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Selection: with tag modelling [at least 200 articles] 


Trends in extreme weather and climate events: issues related to modeling extremes in projections of future climate change

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 81, No. 3. (1 March 2000), pp. 427-436,<0427:tiewac>;2


Projections of statistical aspects of weather and climate extremes can be derived from climate models representing possible future climate states. Some of the recent models have reproduced results previously reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Second Assessment Report, such as a greater frequency of extreme warm days and lower frequency of extreme cold days associated with a warmer mean climate, a decrease in diurnal temperature range associated with higher nighttime temperatures, increased precipitation intensity, midcontinent summer drying, decreasing ...


Resampling methods for meta-model validation with recommendations for evolutionary computation

Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 20, No. 2. (16 February 2012), pp. 249-275,


Meta-modeling has become a crucial tool in solving expensive optimization problems. Much of the work in the past has focused on finding a good regression method to model the fitness function. Examples include classical linear regression, splines, neural networks, Kriging and support vector regression. This paper specifically draws attention to the fact that assessing model accuracy is a crucial aspect in the meta-modeling framework. Resampling strategies such as cross-validation, subsampling, bootstrapping, and nested resampling are prominent methods for model validation and ...


Combining multiple classifiers: an application using spatial and remotely sensed information for land cover type mapping

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 74, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 545-556,


This article discusses two new methods for increasing the accuracy of classifiers used land cover mapping. The first method, called the product rule, is a simple and general method of combining two or more classification rules as a single rule. Stacked regression methods of combining classification rules are discussed and compared to the product rule. The second method of increasing classifier accuracy is a simple nonparametric classifier that uses spatial information for classification. Two data sets used for land cover mapping ...


Bagging ensemble selection for regression

In AI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7691 (2012), pp. 695-706,


Bagging ensemble selection (BES) is a relatively new ensemble learning strategy. The strategy can be seen as an ensemble of the ensemble selection from libraries of models (ES) strategy. Previous experimental results on binary classification problems have shown that using random trees as base classifiers, BES-OOB (the most successful variant of BES) is competitive with (and in many cases, superior to) other ensemble learning strategies, for instance, the original ES algorithm, stacking with linear regression, random forests or boosting. Motivated by ...


Bagging ensemble selection

In AI 2011: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7106 (2011), pp. 251-260,


Ensemble selection has recently appeared as a popular ensemble learning method, not only because its implementation is fairly straightforward, but also due to its excellent predictive performance on practical problems. The method has been highlighted in winning solutions of many data mining competitions, such as the Netflix competition, the KDD Cup 2009 and 2010, the UCSD FICO contest 2010, and a number of data mining competitions on the Kaggle platform. In this paper we present a novel variant: bagging ensemble selection. ...


Simulating geographic transport network expansion through individual investments

In Spatial data analyses of urban land use and accessibility (2016), pp. 93-133


This chapter introduces a GIS-based model that simulates the geographical expansion of transport networks by several decision makers with varying objectives. The model progressively adds extensions to a growing network by choosing the most attractive investments from a limited choice set. Attractiveness is defined as a function of variables in which revenue and broader societal benefits may play a role and can be based on empirically underpinned parameters that may differ according to private or public interests. The choice set is selected from an exhaustive set of ...


  1. Alonso, W., 1978. A theory of movements. In: Hansen, N.M. (Ed.), Human settlement systems: International perspectives on structure, change and public policy. Cambridge, MA. Ballinger, pp. 197–211.
  2. Anshelevich, E., Dasgupta, A., Tardos, E., Wexler, T., 2003. Near-optimal network design with selfish agents. In: Proceedings of the thirty-fifth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing, San Diego, June 9-11, 2003. ACM, pp. 511–520.
  3. Bala, V., Goyal, S., 2000. A noncooperative model of

Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: a case study in South-eastern Spain

Geomorphology, Vol. 232 (March 2015), pp. 117-124,


[Highlights] [::] A method to identify most vulnerable areas towards soil erosion has been proposed. [::] Slope steepness, aspect and fire severity were the inputs. [::] The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs. [::] North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest. [Abstract] Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to ...


