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Selection: with tag mountainous-areas [47 articles] 

 

Effects of slope angle and aspect on plant cover and species richness in a humid Mediterranean badland

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, No. 13. (October 2014), pp. 1705-1716, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3549

Abstract

Soil erosion is one of the most severe land degradation processes in the Mediterranean region. Although badlands occupy a relatively small fraction of the Mediterranean area, their erosion rates are very high. Many studies have investigated to what extent vegetation controls soil erosion rates. This study, however, deals with the impact of erosion on vegetation establishment. In semi-arid badlands of the Mediterranean, soil water availability constitutes the main limiting factor for vegetation development. As a consequence, south-facing slopes are typically less ...

 

Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change

  
Global Change Biology (March 2017), https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13679

Abstract

As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different ...

 

Can the use of continuous cover forestry alone maintain silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in central European mountain forests?

  
Forestry, Vol. 89, No. 4. (August 2016), pp. 412-421, https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpw013

Abstract

Chronic browsing and inappropriate stand management are often discussed as causes for recruitment failure of tree species in temperate mixed uneven-aged forests. Continuous cover forestry is thought to produce conditions that are conducive to the recruitment of native shade-tolerant and browse-sensitive tree species such as silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). This study used density-dependent matrix population models parameterized for three main types of fir forests in Europe (53 048 measured trees from 3183 permanent sample plots) to project the effects of ...

 

Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe

  
Ecography, Vol. 27, No. 3. (June 2004), pp. 366-380, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2004.03823.x

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible consequences of climate change on a representative sample of forest herbs in Europe. A fuzzy climatic envelope was used to predict the location of suitable climatic conditions under two climatic change scenarios. Expected consequences in terms of lost and gained range size and shift in distribution for 26 forest herbs were estimated. These results were combined in an Index of Predicted Range Change for each species. Finally, the effects of habitat ...

 

Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 11, No. 6. (November 2002), pp. 453-462, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2002.00304.x

Abstract

[Aim] Climate change has the potential to have significant impacts on the distribution of species and on the composition of habitats. This paper identifies the potential changes in the future distribution of species under the UKCIP98 climate change scenarios, in order that such changes can be taken into account in conservation management. [Location] The model was applied to Britain and Ireland. [Methods] A model based on an artificial neural network was used to predict the changing bioclimate envelopes of species in Britain and ...

 

Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (22 December 2016), 13736, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13736

Abstract

The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA

  
Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 28, No. 11-12. (June 2009), pp. 1131-1146, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.05.003

Abstract

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented post-fire geomorphic response. Here, we describe field observations and topographic analyses for three sites in the central Oregon Coast Range that ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 22

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   monitoring   monochamus-galloprovincialis   monochamus-spp   monography   monoterpenes   monsoon   montane-belt   monte-carlo   monte-carlo-trajectory   monumental-trees   mordwilkoja-vagabundus   morinda-citrifolia   moringa-oleifera   morocco   morphological-adaptations   morphological-traits   morphology   mortality   morus-alba   morus-nigra   morus-spp   mountainous-areas   muddy-floods   multi-criteria-decision-analysis   multi-objective-planning   multi-scale   multi-stakeholder-decision-making   multiauthor   multiple-adaptive-regression-splines   multiplicative-structure   multiplicity   mushrooms   mycorrhizal-fungi   mycosphaerella-dearnessii   mycosphaerella-pini   myopic-heuristics   myrica-cerifera   myrica-gale   myricaria-germanica   myristica-fragrans   myrrhoides-nodosa   myrtus-communis   myths   myzocallis-coryli   nasa   native-vegetation   natura-2000   natural-disasters   natural-disturbance   natural-ecosystems   natural-hazards   natural-loss   natural-product-herbicides   natural-resources-interactions   naturalised-species   nauclea-diderichii   ndvi   neanderthals   near-surface-flowpaths   nectaroscordum-siculum   nectria-coccinea   negative-emissions   negative-learning   negative-studies   neglecting-non-monetary-criteria   negotiation   neighbourhood-analysis   nematus-melanaspis   nematus-oligospilus   nemoral-climate   neocallitropsis-pancheri   neodiprion-sertifer   neofusicoccum-parvum   neogene   neonicotinoid   nepal   nephelium-lappaceum   nerium-oleander   nested-loops-and-conditional-structures   netherlands   network-representation-capability   networks   neural-networks   neuro-dynamic-programming   neuroterus-spp   new-forested-areas   new-species   new-zealand   niche-model   niche-modelling   niche-sourcing   nickel   nitrogen   nitrogen-deposition   nitrogen-fixation   nitrogen-leaching   nitrogen-partitioning   no-analogue   no-free-lunch-theorem  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

