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Selection: with tag mitigation [79 articles] 

 

Effects of network modularity on the spread of perturbation impact in experimental metapopulations

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6347. (14 July 2017), pp. 199-201, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal4122

Abstract

[Modularity limits disturbance effects] The networks that form natural, social, and technological systems are vulnerable to the spreading impacts of perturbations. Theory predicts that networks with a clustered or modular structure—where nodes within a module interact more frequently than they do with nodes in other modules—might contain a perturbation, preventing it from spreading to the entire network. Gilarranz et al. conducted experiments with networked populations of springtail (Folsomia candida) microarthropods to show that modularity limits the impact of a local extinction on ...

 

Piano regionale di previsione, prevenzione e lotta attiva contro gli incendi boschivi 2011-2013 - Revisione 2013

  
(2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [:(Original language): Introduzione e quadro normativo] Il Piano Regionale Antincendi (P.R.AI.) è redatto in conformità a quanto sancito dalla legge quadro nazionale in materia di incendi boschivi (legge n. 353/2000) e alle relative linee guida emanate dal Ministro Delegato per il Coordinamento della Protezione Civile (D.M. 20 dicembre 2001). In attesa di una normativa regionale di recepimento, la materia è disciplinata, anche in Sardegna, dalla citata legge quadro n. 353/2000. [\n] Il Piano è volto a programmare e coordinare l’attività antincendio degli Enti Pubblici e di ...

 

Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

  
Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1727

Abstract

[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...

 

At the nexus of fire, water and society

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0172

Abstract

The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...

 

Stressing mental health

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), pp. 878-878, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.356.6340.878

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Stress is an ingrained and unavoidable aspect of scientific practice. In some unfortunate cases, lab culture can make it worse. In many others, however, it is simply the nature of research. Deadlines, tight funding, and the pressure to “publish or perish” all create chronic stress. There is no avoiding these issues. [...] Personally, I realized that self-imposed deadlines and goals created much of the stress I was feeling, and that tempering my expectations was an easy way to reduce ...

 

A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 12. (01 December 2016), 124013, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124013

Abstract

We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement ...

 

Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe

  
Ecography, Vol. 27, No. 3. (June 2004), pp. 366-380, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2004.03823.x

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible consequences of climate change on a representative sample of forest herbs in Europe. A fuzzy climatic envelope was used to predict the location of suitable climatic conditions under two climatic change scenarios. Expected consequences in terms of lost and gained range size and shift in distribution for 26 forest herbs were estimated. These results were combined in an Index of Predicted Range Change for each species. Finally, the effects of habitat ...

 

Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy

  
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 187, No. 1. (2014), pp. 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4175-x

Abstract

In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame ...

 

Landscape - wildfire interactions in southern Europe: Implications for landscape management

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 92, No. 10. (October 2011), pp. 2389-2402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.028

Abstract

[Abstract] Every year approximately half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires in southern Europe, causing large ecological and socio-economic impacts. Climate and land use changes in the last decades have increased fire risk and danger. In this paper we review the available scientific knowledge on the relationships between landscape and wildfires in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on its application for defining landscape management guidelines and policies that could be adopted in order to promote landscapes with ...

 

Dam-building threatens Mekong fisheries

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1084-1085, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.354.6316.1084

Abstract

[Excerpt] Every April, the pa nyawn catfish would make their way up the Mekong River to spawn, crowding through a narrow channel that skirts Khone Falls in southern Laos. Villagers netted the thumb-sized fish by the hundreds of thousands. Then, in 2014, work started on Don Sahong Dam, which straddles the channel. Although the dam won't be completed for another 2 years, construction has already cut off the migration and destroyed the fishing sites, says Zeb Hogan, a biologist with the ...

 

Introduced or native tree species to maintain forest ecosystem services in a hotter and drier future?

  
In Introduced tree species in European forests: opportunities and challenges (2016), pp. 236-246

Abstract

[Excerpt] Climate change might profoundly alter patterns and processes in forest ecosystems that have consequences on the biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and productivity (e.g. Lindner et al. 2014). Temperature- and drought-related changes have been identified as important triggers of forest decline and vegetation shifts worldwide (Allen et al. 2010). In Europe, several native tree species such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are showing increased sensitivities to recent increases in temperature and extreme droughts resulting ...

