteria   negotiation   neighbourhood-analysis   nematus-melanaspis   nematus-oligospilus   nemoral-climate   neocallitropsis-pancheri   neodiprion-sertifer   neofusicoccum-parvum   neogene   neonicotinoid   nepal   nephelium-lappaceum   nerium-oleander   nested-loops-and-conditional-structures   netherlands   network-representation-capability   networks   neural-networks   neuro-dynamic-programming   neuroterus-spp   new-forested-areas   new-species   new-zealand   niche-model   niche-modelling   niche-sourcing   nickel   nitrogen   nitrogen-deposition   nitrogen-fixation   nitrogen-leaching   nitrogen-partitioning   no-analogue   no-free-lunch-theorem  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Human appropriation of photosynthesis products

  
Science, Vol. 294, No. 5551. (2001), pp. 2549-2552, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1064375

Abstract

Previous global estimates of the human impact on terrestrial photosynthesis products depended heavily on extrapolation from plot-scale measurements. Here, we estimated this impact with the use of recent data, many of which were collected at global and continental scales. Monte Carlo techniques that incorporate known and estimated error in our parameters provided estimates of uncertainty. We estimate that humans appropriate 10 to 55% of terrestrial photosynthesis products. This broad range reflects uncertainty in key parameters and makes it difficult to ascertain ...

 

Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 13. (29 March 2016), pp. 3557-3562, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517903113

Abstract

[Significance] Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of biodiversity in maintaining multiple ecosystem functions and services (multifunctionality) at local spatial scales, but it is unknown whether similar relationships are found at larger spatial scales in real-world landscapes. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that biodiversity can also be important for multifunctionality at larger spatial scales in European forest landscapes. Both high local (α-) diversity and a high turnover in species composition between locations (high β-diversity) were found to ...

 

Extinction debt of forest plants persists for more than a century following habitat fragmentation

  
Ecology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (March 2006), pp. 542-548, https://doi.org/10.1890/05-1182

Abstract

Following habitat fragmentation individual habitat patches may lose species over time as they pay off their “extinction debt.” Species with relatively low rates of population extinction and colonization (“slow” species) may maintain extinction debts for particularly prolonged periods, but few data are available to test this prediction. We analyzed two unusually detailed data sets on forest plant distributions and land-use history from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom, and Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium, to test for an extinction debt in relation to species-specific extinction and colonization ...

 

Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 11, No. 1. (2006), 28

Abstract

Ecosystem service (ES) trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, a trade-off may be an explicit choice; but in others, trade-offs arise without premeditation or even awareness that they are taking place. Trade-offs in ES can be classified along three axes: spatial scale, temporal ...

Visual summary

 

Drivers of temporal changes in temperate forest plant diversity vary across spatial scales

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, No. 10. (1 October 2015), pp. 3726-3737, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12993

Abstract

Global biodiversity is affected by numerous environmental drivers. Yet, the extent to which global environmental changes contribute to changes in local diversity is poorly understood. We investigated biodiversity changes in a meta-analysis of 39 resurvey studies in European temperate forests (3988 vegetation records in total, 17–75 years between the two surveys) by assessing the importance of (i) coarse-resolution (i.e., among sites) vs. fine-resolution (i.e., within sites) environmental differences and (ii) changing environmental conditions between surveys. Our results clarify the mechanisms underlying the ...

 

Towards more predictable and consistent landscape metrics across spatial scales

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 57 (October 2015), pp. 11-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.03.042

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Landscape metrics are used to quantify landscape composition and configuration. [::] These metrics are sensitive to spatial pattern and the scale of the spatial data. [::] Metrics that are less sensitive to scale and are less correlated are highlighted. [::] Complex interactions between scale and the spatial pattern of the landscape were found. [::]Investigation of these interactions is needed to accurately quantify spatial patterns. [Abstract] Habitat change and fragmentation are considered key drivers of environmental change and biodiversity loss. To understand and mitigate the effects of ...

