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Selection: with tag mediterranean-region [161 articles] 

 

Gully head modelling: a Mediterranean badland case study

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (11 May 2018), https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4414

Abstract

Predicting the location of gully heads in various environments is an important step towards predicting gully erosion rates. So far, field data collection and modelling of topographic thresholds for gully head development has mainly focussed on gullies that formed in forested areas, rangelands, pastures and cropland. Such information for gullies in badlands however is very scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to extend the database on gully head topographical thresholds through data collection in a badland area and to improve the prediction ...

 

Extreme wildfire events are linked to global-change-type droughts in the northern Mediterranean

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 3. (16 March 2018), pp. 847-856, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-847-2018

Abstract

Increasing drought conditions under global warming are expected to alter the frequency and distribution of large and high-intensity wildfires. However, our understanding of the impact of increasing drought on extreme wildfires events remains incomplete. Here, we analyzed the weather conditions associated with the extreme wildfires events that occurred in Mediterranean France during the exceptionally dry summers of 2003 and 2016. We identified that these fires were related to two distinct shifts in the fire weather space towards fire weather conditions that ...

 

Agricultural policy can reduce wildfires

  
Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.1-1001, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat1359

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Agriculture is an important driver of European wildfires. It is a major source of fire ignitions [...]. Additionally, farmland abandonment and policies promoting forestry increase fire hazard, as they lead to vegetation growth and fuel build-up in the landscape [...]. However, agriculture is also part of the solution. Agricultural areas, such as crops, orchards, and grasslands, are much less fire-prone, particularly if they include irrigated crops [...]. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a powerful financial instrument ...

 

Fire-induced deforestation in drought-prone Mediterranean forests: drivers and unknowns from leaves to communities

  
Ecological Monographs (22 January 2018), https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1285

Abstract

Over the past 15 years, 3 million hectares of forests have been converted into shrublands or grasslands in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. Fire and drought are the main drivers underlying this deforestation. Here we present a conceptual framework for the process of fire-induced deforestation based on the interactive effects of fire and drought across three hierarchical scales: resistance in individuals, resilience in populations, and transitions to a new state. At the individual plant level, we review the traits ...

 

Mediterranean habitat loss under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change projections - Assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

  
Vol. 28547 EN (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/622174

Abstract

[Executive summary] This report describes the main findings of Task 10, Mediterranean habitat loss, of the Peseta III project (Climate Impacts and Adaptation in Europe, focusing on Extremes, Adaptation and the 2030s). Using an approach that integrates results from 11 sectors, the main objective of the Peseta III project is to make a consistent multi-sectorial assessment of the projected impacts of climate change in Europe. [\n] The Mediterranean region is one of the 36 global hotspots of biological diversity [1] and the most ...

 

Seventh national communication and third biennial report from the European Union under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Required under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

  
(December 2017)

Abstract

[Executive summary] [::Introduction] The European Union (EU) and its Member States, both jointly and individually, have engaged in domestic and international action on climate change for a number of years and this has resulted in significant emission reductions. The staff working documents accompanying this report constitute the EU’s seventh national communication as required under Article 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, and its third biennial report as required under Decision 2/CP.17 of the ...

 

Valuing mediterranean forests: towards total economic value

  
In Valuing mediterranean forests: towards total economic value (2005), https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851999975.0000

Abstract

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the economic value of Mediterranean forests, including not just commonly measured benefits such as timber but also, more importantly, the public goods and externalities they provide. It consists of 25 chapters structured into 3 parts: part 1 provides an overview of the problem and of the approach followed, and summarizes the results; part 2 includes detailed national level case studies of 18 countries and territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Palestine, ...

 

Tamm Review - Shifting global fire regimes: lessons from reburns and research needs

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 396 (July 2017), pp. 217-233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.03.035

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We reviewed published studies on reburns in fire-adapted ecosystems of the world. [::] Fire regimes often have shifted from frequent to infrequent fire return intervals. [::] Legacies of past burns constrain the spread and severity of future fires. [::] Periodic fire generally favors fire-adapted vegetation and limits closed forests. [::] Better understanding of reburns informs climate change adaptation methods. [Abstract] Across the globe, rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns have caused persistent regional droughts, lengthened fire seasons, and increased the number of weather-driven extreme fire events. ...