The climatic signature of incised river meanders

  
Science, Vol. 327, No. 5972. (2010), pp. 1497-1501, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1184406

Abstract

Climate controls landscape evolution, but quantitative signatures of climatic drivers have yet to be found in topography on a broad scale. Here we describe how a topographic signature of typhoon rainfall is recorded in the meandering of incising mountain rivers in the western North Pacific. Spatially averaged river sinuosity generated from digital elevation data peaks in the typhoon-dominated subtropics, where extreme rainfall and flood events are common, and decreases toward the equatorial tropics and mid-latitudes, where such extremes are rare. Once ...

 

Adjustment of forest management strategies to changing climate

  
In Forest Management and the Water Cycle, Vol. 212 (2011), pp. 313-329, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9834-4_17

Abstract

Research work on the influence of global warming on forests predicts a rise in air temperature and changes in precipitation for a large part of Europe. Climate change has been forecast to increase runoff and nutrient leaching from the boreal catchments. Windiness, cloudiness and more frequent extreme-weather events are expected in the temperate region. The Mediterranean region is expected to suffer considerable impacts because of increased drought conditions. The need to understand and control the hydrological role of forests is rising, ...

 

Vegetation-microclimate feedbacks in woodland-grassland ecotones

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2013), pp. 364-379, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12000

Abstract

[Aim] Climatic conditions exert a strong control on the geographic distribution of many woodland-to-grassland transition zones (or ‘tree lines’). Because woody plants have, in general, a weaker cold tolerance than herbaceous vegetation, their altitudinal or latitudinal limits are strongly controlled by cold sensitivity. While temperature controls on the dynamics of woodland–grassland ecotones are relatively well established, the ability of woody plants to modify their microclimate and to create habitat for seedling establishment and growth may involve a variety of processes that are ...

 

Mechanisms of carbon storage in mountainous headwater rivers

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 3 (11 December 2012), 1263, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2274

Abstract

Published research emphasizes rapid downstream export of terrestrial carbon from mountainous headwater rivers, but little work focuses on mechanisms that create carbon storage along these rivers, or on the volume of carbon storage. Here we estimate organic carbon stored in diverse valley types of headwater rivers in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA. We show that low-gradient, broad valley bottoms with old-growth forest or active beaver colonies store the great majority of above- and below-ground carbon. These laterally unconfined valley segments ...

 

Root cohesion of forest species in the Italian Alps

  
Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 71-89, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9941-0

Abstract

Forests can prevent and/or mitigate hydrogeomorphic hazards in mountainous landscapes. Their effect is particularly relevant in the case of shallow landslides phenomena, where plants decrease the water content of the soil and increase its mechanical strength. Although such an effect is well known, its quantification is a relatively new challenge. The present work estimates the effect of some forest species on hillslope stability in terms of additional root cohesion by means of a model based on the classical Wu and Waldron ...

 

Debris-flow mitigation measures

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 445-487, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_18

Abstract

[Excerpt] Integrated risk management is a tool to prevent, intervent, and avoid natural hazards (Amman, 2001). This includes a combination of land use planning and technical and bioengineering measures to guarantee an optimal cost-benefit ratio. An essential aspect of risk management is the design of mitigation measures which reduce the existing risk to an accepted level of residual risk. Two types of mitigation measures can be distinguished (Zollinger, 1985): active measures and passive measures. Active measures focus on the hazard, while passive measures focus on the potential damage (Huebl ...