 

Landscape structure effects on forest plant diversity at local scale: Exploring the role of spatial extent

  
Ecological Complexity, Vol. 21 (March 2015), pp. 44-52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecocom.2014.12.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Landscape structure effects on plant diversity were assessed at different scales. [::] Multiple regression models and variance partitioning techniques were applied. [::] The predictive power of the model increases with increasing extent. [::] Landscape structure explains a large part of variance in forest specialist species. [::] The medium extent combines high variance explained and the low collinearity. [Abstract] Since landscape attributes show different patterns at different spatial extents, it is fundamental to identify how the relation between landscape structure and plant species diversity at local scale ...

 

Effects of remote sensor spatial resolution and data aggregation on selected fragmentation indices

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 19, No. 2. (2004), pp. 197-209, https://doi.org/10.1023/b%3aland.0000021724.60785.65

Abstract

Analyzing the effect of scale on landscape pattern indices has been a key research topic in landscape ecology. The lack of comparability of fragmentation indices across spatial resolutions seriously limits their usefulness while multi-scale remotely sensed data are becoming increasingly available. In this paper, we examine the effect of spatial resolution on six common fragmentation indices that are being used within the Third Spanish National Forest Inventory. We analyse categorical data derived from simultaneously gathered Landsat-TM and IRS-WiFS satellite images, as ...

 

Dealing with femtorisks in international relations

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (09 December 2014), pp. 17356-17362, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400229111

Abstract

The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential “actors” take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. ...

 

HPC Processor Technologies and Their Impact on Simulation

  
In Computational Science and High Performance Computing IV, Vol. 115 (2011), pp. 17-28, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17770-5_2

Abstract

Moore’s law has come to an end with respect to the clock speed of the single processor. Clock rates are no longer increasing. Parallelism carries the day and accelerators are making the most of this. What is the future of processors for HPC going to look like? This talk will give a short overview and discuss some potential solutions. ...

 

Predicting soil erosion and sediment yield at the basin scale: scale issues and semi-quantitative models

  
Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 71, No. 1-2. (June 2005), pp. 95-125, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.02.002

Abstract

Basin sediment yield is the product of all sediment producing processes and sediment transport within a basin. Consequently, the prediction of basin sediment yield should take into consideration all different erosion and sediment transport processes. However, traditional physics-based, conceptual, and empirical or regression models have not been able to describe all these processes due to insufficient systems knowledge and unfeasible data requirements. Therefore, the applicability of these models at the basin scale is troublesome. This paper first illustrates the relation between ...

 

There is no silver bullet: The value of diversification in planning invasive species surveillance

  
Ecological Economics, Vol. 104 (August 2014), pp. 61-72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.04.024

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We consider short-term surveillance of an invasive pest in a diverse landscape. [::] Our case study is focused on the survey of emerald ash borer expansion in Canada. [::] The spread of the invader is described by distribution-model-based estimates. [::] A portfolio framework was applied to allocate resources for pest surveillance. [::] Diversification makes the survey less subject to errors in spread estimates. [Abstract] In this study we demonstrate how the notion of diversification can be used in broad-scale resource allocation for surveillance of ...

 

Floods in a changing climate

  
(2012)

Abstract

"Flood risk management is presented in this book as a framework for identifying, assessing and prioritizing climate-related risks and developing appropriate adaptation responses. Rigorous assessment is employed to determine the available probabilistic and fuzzy set-based analytic tools, when each is appropriate and how to apply them to practical problems. Academic researchers in the fields of hydrology, climate change, environmental science and policy and risk assessment, and professionals and policy-makers working in hazard mitigation, water resources engineering and environmental economics, will find ...

 

Contrasting views of complexity and their implications for network-centric infrastructures

  
Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 40, No. 4. (July 2010), pp. 839-852, https://doi.org/10.1109/tsmca.2010.2048027

Abstract

There exists a widely recognized need to better understand and manage complex “systems of systems,” ranging from biology, ecology, and medicine to network-centric technologies. This is motivating the search for universal laws of highly evolved systems and driving demand for new mathematics and methods that are consistent, integrative, and predictive. However, the theoretical frameworks available today are not merely fragmented but sometimes contradictory and incompatible. We argue that complexity arises in highly evolved biological and technological systems primarily to provide mechanisms ...