References

  1. Allen, C.D., Macalady, A., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Gonzales, P., Hogg, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D.D., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Kitzberger, T., Lim, J.-H., Castro, J., Allard, G., Running, S.W., Semerci, A., Cobb, N., 2010. A global overview of drought and heat-induced mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 660–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.001 .
  2. Allen, C.D., Breshears, D.D., McDowell, N.G., 2015. On underestimation of global vulnerability
 

Health impacts of wildfires

  

Abstract

[Introduction] Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of ...

 

Adapting to climate change

  
In Climate Change and United States Forests, Vol. 57 (2014), pp. 183-222, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7515-2_8

Abstract

Federal agencies have led the development of adaptation principles and tools in forest ecosystems over the past decade. Successful adaptation efforts generally require organizations to: (1) develop science-management partnerships, (2) provide education on climate change science, (3) provide a toolkit of methods and processes for vulnerability assessment and adaptation, (4) use multiple models to generate projections of climate change effects, (5) incorporate risk and uncertainty, (6) integrate with multiple management objectives, (7) prioritize no-regrets decision making, (8) support flexibility and adaptive ...

 

Welcome to postnormal times

  
Futures, Vol. 42, No. 5. (20 June 2010), pp. 435-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2009.11.028

Abstract

All that was ‘normal’ has now evaporated; we have entered postnormal times, the in-between period where old orthodoxies are dying, new ones have not yet emerged, and nothing really makes sense. To have any notion of a viable future, we must grasp the significance of this period of transition which is characterised by three c's: complexity, chaos and contradictions. These forces propel and sustain postnormal times leading to uncertainty and different types of ignorance that make decision-making problematic and increase risks ...

 

Darcy's law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, No. 7. (18 May 2015), pp. 669-672, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2641

Abstract

Nature Climate Change | Letter Print Share/bookmark Darcy's law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming Nathan G. McDowell & Craig D. Allen Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author Nature Climate Change 5, 669–672 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2641 Received 23 July 2014 Accepted 07 April ...

 

The challenge to keep global warming below 2 °C

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 1. (2 December 2012), pp. 4-6, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1783

Abstract

The latest carbon dioxide emissions continue to track the high end of emission scenarios, making it even less likely global warming will stay below 2 °C. A shift to a 2 °C pathway requires immediate significant and sustained global mitigation, with a probable reliance on net negative emissions in the longer term. ...

 

Changing the resilience paradigm

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 6. (28 May 2014), pp. 407-409, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2227

Abstract

Resilience management goes beyond risk management to address the complexities of large integrated systems and the uncertainty of future threats, especially those associated with climate change. [Excerpt] In summary, risk analysis and risk management based on probabilistic quantitative methods have been widely adopted and have been useful for dealing with foreseeable and calculable stress situations. Benchmarks and thresholds for risk analysis are built into the regulations and policies of organizations and nations; however, this approach is no longer sufficient to address the ...

 

Repression of competition and the evolution of cooperation

  
Evolution, Vol. 57, No. 4. (April 2003), pp. 693-705, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00283.x

Abstract

Repression of competition within groups joins kin selection as the second major force in the history of life shaping the evolution of cooperation. When opportunities for competition against neighbors are limited within groups, individuals can increase their own success only by enhancing the efficiency and productivity of their group. Thus, characters that repress competition within groups promote cooperation and enhance group success. Leigh first expressed this idea in the context of fair meiosis, in which each chromosome has an equal chance ...

 

How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 36. (06 September 2016), pp. 10215-10220, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1611826113

Abstract

[Significance] Competitive tendencies may make it hard for members of a group to cooperate with each other. Humans use many different “enforcement” strategies to keep competition in check and favor cooperation. To test whether one of our closest relatives uses similar strategies, we gave a group of chimpanzees a cooperative problem that required joint action by two or three individuals. The open-group set-up allowed the chimpanzees a choice between cooperation and competitive behavior like freeloading. The chimpanzees used a combination of partner ...

 

A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2016

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 31, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 44-53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.11.007

Abstract

This paper presents the results of our seventh annual horizon scan, in which we aimed to identify issues that could have substantial effects on global biological diversity in the future, but are not currently widely well known or understood within the conservation community. Fifteen issues were identified by a team that included researchers, practitioners, professional horizon scanners, and journalists. The topics include use of managed bees as transporters of biological control agents, artificial superintelligence, electric pulse trawling, testosterone in the aquatic ...