 

Erosion in Mediterranean landscapes: changes and future challenges

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 198 (September 2013), pp. 20-36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.05.023

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Recent land uses contribute to soil erosion in marginal lands. [::] Long history of human activity explains many landscape characteristics. [::] Intensification and extensification/wealth and poverty increase spatial complexity. [Abstract] Intense erosion processes are widespread in the Mediterranean region, and include sheet wash erosion, rilling, gullying, shallow landsliding, and the development of large and active badlands in both subhumid and semi-arid areas. This review analyses the main environmental and human features related to soil erosion processes, and the main factors that explain the extreme ...

 

Rates and spatial variations of soil erosion in Europe: a study based on erosion plot data

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 122, No. 1-2. (23 October 2010), pp. 167-177, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.06.011

Abstract

An extensive database of short to medium-term erosion rates as measured on erosion plots in Europe under natural rainfall was compiled from the literature. Statistical analysis confirmed the dominant influence of land use and cover on soil erosion rates. Sheet and rill erosion rates are highest on bare soil; vineyards show the second highest soil losses, followed by other arable lands (spring crops, orchards and winter crops). A land with a permanent vegetation cover (shrubs, grassland and forest) is characterised by ...

 

Thermophilization of adult and juvenile tree communities in the northern tropical Andes

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 34. (25 August 2015), pp. 10744-10749, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1506570112

Abstract

[Significance] Understanding how species respond to climate change is crucial to the development of effective conservation strategies. We found directional and systematic changes in the composition of both adult and juvenile tree species in tropical north Andean forests at rates consistent with concurrent temperature increases, supporting the hypothesis of upward species migrations resulting from global warming. Our results indicate that compositional shifts occur primarily via range retractions. This suggests elevated risk for species extinctions and local biodiversity loss with ongoing warming. Other ...

 

Application of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to mountainous forests in Japan

  
Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 5, No. 4. (2000), pp. 231-236, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02767115

Abstract

Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), originally developed by the USDA for agricultural lands and then used throughout the world, was applied in mountainous forest terrain in Japan. The slope length and steepness factors were extended for long slope lengths and steep slopes by recalculating the data from available literature in Japan and by using data from supplementary erosion experiments. As such, we conclude that the USLE can be used successfully to estimate surface erosion on long, steep mountainous forest slopes. The ...

 

Coniferous Forests

  
(2005)
edited by F. Andersson

Abstract

This volume Coniferous Forests is the last in the series Ecosystem of the World. Conifers and coniferous forests are an important element around us and attract our interest. This volume starts with an account of the history and distribution of the conifers. In six chapters the most important areas in Asia, Europe, North and South America with conifers forest are described covering boreal, temperate, tropical as well as mountainous regions. The descriptions are made out from a biome and an ecosystem ...

 

Ecology and classification of forests in Turkey

  
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 120 (March 2014), pp. 788-805, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.163

Abstract

Turkey possesses all types of parent materials or bedrocks like metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic belonging to different geological era and periods. Some parent materials contain evaporitic sediments with salt, gypsum and high contents of alkaline materials which mostly prevent the growth of climax vegetation. The country has a rugged and high topography, related to tectonic movements, and volcanic activities which mainly occurred in Tertiary and Quaternary eras. The mountains are divided into three groups in terms of formation and ecological importance ...

 

Long-term Responses of Mountain Ecosystems to Environmental Changes: Resilience, Adjustment, and Vulnerability

  
In Global Change and Mountain Regions, Vol. 23 (2005), pp. 133-143, https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3508-x_14

Abstract

The steep environmental gradients of mountain ecosystems over short distances reflect large gradients of several climatic parameters and hence provide excellent possibilities for ecological research on the effects of environmental change. To gain a better understanding of the dynamics of abiotic and biotic parameters of mountain ecosystems, long-term records are required since permanent plots in mountain regions cover in the best case about 50–70 years. In order to extend investigations of ecological dynamics beyond these temporal limitations of permanent plots, paleoecological ...

 

Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada

  
(2001)
 

Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (1 March 2015), pp. 281-295, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12354

Abstract

[Summary] [::] The resilience, diversity and stability of mountain ecosystems are threatened by climatic as well as land-use changes, but the combined effects of these drivers are only poorly understood. [::] We combine two high-resolution sediment records from Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) and Lauenensee (1382 m a.s.l.) at different elevations in the Northern Swiss Alps to provide a detailed history of vegetational changes during the period of first pastoralism (ca. 7000–5000 cal. BP, 5000–3000 BC) in order to understand ongoing and future changes ...