 

Evolution and selection of river networks: Statics, dynamics, and complexity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 7. (18 February 2014), pp. 2417-2424, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322700111

Abstract

[Significance] Our focus is on a rich interdisciplinary problem touching on earth science, hydrology, and statistical mechanics—an understanding of the statics and dynamics of the network structures that we observe in the fluvial landscape, and their relation to evolution and selection of recurrent patterns of self-organization. It is an exemplar of how diverse ideas, numerical simulation, and elementary mathematics can come together to help solve the mystery of understanding a ubiquitous pattern of nature. [Abstract] Moving from the exact result that ...

 

Evidence for soft bounds in Ubuntu package sizes and mammalian body masses

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 52. (24 December 2013), pp. 21054-21058, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1311124110

Abstract

[Significance] Not unlike a big city, a large software project grows in a complex way, involving many developers and even more users, but a predictive framework to understand these temporal patterns is lacking. We focus on software size and analyze the changes of the Ubuntu open source operating system, finding two quantitative laws. First, growth is driven by changes in scale rather than by addition–subtraction; second, evolution toward larger sizes between two consecutive releases is limited by bounds that depend on ...

 

Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

  
Ecosystems In Ecosystems, Vol. 5, No. 8. (21 December 2002), pp. 0815-0822, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-002-0209-2

Abstract

We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel−1) land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha. Most forest is found in fragmented landscapes. With 65.61-ha landscapes, for example, only 9.9% of all forest was contained in a fully forested landscape, and only 46.9% was in a landscape that ...

 

Response of tree seedlings to the abiotic heterogeneity generated by nurse shrubs: an experimental approach at different scales

  
Ecography, Vol. 28, No. 6. (December 2005), pp. 757-768, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2005.0906-7590.04337.x

Abstract

Spatial heterogeneity of abiotic factors influences patterns of seedling establishment at different scales. In stress-prone ecosystems such as Mediterranean ones, heterogeneity generated by shrubs has been shown to facilitate the establishment of tree species. However, how this facilitation is affected by spatial scale remains poorly understood. We have experimentally analysed the consequences of the abiotic heterogeneity generated by pioneer shrubs on survival, growth and physiology of seedlings of three important tree species from Mediterranean mountains (Acer opalus ssp. granatense, Quercus pyrenaica ...

 

The question of scale in integrated natural resource management

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), 25+

Abstract

Lessons from integrated natural resource management (INRM) practiced at different scales are reviewed, with a focus on catchment management. INRM is complex, and many interactions have to be addressed. Consequently, the scale of investigation can restrict the generality and utility of the findings. Examples show that temporal, biophysical, and institutional scales can each be critical. Contexts and dynamics associated with particular scales, and interactions or lateral flows that become important with increasing scale, also pose serious challenges. A conceptual framework is ...

 

The Adaptive Decision-Making Process as a Tool for Integrated Natural Resource Management: Focus, Attitudes, and Approach

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), 11+

Abstract

Integrated natural resource management (INRM) and its many closely related approaches are generally considered to be more effective than single-disciplinary approaches for managing the complex resource issues currently facing many countries. INRM approaches aim to integrate several disciplines and involve different stakeholders operating in their own subsystems across different spatial and temporal scales. These approaches focus on identifying management strategies for sustaining natural resource stocks and flows of goods and services as well as their underlying ecological processes. Changes in the ...

 

Integrated assessment and modelling: features, principles and examples for catchment management

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 18, No. 6. (July 2003), pp. 491-501, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-8152(03)00024-0

Abstract

To meet the challenges of sustainability and catchment management requires an approach that assesses resource usage options and environmental impacts integratively. Assessment must be able to integrate several dimensions: the consideration of multiple issues and stakeholders, the key disciplines within and between the human and natural sciences, multiple scales of system behaviour, cascading effects both spatially and temporally, models of the different system components, and multiple databases. Integrated assessment (IA) is an emerging discipline and process that attempts to address the ...