 

Curbing an onslaught of 2 billion cars

  
(2016)

Abstract

Nature could soon be imperiled by twice as many vehicles and enough new roads to encircle the planet more than 600 times. [Excerpt] By 2010, our planet had reached a remarkable milestone: one billion cars—or, to be precise, one billion motorized vehicles, including cars, trucks, buses, and motorcycles but excluding off-road vehicles such as tractors and bulldozers. Of course, the overwhelming majority of these vehicles are powered by fossil fuels. And if that figure isn’t troubling enough, by 2030, it’s projected that ...

 

GECO 2015 - Global energy and climate outlook: road to Paris

  
Vol. EUR 27239 EN (2015), https://doi.org/10.2791/198028

Abstract

This report presents the modelling work quoted in the EC communication "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020" in the EU's Energy Union package. It examines the effects of a Baseline scenario where current trends continue beyond 2020, and of a Global Mitigation scenario in line with keeping global warming below 2°C. The analysis uses the POLES and GEM-E3 models in a framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change. In the Baseline, ...

References

  1. Arezki, R., Blanchard, O., 2014. Seven Questions about the Recent Oil Price Slump. http://blog-imfdirect.imf.org/2014/12/22/seven-questions-about-the-recent-oil-price-slump .
  2. AR5 database, 2015. IPCC Assessment Report 5 database. https://secure.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/ene/AR5DB/dsd?Action=htmlpage&page=welcome .
  3. Assunção, J., Gandour, C., Rocha, R., 2015. Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?. Environment and Development Economics, available on CJO2015. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X15000078 .
  4. BGR (German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) 2013. Energy Study 2013.
 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 21

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   mating-pattern   matlab   matsucoccus-feytaudi   mattesia-schwenkei   mature-forest   mauritia-flexuosa   maxent   mcpfe   meadow   meadows   mechanical-testing   mechanics   mechanistic-approach   medetera-signaticornis   median   mediawiki   medicago-arborea   medical-herb   medicinal-plants   mediterranean-pines   mediterranean-region   medium-resolution   megastigmus-brevicaudis   megastigmus-spp   megastigmus-wachtli   melaleuca-quinquenervia   melampsora   melampsora-larici-populina   melanophila-picta   melia-azedarach   melia-spp   melting-acceleration   memory   mercurialis-perennis   mercury   mersenne-twister   mesoamerica   mesophilous   mesophytic-species   mespilus-germanica   messerschmidia-argentea   meta-analysis   metadata   metadata-mining   metaknowledge   metaprogramming   metasequoia-glyptostroboides   meteorology   methane   methods   metopium-toxiferum   metrology   metrosideros-polymorpha   mexico   mic   micology   microalgae   microclimate   microsatellite   microsite   microsoft-academic-search   mid-holocene   middle-east   migration   migration-history   migration-rate   milicia-excelsa   millennium-ecosystem-assessment   milliferous-plant   min-max   mineralization   minimal-predicted-area   miocene   miridae   missing-full-author-list   mistletoe   mitigation   mitochondrial-dna   mixed-forest   mixed-models   mixed-species-stand   mobile-communication   mode   model   model-assessment   model-comparison   model-drift   modelling   modelling-uncertainty   modelling-vs-management   moderate-floods   modern-analogue   modis   modularization   moist-convection   molinia-caerulea   monetarisation   mongolia  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Climate change impacts on global food security

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6145. (2013), pp. 508-513, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402

Abstract

Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable ...

 

Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security

  
Science, Vol. 335, No. 6065. (2012), pp. 183-189, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1210026

Abstract

Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC) contribute to both degraded air quality and global warming. We considered ~400 emission control measures to reduce these pollutants by using current technology and experience. We identified 14 measures targeting methane and BC emissions that reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C by 2050. This strategy avoids 0.7 to 4.7 million annual premature deaths from outdoor air pollution and increases annual crop yields by 30 to 135 million metric tons due to ozone reductions in 2030 ...

 

Working with four villages to end soil erosion in an entire river basin

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt] The entire catchment area of a river and its tributaries is a large, complex, interaction of ecosystems. In Albania, the Drini River basin is a Key Biodiversity Area that provides multiple services to the inhabitants of northern Albania. But currently rain is washing bare soil away into the river, and all of the beneficial ecosystem services along with it – like nutrients to provide crop fertility, water storage by forests, fresh water filtration and flood protection. [Soil erosion is a big problem ...