 

Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 2. (4 February 2015), pp. 225-245, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-225-2015

Abstract

Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water-holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, the ...

 

Les Hautes Montagnes du Maghreb et du Proche-Orient: essai de mise en parallèle des caractères phytogéographiques

  
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Vol. 37, No. 2. (1980), pp. 352-372

Abstract

Au sein des montagnes ceinturant la Méditerranée il est aujourd'hui classique de distinguer et d'opposer (BARBERO, BONIN & QUÉZEL, 1975) celles du revers septentrional, boisées, relativement humides et en contact plus ou moins direct avec la région européenne, et celles du revers méri-dional, souvent arides et sèches et beaucoup plus isolées du point de vue géographique. Si cette position est un peu schématique, certains cas in-termédiaires pouvant en effet s'observer notamment en Espagne et en Grèce méridionales, il n'en reste pas ...

 

Modelling and simulating change in reforesting mountain landscapes using a social-ecological framework

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 2. (1 February 2010), pp. 267-285, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-009-9438-5

Abstract

Natural reforestation of European mountain landscapes raises major environmental and societal issues. With local stakeholders in the Pyrenees National Park area (France), we studied agricultural landscape colonisation by ash (Fraxinus excelsior) to enlighten its impacts on biodiversity and other landscape functions of importance for the valley socio-economics. The study comprised an integrated assessment of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) since the 1950s, and a scenario analysis of alternative future policy. We combined knowledge and methods from landscape ecology, land change and ...

 

Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (16 February 2010), pp. 698-709, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.023

Abstract

This study compiles and summarizes the existing knowledge about observed and projected impacts of climate change on forests in Europe. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased variability with greater risk of extreme weather events, such as prolonged drought, storms and floods. Sensitivity, potential impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability to climate change are reviewed for European forests. The most important potential impacts of climate change on forest goods and services are ...

 

Response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) to soil and atmospheric water deficits under Mediterranean mountain climate

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 65, No. 3. (2008), pp. 306-306, https://doi.org/10.1051/forest%3a2008003

Abstract

The physiological responses to water deficits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) were studied under Mediterranean mountain climate. Minimum leaf water potentials were −3.2 MPa for oak and −2.1 MPa for pine, with higher predawn values for pubescent oak. Relative sap flow declined in both species when vapour pressure deficit (D) went above ca. 1.2 kPa, but stomatal control was stronger for pine during the 2003 summer drought. P. sylvestris plant hydraulic conductance on a ...

 

Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Vol. 2, No. 4. (11 April 2014), pp. 2639-2680, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhessd-2-2639-2014

Abstract

Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, ...

 

Inferring shifts in tree species distribution using asymmetric distribution curves: a case study in the Iberian mountains

  
Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 25, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 147-159, https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12079

Abstract

Questions The objectives of this study were to examine altitudinal shifts in tree species distributions over one decade to quantify the potential for tree migration. Location Spain. Methods We analysed presence–absence data using two successive surveys of the Spanish Forest Inventory in five Fagaceae tree species (two temperate: Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea, one sub-Mediterranean: Q. faginea and two Mediterranean: Q. suber and Q. ilex) in two mountain ranges (the Pyrenees and the Iberian system). Half of the fitted altitudinal distributions were skewed and required use ...

 

Climate change impacts on hydropower in the Swiss and Italian Alps

  
Science of The Total Environment (November 2013), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.012

Abstract

This paper provides a synthesis and comparison of methodologies and results obtained in several studies devoted to the impact of climate change on hydropower. By putting into perspective various case studies, we provide a broader context and improved understanding of climate changes on energy production. We also underline the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches used as far as technical, physical and economical aspects are concerned. Although the catchments under investigation are located close to each other in geographic terms (Swiss ...