New temperature-based models for predicting global solar radiation

Applied Energy, Vol. 179 (October 2016), pp. 437-450,


[Highlights] [::] New temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation are investigated. [::] The models are validated against 20-years measured data of global solar radiation. [::] The new temperature-based model shows the best performance for coastal sites. [::] The new temperature-based model is more accurate than the sunshine-based models. [::] The new model is highly applicable with weather temperature forecast techniques. [Abstract] This study presents new ambient-temperature-based models for estimating global solar radiation as alternatives to the widely used sunshine-based models owing to the unavailability of sunshine data at ...


Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

Regional Environmental Change (2015), pp. 1-18,


Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as ...


Linking plant strategies and plant traits derived by radiative transfer modelling

Journal of Vegetation Science (12 April 2017),


[Question] Do spatial gradients of plant strategies correspond to patterns of plant traits obtained from a physically based model and hyperspectral imagery? It has previously been shown that reflectance can be used to map plant strategies according to the established CSR scheme. So far, these approaches have been based on empirical links and lacked transferability. Therefore, we test if physically based derivations of plant traits may help in finding gradients in traits that are linked to strategies. [Location] A raised bog and minerotrophic fen ...


Building Rothermel fire behaviour fuel models by genetic algorithm optimisation

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 24, No. 3. (2015), 317,


A method to build and calibrate custom fuel models was developed by linking genetic algorithms (GA) to the Rothermel fire spread model. GA randomly generates solutions of fuel model parameters to form an initial population. Solutions are validated against observations of fire rate of spread via a goodness-of-fit metric. The population is selected for its best members, crossed over and mutated within a range of model parameter values, until a satisfactory fitness is reached. We showed that GA improved the performance ...


Building confidence in climate model projections: an analysis of inferences from fit

WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 8, No. 3. (1 May 2017), n/a,


Climate model projections are used to inform policy decisions and constitute a major focus of climate research. Confidence in climate projections relies on the adequacy of climate models for those projections. The question of how to argue for the adequacy of models for climate projections has not gotten sufficient attention in the climate modeling community. The most common way to evaluate a climate model is to assess in a quantitative way degrees of ‘model fit’; that is, how well model results ...


Detecting long-range correlations with detrended fluctuation analysis

Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Vol. 295, No. 3-4. (June 2001), pp. 441-454,


We examine the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is a well-established method for the detection of long-range correlations in time series. We show that deviations from scaling which appear at small time scales become stronger in higher orders of DFA, and suggest a modified DFA method to remove them. The improvement is necessary especially for short records that are affected by non-stationarities. Furthermore, we describe how crossovers in the correlation behavior can be detected reliably and determined quantitatively and show how ...


Statistical significance of seasonal warming/cooling trends

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 15. (11 April 2017), pp. E2998-E3003,


[Significance] The question whether a seasonal climatic trend (e.g., the increase of spring temperatures in Antarctica in the last decades) is of anthropogenic or natural origin is of great importance because seasonal climatic trends may considerably affect ecological systems, agricultural yields, and human societies. Previous studies assumed that the seasonal records can be treated as independent and are characterized by short-term memory only. Here we show that both assumptions, which may lead to a considerable overestimation of the trend significance, do not ...


The ability of climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate change on species distributions

Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, No. 12. (1 December 2006), pp. 2272-2281,


Climate envelope models (CEMs) have been used to predict the distribution of species under current, past, and future climatic conditions by inferring a species' environmental requirements from localities where it is currently known to occur. CEMs can be evaluated for their ability to predict current species distributions but it is unclear whether models that are successful in predicting current distributions are equally successful in predicting distributions under different climates (i.e. different regions or time periods). We evaluated the ability of CEMs ...


Multi-dimensional weighted median: the module "wmedian" of the Mastrave modelling library

In Semantic Array Programming with Mastrave - Introduction to Semantic Computational Modelling (2012)


Weighted median (WM) filtering is a well known technique for dealing with noisy images and a variety of WM-based algorithms have been proposed as effective ways for reducing uncertainties or reconstructing degraded signals by means of available information with heterogeneous reliability. Here a generalized module for applying weighted median filtering to multi-dimensional arrays of information with associated multi-dimensional arrays of corresponding weights is presented. Weights may be associated to single elements or to groups of elements along given dimensions of the ...


Downscaling future climate scenarios to fine scales for hydrologic and ecological modeling and analysis

Ecological Processes In Ecological Processes, Vol. 1, No. 1. (2012), pp. 2-15,


[Introduction] Evaluating the environmental impacts of climate change on water resources and biological components of the landscape is an integral part of hydrologic and ecological investigations, and the resultant land and resource management in the twenty-first century. Impacts of both climate and simulated hydrologic parameters on ecological processes are relevant at scales that reflect the heterogeneity and complexity of landscapes. At present, simulations of climate change available from global climate models [GCMs] require downscaling for hydrologic or ecological applications. [Methods] Using statistically ...