 

Reframing ecosystem management in the era of climate change: issues and knowledge from forests

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 165 (September 2013), pp. 115-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.05.020

Abstract

We discuss “ecosystem management (EM)” to face contemporary climate change issues. EM focuses on sustaining ecosystems to meet both ecological and human needs. EM plans have been largely developed independent of concerns about climate change. However, EM is potentially effective for climate change mitigation and adaptation. We provide the principle guidelines based on EM to adaptively tackle the issues. Climate change is one of the significant concerns in land and resource management, creating an urgent need to build social–ecological capacity to ...

 

Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty

  
Ecological Applications, Vol. 17, No. 8. (December 2007), pp. 2145-2151, https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1715.1

Abstract

We offer a conceptual framework for managing forested ecosystems under an assumption that future environments will be different from present but that we cannot be certain about the specifics of change. We encourage flexible approaches that promote reversible and incremental steps, and that favor ongoing learning and capacity to modify direction as situations change. We suggest that no single solution fits all future challenges, especially in the context of changing climates, and that the best strategy is to mix different approaches ...

 

The true loss caused by biodiversity offsets

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 192 (December 2015), pp. 552-559, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.016

Abstract

Biodiversity offsets aim to achieve a “no-net-loss” of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services due to development. The “no-net-less” objective assumes that the multi-dimensional values of biodiversity in complex ecosystems can be isolated from their spatial, evolutionary, historical, social, and moral context. We examine the irreplaceability of ecosystems, the limits of restoration, and the environmental values that claim to be compensated through ecosystem restoration. We discuss multiple ecological, instrumental, and non-instrumental values of ecosystems that should be considered in offsetting calculations. Considering ...

 

Planted forests and water in perspective

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 251, No. 1-2. (October 2007), pp. 1-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.06.010

Abstract

Afforestation is increasingly considered as a land use activity that threatens water resources security. At the same time, it is advocated for a wide range of other water-related benefits. We review the contributions to this special issue and the wider literature, intended as a contribution towards a framework for predicting the impact on water resources and other water-related issues of afforestation in agricultural landscapes. Current evidence suggests that afforestation will typically reduce local average water yield as well as low flows. ...

 

Soil characteristics and landcover relationships on soil hydraulic conductivity at a hillslope scale: a view towards local flood management

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 497 (August 2013), pp. 208-222, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.05.043

Abstract

We evaluate woodland/grassland cover and soil types to reduce local flooding. We measured field saturated hydraulic conductivity under grassland and woodland. Established broadleaf woodland had significantly higher infiltration rates than grassland. 1 in 10 year storm events would cause infiltration-excess overland flow on grassland. We suggest deciduous shelterbelts upslope could locally reduce overland flow. There are surprisingly few studies in humid temperate forests which provide reliable evidence that soil permeability is enhanced under forests. This work addresses this research gap through a ...

 

Enviro-Net: from networks of ground-based sensor systems to a web platform for sensor data management

  
Sensors, Vol. 11, No. 6. (17 June 2011), pp. 6454-6479, https://doi.org/10.3390/s110606454

Abstract

Ecosystems monitoring is essential to properly understand their development and the effects of events, both climatological and anthropological in nature. The amount of data used in these assessments is increasing at very high rates. This is due to increasing availability of sensing systems and the development of new techniques to analyze sensor data. The Enviro-Net Project encompasses several of such sensor system deployments across five countries in the Americas. These deployments use a few different ground-based sensor systems, installed at different ...

 

Technical note: comparing and ranking soil drought indices performance over Europe, through remote-sensing of vegetation

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 2. (12 February 2010), pp. 271-277, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-271-2010

Abstract

In the past years there have been many attempts to produce and improve global soil-moisture datasets and drought indices. However, comparing and validating these various datasets is not straightforward. Here, interannual variations in drought indices are compared to interannual changes in vegetation, as captured by NDVI. By comparing the correlations of the different indices with NDVI we evaluated which drought index describes most realistically the actual changes in vegetation. Strong correlation between NDVI and the drought indices were found in areas ...

 

Response of vegetation to the 2003 European drought was mitigated by height

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 11, No. 11. (4 June 2014), pp. 2897-2908, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-2897-2014

Abstract

The effects on climate of land-cover change, predominantly from the conversion of forests to crops or grassland, are reasonably well understood for low and high latitudes but are largely unknown for temperate latitudes. The main reason for this gap in our knowledge is that there are compensating effects on the energy and water balance that are related to changes in land-surface albedo, soil evaporation and plant transpiration. We analyse how vegetation height affected the response of vegetation during the 2003 European ...