 

Mapping land cover from detailed aerial photography data using textural and neural network analysis

  
International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 April 2007), pp. 1625-1642, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160600887722

Abstract

Automated mapping of land cover using black and white aerial photographs, as an alternative method to traditional photo?interpretation, requires using methods other than spectral analysis classification. To this end, textural measurements have been shown to be useful indicators of land cover. In this work, a neural network model is proposed and tested to map historical land use/land cover (LUC) from very detailed panchromatic aerial photographs (5 m resolution) using textural measurements. The method is used to identify different land use and management ...

 

A Significant Upward Shift in Plant Species Optimum Elevation During the 20th Century

  
Science, Vol. 320, No. 5884. (27 June 2008), pp. 1768-1771, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1156831

Abstract

Spatial fingerprints of climate change on biotic communities are usually associated with changes in the distribution of species at their latitudinal or altitudinal extremes. By comparing the altitudinal distribution of 171 forest plant species between 1905 and 1985 and 1986 and 2005 along the entire elevation range (0 to 2600 meters above sea level) in west Europe, we show that climate warming has resulted in a significant upward shift in species optimum elevation averaging 29 meters per decade. The shift is ...

 

Approximation and spatial regionalization of rainfall erosivity based on sparse data in a mountainous catchment of the Yangtze River in Central China

  
Environmental Science and Pollution Research In Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 20, No. 10. (2013), pp. 6917-6933, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1441-8

Abstract

In densely populated countries like China, clean water is one of the most challenging issues of prospective politics and environmental planning. Water pollution and eutrophication by excessive input of nitrogen and phosphorous from nonpoint sources is mostly linked to soil erosion from agricultural land. In order to prevent such water pollution by diffuse matter fluxes, knowledge about the extent of soil loss and the spatial distribution of hot spots of soil erosion is essential. In remote areas such as the mountainous ...

 

Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 2. (6 March 2008), pp. 523-535, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-12-523-2008

Abstract

The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events), soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content) and current tillage practices in a set ...

 

Erosion processes in steep terrain - Truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 224, No. 1-2. (15 March 2006), pp. 199-225, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.019

Abstract

To assess the effects of forest management on soil erosion in Southeast Asia, clear distinctions must be made between surface erosion and landslide processes. Although surface erosion is a natural process, it is exacerbated by surface disturbance and compaction that reduce the soil hydraulic conductivity and break down soil aggregates. Management practices and attributes such as roads and trails, agricultural cultivation, fire, land clearing, and recreation all accelerate surface erosion processes due to their disturbance, compaction, and connectivity along hillslopes. Agroforestry ...

 

Rapid recent range-margin rise of tree and shrub species in the Swedish Scandes

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 90, No. 1. (February 2002), pp. 68-77, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0022-0477.2001.00630.x

Abstract

1. Recent elevational range-margin performance of tree and shrub species was studied at a site in the Swedish Scandes. The methods included comparisons of historical and present-day range-margin records (m a.s.l.) in conjunction with age-determination of newly established saplings. 2. Since the early 1950s, the range-margins of Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa (mountain birch), Picea abies (Norway spruce), Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine), Sorbus aucuparia (rowan) and Salix spp. (willows) have advanced by 120-375 m to colonize moderate snow-bed communities. The non-native Acer ...

 

The velocity of climate change

  
Nature, Vol. 462, No. 7276. (24 December 2009), pp. 1052-1055, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08649

Abstract

The ranges of plants and animals are moving in response to recent changes in climate1. As temperatures rise, ecosystems with ‘nowhere to go’, such as mountains, are considered to be more threatened2, 3. However, species survival may depend as much on keeping pace with moving climates as the climate’s ultimate persistence4, 5. Here we present a new index of the velocity of temperature change (km yr-1), derived from spatial gradients (°C km-1) and multimodel ensemble forecasts of rates of temperature increase (°C yr-1) ...

 

Differential light responses of Mediterranean tree saplings: linking ecophysiology with regeneration niche in four co-occurring species

  
Tree Physiology, Vol. 26, No. 7. (01 July 2006), pp. 947-958, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/26.7.947

Abstract

The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying plant–plant interactions and forest regeneration processes in Mediterranean ecosystems are poorly understood, and the experimental evidence for the role of light availability in these processes is particularly scant. We analyzed the effects of high and low irradiances on 31 ecological, morphological and physiological variables in saplings of four late-successional Mediterranean trees, two deciduous (Acer opalus subsp. granatense (Boiss.) Font Quer & Rothm. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and two evergreen (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco and ...