Multivariate binary discrimination by the kernel method

Biometrika, Vol. 63, No. 3. (1 December 1976), pp. 413-420,


An extension of the kernel method of density estimation from continuous to multivariate binary spaces is described. Its simple nonparametric nature together with its consistency properties make it an attractive tool in discrimination problems, with some advantages over already proposed parametric counterparts. The method is illustrated by an application to a particular medical diagnostic problem. Simple extensions of the method to categorical data and to data of mixed binary and continuous form are indicated. ...


Framework for making better predictions by directly estimating variables’ predictivity

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 50. (13 December 2016), pp. 14277-14282,


[Significance] Good prediction, especially in the context of big data, is important. Common approaches to prediction include using a significance-based criterion for evaluating variables to use in models and evaluating variables and models simultaneously for prediction using cross-validation or independent test data. The first approach can lead to choosing less-predictive variables, because significance does not imply predictivity. The second approach can be improved through considering a variable’s predictivity as a parameter to be estimated. The literature currently lacks measures that do ...


Random forests

Machine Learning, Vol. 45, No. 1. (2001), pp. 5-32,


Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees in the forest becomes large. The generalization error of a forest of tree classifiers depends on the strength of the individual trees in the forest and the correlation between them. Using a random ...


Novel three-step pseudo-absence selection technique for improved species distribution modelling

PLOS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 8. (13 August 2013), e71218,


Pseudo-absence selection for spatial distribution models (SDMs) is the subject of ongoing investigation. Numerous techniques continue to be developed, and reports of their effectiveness vary. Because the quality of presence and absence data is key for acceptable accuracy of correlative SDM predictions, determining an appropriate method to characterise pseudo-absences for SDM’s is vital. The main methods that are currently used to generate pseudo-absence points are: 1) randomly generated pseudo-absence locations from background data; 2) pseudo-absence locations generated within a delimited geographical ...


Interpreting the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System

In Fourth Central Regional Fire Weather Committee Scientific and Technical Seminar, Proceedings (1987), pp. 3-14


[Excerpt] [::] A presentation made at the Fourth Central Region Fire Weather Committee Scientific and Technical Seminar, April 2, 1987, Winnipeg, Manitoba. [\n] Fire danger is defined by the Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management (Merrill and Alexander 1987) as: [::] A general term used to express an assessment of both fixed and variable factors of the fire environment which determine the ease of ignition, rate of spread, difficulty of control and fire impact. [\n] The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is the national system for ...


Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, No. 9. (23 May 2016), pp. 885-890,


Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios ...


Development and structure of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

Vol. 35 (1987)


The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System was first issued in 1970 after several years' work by a number of fire researchers in the Canadian Forestry Service. The best features of the former fire danger index were incorporated in the FWI, and a link was preserved between old and new. The FWI is based on the moisture content of three classes of forest fuel plus the effect of wind on fire behavior. The system consists of six components: three primary ...


Simple dynamical models capturing the key features of the Central Pacific El Niño

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11732-11737,


[Significance] The Central Pacific El Niño (CP El Niño) has been frequently observed in recent decades. The phenomenon is characterized by an anomalous warm sea surface temperature (SST) confined to the central Pacific and has different teleconnections from the traditional El Niño with major societal impact. Here, a simple modeling framework is developed and shown to capture the key mechanisms of the CP El Niño. In addition to the SST, other major characteristics of the CP El Niño such as the rising ...


Fire behaviour knowledge in Australia: a synthesis of disciplinary and stakeholder knowledge on fire spread prediction capability and application



[Executive summary] This project undertook a survey of the fire behaviour knowledge currently used by operational fire behaviour analysts (FBANs) in Australia and New Zealand for the purpose of predicting the behaviour and spread of bushfires. This included a review of the science, applicability and validation of current fire behaviour models, an examination of the fire perimeter propagation software currently being used by FBANs, and a survey of those FBANs to determine current work practices when carrying out fire behaviour predictions. ...