 

Debris-flow mitigation measures

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 445-487, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_18

Abstract

[Excerpt] Integrated risk management is a tool to prevent, intervent, and avoid natural hazards (Amman, 2001). This includes a combination of land use planning and technical and bioengineering measures to guarantee an optimal cost-benefit ratio. An essential aspect of risk management is the design of mitigation measures which reduce the existing risk to an accepted level of residual risk. Two types of mitigation measures can be distinguished (Zollinger, 1985): active measures and passive measures. Active measures focus on the hazard, while passive measures focus on the potential damage (Huebl ...

 

The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture - IOPscience

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2013), 015009, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015009

Abstract

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the ...

Visual summary

 

Tackle climate change in Europe

  
In MEPs' Action Plans for a One Planet Europe (2014)

Abstract

[Excerpt] In order to give certainty to investors and a clear position for international negotiations, the EU is developing a new framework of climate and energy laws for 2030. The recent European Parliament own-initiative report on the 2030 climate and energy targets goes further than the agreement reached by the European Council. A major weakness of the Commission’s assessment of the impact of decarbonisation is that it considers only costs, and fail to account for the benefits of climate and energy policies. WWF believes it is not ...

References

  1. DG for Climate Action, 2013. Special Eurobarometer 409 - Climate change. (pp.45-48). TNS Opinion and Social, European Commission, Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb_special_419_400_en.htm#409
  2. European Commission, 2014. Commission staff working document impact assessment: Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 up to 2030. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52014SC0015
 

Planted forest health: The need for a global strategy

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 832-836, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac6674

Abstract

Several key tree genera are used in planted forests worldwide, and these represent valuable global resources. Planted forests are increasingly threatened by insects and microbial pathogens, which are introduced accidentally and/or have adapted to new host trees. Globalization has hastened tree pest emergence, despite a growing awareness of the problem, improved understanding of the costs, and an increased focus on the importance of quarantine. To protect the value and potential of planted forests, innovative solutions and a better-coordinated global approach are ...

 

Eluding catastrophic shifts

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 15. (14 April 2015), pp. E1828-E1836, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1414708112

Abstract

[Significance] Catastrophic shifts such as desertification processes, massive extinctions, or stock market collapses are ubiquitous threats in nature and society. In these events, there is a shift from one steady state to a radically different one, from which recovery is exceedingly difficult. Thus, there is a huge interest in predicting and eventually preventing catastrophic shifts. Here we explore the influence of key mechanisms such as demographic fluctuations, heterogeneity, and diffusion, which appear generically in real circumstances. The mechanisms we study could ideally ...

 

Edge geometry influences patch-level habitat use by an edge specialist in south-eastern Australia

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4. (2008), pp. 377-389, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9196-9

Abstract

We investigated patterns in habitat use by the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) along farmland-woodland edges of large patches of remnant vegetation (>300 ha) in the highly fragmented box-ironbark woodlands and forests of central Victoria, Australia. Noisy miners exclude small birds from their territories, and are considered a significant threat to woodland bird communities in the study region. Seventeen different characteristics of edge habitat were recorded, together with the detection or non-detection of noisy miners along 129 500-m segments of patch edge. Habitat ...

 

The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 [deg]C

  
Nature, Vol. 517, No. 7533. (8 January 2015), pp. 187-190, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14016

Abstract

Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of ...

 

Soil Degradation and Soil Quality in Western Europe: Current Situation and Future Perspectives

  
Sustainability, Vol. 7, No. 1. (31 December 2014), pp. 313-365, https://doi.org/10.3390/su7010313

Abstract

The extent and causes of chemical, physical and biological degradation of soil, and of soil loss, vary greatly in different countries in Western Europe. The objective of this review paper is to examine these issues and also strategies for soil protection and future perspectives for soil quality evaluation, in light of present legislation aimed at soil protection. Agriculture and forestry are the main causes of many of the above problems, especially physical degradation, erosion and organic matter loss. Land take ...

 

Science for Disaster Risk Reduction - JRC thematic report

  

Abstract

This report aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the work of the Commission’s in-house science service, the Joint Research Centre (JRC), in relation to disaster risk reduction and response. The JRC develops tools and methodologies to help in all phases of disaster management, from preparedness and risk assessment to recovery and reconstruction through to forecasting and early warning. ...