 

Climate extremes and predicted warming threaten Mediterranean Holocene firs forests refugia

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 47. (21 November 2017), pp. E10142-E10150, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1708109114

Abstract

[Significance] Climate extremes are major drivers of long-term forest growth trends, but we still lack appropriate knowledge to anticipate their effects. Here, we apply a conceptual framework to assess the vulnerability of Circum-Mediterranean Abies refugia in response to climate warming, droughts, and heat waves. Using a tree-ring network and a process-based model, we assess the future vulnerability of Mediterranean Abies forests. Models anticipate abrupt growth reductions for the late 21st century when climatic conditions will be analogous to the most severe dry/heat ...

 

Spreading like wildfire

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 11. (November 2017), pp. 755-755, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3432

Abstract

The 2017 wildfire season has seen unusually high fire levels in many parts of the world, with extensive and severe fires occurring in Chile, the Mediterranean, Russia, the US, Canada and even Greenland. Is this a sign of things to come? [Excerpt] During January and February, Chile experienced what their president Michelle Bachelet called “The greatest forest disaster in our history”. The nation was not adequately equipped to tackle these fires, leading the government to enact a state of emergency and accept ...

 

Effects of slope angle and aspect on plant cover and species richness in a humid Mediterranean badland

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, No. 13. (October 2014), pp. 1705-1716, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3549

Abstract

Soil erosion is one of the most severe land degradation processes in the Mediterranean region. Although badlands occupy a relatively small fraction of the Mediterranean area, their erosion rates are very high. Many studies have investigated to what extent vegetation controls soil erosion rates. This study, however, deals with the impact of erosion on vegetation establishment. In semi-arid badlands of the Mediterranean, soil water availability constitutes the main limiting factor for vegetation development. As a consequence, south-facing slopes are typically less ...

 

How much does weather control fire size and intensity in the Mediterranean region?

  
Annales Geophysicae, Vol. 33, No. 7. (30 July 2015), pp. 931-939, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-33-931-2015

Abstract

This study investigates the synoptic conditions favorable to wildfires in the Mediterranean region, in terms of fire intensity and burnt area. As reported in the literature, Mediterranean large wildfires are associated with a blocking situation. However, this study shows the existence of two types of wildfires controlled by the blocking high intensity: (1) fast build-up of a weak blocking produces intense wildfires associated with strong winds which allow propagation over long distances; (2) longer build-up of strong blocking situation produces less ...

 

Size of wildfires in the Euro-Mediterranean region: observations and theoretical analysis

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 6. (23 June 2015), pp. 1331-1341, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-1331-2015

Abstract

MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite observations of fire size and ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis are used to derive a relationship between burnt area and wind speed over the Mediterranean region and Eastern Europe. The largest wildfire size does not show a strong response with respect to wind speed in Eastern Europe. In the Mediterranean, as intuitively expected, the burnt area associated with the largest wildfires is an increasing function of wind speed for moderate temperature anomalies. In situations of severe heatwaves, ...

 

History matters: previous land use changes determine post-fire vegetation recovery in forested Mediterranean landscapes

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 279 (September 2012), pp. 121-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.05.020

Abstract

[Abstract] Land use changes and shifts in disturbance regimes (e.g. wildfires) are recognized worldwide as two of the major drivers of the current global change in terrestrial ecosystems. We expect that, in areas with large-scale land use changes, legacies from previous land uses persist and affect current ecosystem responses to climate-associated disturbances like fire. This study analyses whether post-fire vegetation dynamics may differ according to specific historical land use histories in a Mediterranean forest landscape of about 60,000 ha that was burnt ...

 

Post-fire salvage logging alters species composition and reduces cover, richness, and diversity in Mediterranean plant communities

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 133 (January 2014), pp. 323-331, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.014

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We tested the effects of post-fire salvage logging on plant communities. [::] Logging reduced plant species richness, diversity, and cover. [::] Species composition in salvaged sites resembled early-successional habitats. [::] Unsalvaged sites yielded greater tree regeneration. [Abstract] An intense debate exists on the effects of post-fire salvage logging on plant community regeneration, but scant data are available derived from experimental studies. We analyzed the effects of salvage logging on plant community regeneration in terms of species richness, diversity, cover, and composition by experimentally managing a ...