Analysis of the energetic flows through the SEBAL application to the assessment of the actual evapotranspiration in a Napa Valley vineyard California (USA)

In Clima e agricoltura: strategie di adattamento e mitigazione, Vol. 12 (June 2009), 56


The use of water resources is constantly growing in agriculture industry and the reduction of the this resource is due by both anthropogenic and climate factors. Under this perspective it is necessary to develop monitoring systems able to forecast the consumption of water. The knowledge of the actual water demand of a crop is therefore strategic for the rational use of resources and to improve the quality of the crop production. Recent applications of remote sensing in agriculture provide a valuable contribution to release this purpose, besides the integration of remotely sensed ...


Comparison between energy balance and mass balance models for actual evapotranspiration assessment

In Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XI, Vol. 7472 (2009), 747212,


The assessment of the water needs for a specific crop has a fundamental importance in the management of water resources. The application of empirical models able to retrieve estimates of the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to assess the need for water could give a valid tool for the planning of water supply, avoiding unnecessary water losses. In this context, two independent models for estimating actual evapotranspiration were compared. The first model is based on an energy balance and uses remotely sensed data ...


Modeling airborne laser scanning data for the spatial generation of critical forest parameters in fire behavior modeling

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 86, No. 2. (30 July 2003), pp. 177-186,


Methods for using airborne laser scanning (also called airborne LIDAR) to retrieve forest parameters that are critical for fire behavior modeling are presented. A model for the automatic extraction of forest information is demonstrated to provide spatial coverage of the study area, making it possible to produce 3-D inputs to improve fire behavior models. [\n] The Toposys I airborne laser system recorded the last return of each footprint (0.30–0.38 m) over a 2000 m by 190 m flight line. Raw data ...


Why doesn't your model pass information to mine?

In Workshop on Digital Mapping Techniques 2009 (2009)


For several decades geologists have been making three-dimensional (3D) models. Various proprietary and open software tools have been developed which allow geoscientists to produce reasonable 3D representation of the geological system that they are studying. The model they produce is quite often an ‘island’ of independent information. For a long time this didn't matter as there were so few models that there were unlikely to be any adjacent models forming islands in the same sea area. However, that is changing, the ...


Comparison of model predictions with measurements: a novel model-assessment method

Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 99, No. 6. (June 2016), pp. 4907-4927,


Frequently, scientific findings are aggregated using mathematical models. Because models are simplifications of the complex reality, it is necessary to assess whether they capture the relevant features of reality for a given application. An ideal assessment method should (1) account for the stochastic nature of observations and model predictions, (2) set a correct null hypothesis, (3) treat model predictions and observations interchangeably, and (4) provide quantitatively interpretable statistics relative to precision and accuracy. Current assessment methods show deficiencies in regards to ...


Advances in mapping malaria for elimination: fine resolution modelling of Plasmodium falciparum incidence

Scientific Reports, Vol. 6 (13 July 2016), 29628,


The long-term goal of the global effort to tackle malaria is national and regional elimination and eventually eradication. Fine scale multi-temporal mapping in low malaria transmission settings remains a challenge and the World Health Organisation propose use of surveillance in elimination settings. Here, we show how malaria incidence can be modelled at a fine spatial and temporal resolution from health facility data to help focus surveillance and control to population not attending health facilities. Using Namibia as a case study, we ...


Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats

Biological Conservation, Vol. 55, No. 1. (1991), pp. 77-92,


We propose a protocol for assessing the ecological impacts of edge effects in fragments of natural habitat surrounded by induced (artificial) edges. The protocol involves three steps: (1) identification of focal taxa of particular conservation or management interest, (2) measurement of an ‘edge function’ that describes the response of these taxa to induced edges, and (3) use of a ‘Core-Area Model’ to extrapolate edge function parameters to existing or novel situations. The Core-Area Model accurately estimates the total area of pristine ...


The future of the Brazilian Amazon

Science, Vol. 291, No. 5503. (19 January 2001), pp. 438-439,


The Brazilian Amazon is currently experiencing the world's highest absolute rate of forest destruction and is likely to suffer even greater degradation in the future because of government plans to invest $40 billion from 2000 to 2007 in dozens of major new highways and infrastructure projects. We developed two computer models that integrate spatial data on deforestation, logging, mining, highways and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wildfires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the ...