 

Macroeconomic impacts of regional climate change adaptation strategies

  
In 14th IAEE European Energy Conference - Sustainable Energy Policy and Strategies for Europe (October 2014)

Abstract

[Overview] Among great efforts of mitigating anthropogenic climate change in past and present, adaptation to global climate change has received growing attention lately. Adaptation comprises measures, like seawalls and storm surge, erosion control, transport infrastructure enhancement, underground cabling and many more. They are necessary to deal with expected climate change impacts, such as floods, storms and heat and their associated economic, environmental and social costs. Whereas climate change mitigation is a global issue, most adaptation measures are implemented at the regional or local level due to varying ...

References

  1. Bosello, F., Carraro, C., de Cian, E., 2010. Climate policy and the optimal balance between mitigation, adaptation and unavoided damage. In: Climate Change Economics 1 (2), 71–92.
  2. Ciscar, J.-C., Szabó, L., Regemorter, D., Soria, A., 2012. The integration of PESETA sectoral economic impacts into the GEM-E3 Europe model: methodology and results. In: Climatic Change 112 (1), 127-142.
  3. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability
 

Using and improving the social cost of carbon

  
Science, Vol. 346, No. 6214. (05 December 2014), pp. 1189-1190, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1259774

Abstract

The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a crucial tool for economic analysis of climate policies. The SCC estimates the dollar value of reduced climate change damages associated with a one-metric-ton reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although the conceptual basis, challenges, and merits of the SCC are well established, its use in government cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is relatively new. In light of challenges in constructing the SCC, its newness in government regulation, and the importance of updating, we propose an ...

 

Managing the risks of organizational accidents

  
(1997)

Abstract

This is a practical book aimed at those whose daily task it is to think about and manage or regulate the risks of hazardous technologies. The book is not targeted at any one domain, but attempts to identify general tools and principles that are applicable to all organizations facing dangers of one sort or another. This could include banks and building societies just as much as nuclear power plants, oil exploration and production, chemical process plants, and air, sea and rail ...

 

Approximate Dynamic Programming for Large-Scale Resource Allocation Problems

  
In TutORials in Operations Research: Models, Methods, and Applications for Innovative Decision Making (2006), pp. 123-147

Abstract

We present modeling and solution strategies for large-scale resource allocation problems that take place over multiple time periods under uncertainty. In general, the strategies we present formulate the problem as a dynamic program and replace the value functions with tractable approximations. The approximations of the value functions are obtained by using simulated trajectories of the system and iteratively improving on (possibly naive) initial approximations; we propose several improvement algorithms for this purpose. As a result, the resource allocation problem decomposes into ...

 

Out of Africa

  
Nature, Vol. 514, No. 7521. (7 October 2014), pp. 139-139, https://doi.org/10.1038/514139a

Abstract

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa must be shut down now, or the disease will continue to spread. [Excerpt] Ebola is out of control in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Although this has been the case since late spring, the international pledges of help have yet to translate into concerted, rapid action on the ground. The virus still has the upper hand. Between 23 September and 1 October alone, the number of cases rose from 6,500 to almost 7,500, according to ...

 

Watering the forest for the trees: an emerging priority for managing water in forest landscapes

  
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 11, No. 6. (08 August 2013), pp. 314-321, https://doi.org/10.1890/120209

Abstract

Widespread threats to forests resulting from drought stress are prompting a re-evaluation of priorities for water management on forest lands. In contrast to the widely held view that forest management should emphasize providing water for downstream uses, we argue that maintaining forest health in the context of a changing climate may require focusing on the forests themselves and on strategies to reduce their vulnerability to increasing water stress. Management strategies would need to be tailored to specific landscapes but could include ...

 

Evaluating the efficacy of wood shreds for mitigating erosion

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, No. 2. (February 2009), pp. 779-785, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.01.006

Abstract

An erosion control product made by shredding on-site woody materials was evaluated for mitigating erosion through a series of rainfall simulations. Tests were conducted on bare soil and soil with 30, 50, and 70% cover on a coarse and a fine-grained soil. Results indicated that the wood product known as wood shreds reduced runoff and soil loss from both soil types. Erosion mitigation ranged from 60 to nearly 100% depending on the soil type and amount of concentrated flow and wood ...

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