 

Patterns of Land-use Abandonment Control Tree-recruitment and Forest Dynamics in Mediterranean Mountains

  
Ecosystems In Ecosystems, Vol. 10, No. 6. (1 September 2007), pp. 936-948, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9065-4

Abstract

Mediterranean ecosystems have been impacted for millennia by human practices, particularly agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, land-use abandonment has lead to scrubland and forest expansion, especially in mountain areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. This study aimed at analyzing how grazing history affects subsequent forest dynamics at a site located in the limestone foothills of the Southern Alps (France). The approach combines archival documents and dendroecology to investigate the origin, establishment and development of forest ...

 

Landslide impact on organic carbon cycling in a temperate montane forest

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 36, No. 12. (30 September 2011), pp. 1670-1679, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2191

Abstract

In humid, forested mountain belts, bedrock landslides can harvest organic carbon from above ground biomass and soil (OCmodern) while acting to refresh the landscape surface and turnover forest ecosystems. Here the impact of landslides on organic carbon cycling in 13 river catchments spanning the length of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand is assessed over four decades. Spatial and temporal landslide maps are combined with the observed distribution and measured variability of hillslope OCmodern stocks. On average, it is estimated that ...

 

An integrative approach for analysing landscape dynamics in diverse cultivated and natural mountain areas

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 24, No. 5. (2009), pp. 611-628, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-009-9337-9

Abstract

Our landscape can be regarded as a development process that is affected and subsequently shaped by a series of different environmental and human-induced factors. However, to date, concrete data about the impact of each of these factors are still missing. One key reason for this is that methods of acquisition and evaluation of these factors inherently have differences, thereby preventing meaningful comparative analyses. This study presents an integrative methodical approach that bridges many of these gaps. Our approach also has the ...

 

Coping with global climate change: strategies, policies and measures for the tourism industry

  
(2011)

Abstract

The importance of the tourism industry is increasing globally, and many tourist destinations owe their growing success to the availability of natural resources: guaranteed sunshine during the summer season, or snow during wintertime. However, rising temperatures and other indirect impacts of climate change will more than likely alter the ecosystems of many worldwide destinations. In some regions, the Alps for example, the future of tourism products such as skiing will be threatened. It is for this reason that Alpine tourism industry, ...

 

Applied Remote Sensing in Mountain Regions: A Workshop Organized by EURAC in the Core of the Alps

  
Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 3. (1 August 2007), pp. 286-287, https://doi.org/10.1659/mrd.0928

Abstract

Remote sensing supports monitoring in mountain areas Mountain areas are highly dynamic and sensitive regions. Changes in human land use and climate conditions, an increasing number of natural hazard phenomena, and increased competition in a globalized economy are putting the environment and societies in mountain regions under pressure. Consequently, the observation of these phenomena or their representative indicators at various scales in time and space has become an urgent task. Monitoring—ie the repetition of such observation activities—in sufficient frequency for large and ...

 

Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 102, No. 23. (07 June 2005), pp. 8245-8250, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0409902102

Abstract

Climate change has already triggered species distribution shifts in many parts of the world. Increasing impacts are expected for the future, yet few studies have aimed for a general understanding of the regional basis for species vulnerability. We projected late 21st century distributions for 1,350 European plants species under seven climate change scenarios. Application of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List criteria to our projections shows that many European plant species could become severely threatened. ...

 

Mountain areas in Europe: analysis of mountain areas in EU member states, acceding and other European countries

  
No. European Commission contract No 2002.CE.16.0.AT.136. (2004)

Abstract

Introduction. The global importance of mountains is increasingly recognised, as shown by the inclusion of a specific chapter in ‘Agenda 21’ and the declaration of the year 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. Europe has many mountain ranges, occurring in almost all parts of the continent; most European countries have at least some mountains. These mountains are very diverse at every scale, in terms of climate, ecology, economy and other characteristics. European mountain landscapes are cultural landscapes reflecting long-term interactions ...

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