 

Impact of scale on morphological spatial pattern of forest

  
Landscape Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 9. (1 November 2008), pp. 1107-1117, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9271-2

Abstract

Assessing and monitoring landscape pattern structure from multi-scale land-cover maps can utilize morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA), only if various influences of scale are known and taken into account. This paper lays part of the foundation for applying MSPA analysis in landscape monitoring by quantifying scale effects on six classes of spatial patterns called: core, edge, perforation, branch, connector and islet. Four forest maps were selected with different forest composition and configuration. The sensitivity of MSPA to scale was studied by ...

 

No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns

  
Nature, Vol. 500, No. 7462. (24 July 2013), pp. 327-330, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12310

Abstract

Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year temperature variability was probably higher in some past cold periods1, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate variability at present2, 3, 4, 5, 6. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased variability and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions3. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased variability2, there is considerable uncertainty as ...

 

Does the terrestrial biosphere have planetary tipping points?

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 396-401, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.01.016

Abstract

Tipping points where systems shift radically and potentially irreversibly into a different state have received considerable attention in ecology. Although there is convincing evidence that human drivers can cause regime shifts at local and regional scales, the increasingly invoked concept of planetary scale tipping points in the terrestrial biosphere remains unconfirmed. By evaluating potential mechanisms and drivers, we conclude that spatial heterogeneity in drivers and responses, and lack of strong continental interconnectivity, probably induce relatively smooth changes at the ...

 

Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 389-395, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.05.019

Abstract

"The history of life reveals repeated planetary-scale tipping points."The pace of global changes is often slow even after a tipping point is exceeded."The risk of long-term damage to Earth systems that support humanity is increasing."Planetary-scale governance is needed to safeguard humans and ecosystems. Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime ...

 

Multi-scale robust modelling of landslide susceptibility: regional rapid assessment and catchment robust fuzzy ensemble

  
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 413 (2013), pp. 321-335, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41151-9_31

Abstract

Landslide susceptibility assessment is a fundamental component of effective landslide prevention. One of the main challenges in landslides forecasting is the assessment of spatial distribution of landslide susceptibility. Despite the many different approaches, landslide susceptibility assessment still remains a challenge. A semi-quantitative method is proposed combining heuristic, deterministic and probabilistic approaches for a robust catchment scale assessment. A fuzzy ensemble model has been exploited for aggregating an array of different susceptibility zonation maps. Each susceptibility zonation has been obtained by applying ...

 

Discriminating fine sediment sources and the application of sediment tracers in burned catchments: a review

  
Hydrological Processes, Vol. 27, No. 6. (15 March 2013), pp. 943-958, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9537

Abstract

Wildfire can cause substantial changes to runoff, erosion and downstream sediment delivery processes. In response to these disturbance effects, the main sources of sediment transported within burned catchments may also change. Sediment tracing offers an approach to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment (typically <63 µm) from burned catchment sources. In this paper, we review the application of various sediment tracers to discriminate fine sediment sources following wildfire. Fallout radionuclides provide the most effective tracers for discriminating hillslope surface and sub-surface ...

 

Wildfire as a hydrological and geomorphological agent

  
Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 74, No. 3-4. (February 2006), pp. 269-307, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.10.006

Abstract

Wildfire can lead to considerable hydrological and geomorphological change, both directly by weathering bedrock surfaces and changing soil structure and properties, and indirectly through the effects of changes to the soil and vegetation on hydrological and geomorphological processes. This review summarizes current knowledge and identifies research gaps focusing particularly on the contribution of research from the Mediterranean Basin, Australia and South Africa over the last two decades or so to the state of knowledge mostly built on research carried out in ...

 

The effects of wildfires on wood-eating beetles in deciduous forests on the southern slope of the Swiss Alps

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 187, No. 1. (January 2004), pp. 85-103, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(03)00314-1

Abstract

The effect of fires on Cerambycidae, Buprestidae and Lucanidae were studied at 23 sites within a chestnut forest in southern Switzerland. We compared six unburnt sites, two freshly burnt sites, eight sites which burned once at different times in the last 30 years, and seven sites where fires occurred repeatedly in the last 30 years. The diversity and the species composition of the three xylobiont families were related to various ecological variables at two levels of spatial scale, a small scale ...