Improving the assessment and reporting on rare and endangered species through species distribution models

Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 2 (December 2014), pp. 226-237,


Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to understand rare and endangered species distributions, as well as the environmental pressures affecting them. Detailed knowledge of their distribution is critical for reporting its conservation status, and SDMs are potential tools to provide the relevant information to conservation practitioners. In this study, we modeled the distribution of Veronica micrantha, a vulnerable plant whose conservation status has to be periodically assessed under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. [\n] The objective was to highlight the ...


Solar radiation and forest fuel moisture

Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 67, No. 4. (1943), pp. 149-176


A major contribution to progress in forest fire prevention and control during the past 10 years has been the development and widespread application of methods of rating forest fire danger. Fire danger rating systems are now in use in all the forest regions of the United States. They have been described by Gisborne, Brown and Davis, Curry et al., Matthews, Jemison, and others. Under each of these systems the major factors affecting fire danger are measured and the measurements are integrated ...


Natural and anthropogenic drivers of calcium depletion in a northern forest during the last millennium

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6934-6938,


[Significance] This research breaks new ground by showing that, contrary to generally accepted theories of ecosystem development, calcium depletion has been occurring for millennia as a natural consequence of long-term ecosystem development. This natural process predisposed forest ecosystems in the region to detrimental responses to acid rain in the 20th century. We also show that nitrogen availability was increasing concurrently with the depletion of calcium. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to reconstruct continuous changes in nutrient availability for a ...


Effects of incorporating spatial autocorrelation into the analysis of species distribution data

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 16, No. 2. (March 2007), pp. 129-138,


[Aim]  Spatial autocorrelation (SAC) in data, i.e. the higher similarity of closer samples, is a common phenomenon in ecology. SAC is starting to be considered in the analysis of species distribution data, and over the last 10 years several studies have incorporated SAC into statistical models (here termed ‘spatial models’). Here, I address the question of whether incorporating SAC affects estimates of model coefficients and inference from statistical models. [Methods]  I review ecological studies that compare spatial and non-spatial models. [Results]  In all ...


Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 14, No. 1. (1 January 2005), pp. 17-30,


[Aim] One of the limitations to using species’ distribution atlases in conservation planning is their coarse resolution relative to the needs of local planners. In this study, a simple approach to downscale original species atlas distributions to a finer resolution is outlined. If such a procedure yielded accurate downscaled predictions, then it could be an aid to using available distribution atlases in real-world local conservation decisions. [Location]  Europe. [Methods]  An iterative procedure based on generalized additive modelling is used to downscale original ...


The status and challenge of global fire modelling

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 11. (09 June 2016), pp. 3359-3375,


Biomass burning impacts vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and climate, with sometimes deleterious socio-economic impacts. Under future climate projections it is often expected that the risk of wildfires will increase. Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes, using either well-founded empirical relationships or process-based models with good predictive skill. While a large variety of models exist today, it is still unclear which type of model or ...


SESAM - a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 38, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 1433-1444,


Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts with constituent species to approximate the properties of assemblages. Here, we propose to unify the two approaches in a single ‘spatially explicit species assemblage modelling’ (SESAM) framework. This framework uses relevant designations of initial species source pools for modelling, macroecological variables, and ecological assembly rules to constrain predictions of the richness and composition ...


Stacking species distribution models and adjusting bias by linking them to macroecological models

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 1. (1 January 2014), pp. 99-112,


[Aim] Species distribution models (SDMs) are common tools in biogeography and conservation ecology. It has been repeatedly claimed that aggregated (stacked) SDMs (S-SDMs) will overestimate species richness. One recently suggested solution to this problem is to use macroecological models of species richness to constrain S-SDMs. Here, we examine current practice in the development of S-SDMs to identify methodological problems, provide tools to overcome these issues, and quantify the performance of correctly stacked S-SDMs alongside macroecological models. [Locations] Barents Sea, Europe and Dutch Wadden Sea. [Methods] We present formal mathematical arguments demonstrating how S-SDMs should ...


A global 1-km consensus land-cover product for biodiversity and ecosystem modelling

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 9. (1 September 2014), pp. 1031-1045,


[Aim] For many applications in biodiversity and ecology, existing remote sensing-derived land-cover products have limitations due to among-product inconsistency and their typically non-continuous nature. Here we aim to help address these shortcomings by generating a 1-km resolution global product that provides scale-integrated and accuracy-weighted consensus land-cover information on an approximately continuous scale. [Location] Global. [Methods] Using a generalized classification scheme and an accuracy-based integration approach, we integrated four global land-cover products. We evaluated the performance of this product compared with inputs for estimating subpixel 30-m resolution ...