 

Human factors of fire occurrence in the Mediterranean

  
In Earth Observation of Wildland Fires in Mediterranean Ecosystems (2009), pp. 149-170, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01754-4_11
edited by Emilio Chuvieco

Abstract

The Mediterranean region accounts the larger proportion of human caused fires in the world (95%) followed by South Asia (90%), South America (85%) and Northeast Asia (80%) (FAO 2007). Socio-economic changes which are occurring in Europe along with global warming result in an augment of fire risk. Systematic and reliable information on fire causes is necessary in order to improve wildland fire management. However, collection of information on forest fire causes and motivations is still quite restricted in most countries around ...

 

Fire regime changes in the Western Mediterranean Basin: from fuel-limited to drought-driven fire regime

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 110, No. 1-2. (1 January 2012), pp. 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0060-6

Abstract

Wildfires are an integral part of Mediterranean ecosystems; humans impact on landscapes imply changes in fuel amount and continuity, and thus in fire regime. We tested the hypothesis that fire regime changed in western Mediterranean Basin during the last century using time series techniques. We first compiled a 130-year fire history for the Valencia province (Spain, Eastern Iberian Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Basin) from contemporary statistics plus old forest administration dossiers and newspapers. We also compiled census on rural population and climatic ...

 

A comparative study of aboveground biomass of three Mediterranean species in a post-fire succession

  
Acta Oecologica, Vol. 25, No. 1-2. (March 2004), pp. 1-6, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2003.10.002

Abstract

The aboveground biomass of three woody species (Cistus albidus, Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepensis) in two early successional stages (3- and 10-year old) of a post-fire Mediterranean ecosystem was investigated. Among these three species, which belong to the successional series of holm oak (Quercus ilex), C. albidus and Q. coccifera are two dominant shrub species in the garrigue ecosystem and P. halepensis is a pioneer tree species widely represented in the Mediterranean area. The results obtained showed that in monospecific stands, ...

 

Little evidence for fire-adapted plant traits in Mediterranean climate regions

  
Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 2. (20 February 2011), pp. 69-76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2010.10.007

Abstract

As climate change increases vegetation combustibility, humans are impacted by wildfires through loss of lives and property, leading to an increased emphasis on prescribed burning practices to reduce hazards. A key and pervading concept accepted by most environmental managers is that combustible ecosystems have traditionally burnt because plants are fire adapted. In this opinion article, we explore the concept of plant traits adapted to fire in Mediterranean climates. In the light of major threats to biodiversity conservation, we recommend caution in ...

 

Recurrent wildfires constrain long-term reproduction ability in Pinus halepensis Mill.

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 17, No. 5. (2008), 579, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf07078

Abstract

Increasing fire recurrence is a major problem threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Moreover, this pattern is predicted to increase owing to global change. Although a reduction in the density and growth of post-fire regeneration is usually observed in recurrently burnt areas, the potential effects on reproductive ability have seldom been explored. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether structural changes induced by fire recurrence may constrain reproduction ability of Pinus halepensis forests. We conducted the current study in Catalonia (NE ...

 

Robust projections of Fire Weather Index in the Mediterranean using statistical downscaling

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 120, No. 1-2. (2013), pp. 229-247, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0787-3

Abstract

The effect of climate change on wildfires constitutes a serious concern in fire-prone regions with complex fire behavior such as the Mediterranean. The coarse resolution of future climate projections produced by General Circulation Models (GCMs) prevents their direct use in local climate change studies. Statistical downscaling techniques bridge this gap using empirical models that link the synoptic-scale variables from GCMs to the local variables of interest (using e.g. data from meteorological stations). In this paper, we investigate the application of statistical ...

 

Projecting future drought in Mediterranean forests: bias correction of climate models matters!

  
Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 117, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 113-122, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0992-z

Abstract

Global and regional climate models (GCM and RCM) are generally biased and cannot be used as forcing variables in ecological impact models without some form of prior bias correction. In this study, we investigated the influence of the bias correction method on drought projections in Mediterranean forests in southern France for the end of the twenty-first century (2071–2100). We used a water balance model with two different atmospheric climate forcings built from the same RCM simulations but using two different correction ...