 

Advances in global change research require open science by individual researchers

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 18, No. 7. (1 July 2012), pp. 2102-2110, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02693.x

Abstract

Understanding how species and ecosystems respond to climate change requires spatially and temporally rich data for a diverse set of species and habitats, combined with models that test and predict responses. Yet current study is hampered by the long-known problems of inadequate management of data and insufficient description of analytical procedures, especially in the field of ecology. Despite recent institutional incentives to share data and new data archiving infrastructure, many ecologists do not archive and publish their data and code. Given ...

 

Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making

  
Ecological Economics, Vol. 68, No. 3. (15 January 2009), pp. 643-653, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.09.014

Abstract

The concept of ecosystems services has become an important model for linking the functioning of ecosystems to human welfare. Understanding this link is critical for a wide-range of decision-making contexts. While there have been several attempts to come up with a classification scheme for ecosystem services, there has not been an agreed upon, meaningful and consistent definition for ecosystem services. In this paper we offer a definition of ecosystem services that is likely to be operational for ecosystem service research and ...

 

Measurement of erosion: is it possible?

  
CATENA, Vol. 64, No. 2-3. (December 2005), pp. 162-173, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2005.08.004

Abstract

Reasons for erosion measurements are: (1) to determine the environmental impact of erosion and conservation practices, (2) scientific erosion research; (3) development and evaluation of erosion control technology; (4) development of erosion prediction technology and (5) allocation of conservation resources and development of conservation regulations, policies and programs. A handicap for the control of the insidious erosion process is the difficulty of determining its magnitude. Four causes are often mentioned in the literature: the large temporal and spatial variation of erosion, ...

 

Modelling the ecological consequences of global climate change

  
Proc. iEMSs 4th Biennial Meeting - Int. CProceedings of the iEMSs Fourth Biennial Meeting: International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMSs 2008), Vol. 1 (2008), pp. 1-3
 

Spatial covariance between biodiversity and other ecosystem service priorities

  
Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 46, No. 4. (August 2009), pp. 888-896, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01666.x

Abstract

1.  Ecosystems support biodiversity and also provide goods and services that are beneficial to humans. The extent to which the locations that are most valuable for ecosystem services coincide with those that support the most biodiversity is of critical importance when designing conservation and land management strategies. There are, however, few studies on which to base any kind of conclusion about possible spatial patterns of association between ecosystem services and biodiversity. Moreover, little is known about the sensitivity of the conclusions ...

 

Adapting to crop pest and pathogen risks under a changing climate

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 2. (March 2011), pp. 220-237, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.102

Abstract

The need for pest and pathogen management will increase as the intensification of food production proceeds to feed the burgeoning human population. Climate is a significant driver of pest population dynamics, so climate change will require adaptive management strategies to cope with the altered status of pests and pathogens. A hierarchy of analytical tools is required to conduct risk assessments, inform policy and design pest management on scales from regions to landscapes and fields. Such tools include models for predicting potential ...

 

Multiscale effects on spatial variability metrics in global water resources data

  
Water Resources Management, Vol. 24, No. 9. (1 July 2010), pp. 1903-1924, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-009-9530-2

Abstract

Spatial scales and methods for dealing with scale have been widely discussed in the water resources literature. Different spatial processes operate at different scales so interpretations based on data from one scale may not apply to another. Understanding the behavior of phenomena at multiple-scales of data aggregation is thus imperative to accurate integrations of data and models at different geographic resolutions. This study tests theoretical concepts of scale by presenting empirical results of multiscale GIS and statistical analyses on gridded water-availability, ...

 

Scaling Issues in Environmental Modelling

  
In Environmental modelling : finding simplicity in complexity (2004)

Abstract

Introduction. Modelling is useful for understanding and predicting environmental changes at various times and areas. It can incorporate descriptions of the key processes that modulate system performance or behaviour with varying degrees of sophistication (Moore et al., 1993). Over the past few hundred years, we have invested considerable effort to understand the processes of the environmental system, to build up a long record of environmental parameters, and to create a number of reasonable models at local (plot) scales. For example, land-surface ...

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