Species-area and species-sampling effort relationships: disentangling the effects

Ecography, Vol. 34, No. 1. (February 2011), pp. 18-30,


Species numbers tend to increase with both the area surveyed (species–area relationship, SAR) and the number of samples taken (species–sampling effort relationship, SSER). These two relationships differ in their nature and underlying mechanisms but are not clearly distinguished in field studies. To discriminate the effects of area (spatial extent) and sampling effort (SE) on species richness, several models explicitly involving both variables were proposed and tested against 13 datasets from marine micro-, meio- and macrobenthos. A combination of power SSER and ...


Modelling as a discipline

International Journal of General Systems, Vol. 30, No. 3. (1 January 2001), pp. 261-282,


Modelling is an essential and inseparable part of all scientific, and indeed all intellectual, activity. How then can we treat it as a separate discipline? The answer is that the professional modeller brings special skills and techniques to bear in order to produce results that are insightful, reliable, and useful. Many of these techniques can be taught formally, such as sophisticated statistical methods, computer simulation, systems identification, and sensitivity analysis. These are valuable tools, but they are not as important as ...


Equations and FORTRAN program for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

Vol. 33 (1985)


Improved official equations are presented for the 1984 version of the Canadian Forest Fires Weather Index System. The most recent mathematical refinements serve to further rationalize the Fine Fuel Moisture Code and render it more compatible with other developments in the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. The effect of these changes is so slight that no problems are anticipated in converting from the previous version to this new one. Also given is a FORTRAN program intended as a standard for ...


Tales of future weather

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, No. 2. (28 January 2015), pp. 107-113,


Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 21

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   mating-pattern   matlab   matsucoccus-feytaudi   mattesia-schwenkei   mature-forest   mauritia-flexuosa   maxent   mcpfe   meadow   meadows   mechanical-testing   mechanics   mechanistic-approach   medetera-signaticornis   median   mediawiki   medicago-arborea   medical-herb   medicinal-plants   mediterranean-pines   mediterranean-region   medium-resolution   megastigmus-brevicaudis   megastigmus-spp   megastigmus-wachtli   melaleuca-quinquenervia   melampsora   melampsora-larici-populina   melanophila-picta   melia-azedarach   melia-spp   melting-acceleration   memory   mercurialis-perennis   mercury   mersenne-twister   mesoamerica   mesophilous   mesophytic-species   mespilus-germanica   messerschmidia-argentea   meta-analysis   metadata   metadata-mining   metaknowledge   metaprogramming   metasequoia-glyptostroboides   meteorology   methane   methods   metopium-toxiferum   metrology   metrosideros-polymorpha   mexico   mic   micology   microalgae   microclimate   microsatellite   microsite   microsoft-academic-search   mid-holocene   middle-east   migration   migration-history   migration-rate   milicia-excelsa   millennium-ecosystem-assessment   milliferous-plant   min-max   mineralization   minimal-predicted-area   miocene   miridae   missing-full-author-list   mistletoe   mitigation   mitochondrial-dna   mixed-forest   mixed-models   mixed-species-stand   mobile-communication   mode   model   model-assessment   model-comparison   model-drift   modelling   modelling-uncertainty   modelling-vs-management   moderate-floods   modern-analogue   modis   modularization   moist-convection   molinia-caerulea   monetarisation   mongolia  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Insurance in a climate of change

Science, Vol. 309, No. 5737. (2005), pp. 1040-1044,


Catastrophe insurance provides peace of mind and financial security. Climate change can have adverse impacts on insurance affordability and availability, potentially slowing the growth of the industry and shifting more of the burden to governments and individuals. Most forms of insurance are vulnerable, including property, liability, health, and life. It is incumbent on insurers, their regulators, and the policy community to develop a better grasp of the physical and business risks. Insurers are well positioned to participate in public-private initiatives to ...


Infants ask for help when they know they don’t know

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 13. (29 March 2016), pp. 3492-3496,


[Significance] Although many animals have been shown to monitor their own uncertainty, only humans seem to have the ability to explicitly communicate their uncertainty to others. It remains unknown whether this ability is present early in development, or whether it only emerges later alongside language development. Here, using a nonverbal memory-monitoring paradigm, we show that infants are able to strategically ask for help to avoid making mistakes. These findings reveal that infants are capable of monitoring and communicating their own uncertainty. We ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.