 

On the key role of droughts in the dynamics of summer fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017), 81, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00116-9

Abstract

Summer fires frequently rage across Mediterranean Europe, often intensified by high temperatures and droughts. According to the state-of-the-art regional fire risk projections, in forthcoming decades climate effects are expected to become stronger and possibly overcome fire prevention efforts. However, significant uncertainties exist and the direct effect of climate change in regulating fuel moisture (e.g. warmer conditions increasing fuel dryness) could be counterbalanced by the indirect effects on fuel structure (e.g. warmer conditions limiting fuel amount), affecting the transition between climate-driven and ...

 

Geographic distribution of 24 major tree species in the Mediterranean and their genetic resources

  
(2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The Mediterranean Basin is one of the world’s richest places in terms of animal and plant diversity. It is a highly diverse region and its mountains, rivers, forests and thousands of islands form a mosaic of natural and cultural landscapes of incomparable value. With around 25,000 species of native plants, of which more than half are endemic, and because many habitats and species are threatened, the Mediterranean is recognized as one of the Global Biodiversity Hotspots [18]. For millennia, ...

 

Spatial vegetation patterns and imminent desertification in Mediterranean arid ecosystems

  
Nature, Vol. 449, No. 7159. (13 September 2007), pp. 213-217, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06111

Abstract

Humans and climate affect ecosystems and their services1, which may involve continuous and discontinuous transitions from one stable state to another2. Discontinuous transitions are abrupt, irreversible and among the most catastrophic changes of ecosystems identified1. For terrestrial ecosystems, it has been hypothesized that vegetation patchiness could be used as a signature of imminent transitions3, 4. Here, we analyse how vegetation patchiness changes in arid ecosystems with different grazing pressures, using both field data and a modelling approach. In the modelling approach, ...

 

A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.11.012

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...

 

Mediterranean habitat loss under future climate conditions: assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

  
Applied Geography, Vol. 75 (2016), pp. 83-92, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.08.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] The Mediterranean climate domain is projected to loss 11–25% of its current extent. [::] Projected losses of the Mediterranean climate are due to shifts of the arid domain. [::] The Mediterranean domain is projected to shift by 53–121% of its current size. [::] These changes are projected to affect 15–23% of the Mediterranean Natura 2000 sites. [Abstract] The Mediterranean basin is a global hotspot of biological diversity and the most rich biodiversity region in Europe. Nevertheless, climate-driven habitat loss is one of the most serious ...

 

The importance of phenology for the evaluation of impact of climate change on growth of boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests ecosystems: an overview

  
International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 44, No. 2. (2000), pp. 67-75, https://doi.org/10.1007/s004840000066

Abstract

An overview is presented of the phenological models relevant for boreal coniferous, temperate-zone deciduous and Mediterranean coniferous forest ecosystems. The phenology of the boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, affecting the timing of the start of the growing season and thereby its duration, and the level of frost hardiness and thereby the reduction of foliage area and photosynthetic capacity by severe frost events. The phenology of temperate-zone forests is also mainly driven by temperature. Since temperate-zone forests are mostly mixed-species ...

 

Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 4, No. 7. (29 July 2009), e6392, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006392

Abstract

Mediterranean climate is found on five continents and supports five global biodiversity hotspots. Based on combined downscaled results from 23 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for three emissions scenarios, we determined the projected spatial shifts in the mediterranean climate extent (MCE) over the next century. Although most AOGCMs project a moderate expansion in the global MCE, regional impacts are large and uneven. The median AOGCM simulation output for the three emissions scenarios project the MCE at the end of the 21st ...

 

Analyzing spatiotemporal changes in wildfire regime and exposure across a Mediterranean fire-prone area

  
Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 71, No. 3. (2014), pp. 1389-1418, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0951-0

Abstract

We evaluated the spatiotemporal changes in wildfire regime and exposure in a fire-prone Mediterranean area (Sardinia, Italy) in relation to changes in ignition patterns, weather, suppression activities, and land uses. We also used wildfire simulations to identify fine-scale changes in wildfire exposure of important features on the island. Sardinia experienced a sharp reduction in fire number and area burned between the periods 1980–1994 and 1995–2009. Despite this decrease, losses and fatalities from wildfires continue. This suggests that localized areas and seasons ...

 

Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy

  
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 187, No. 1. (2014), pp. 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4175-x

Abstract

In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame ...

 

Estimating future burned areas under changing climate in the EU-Mediterranean countries

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 450-451 (April 2013), pp. 209-222, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.014

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on forest fires have received increased attention in recent years at both continental and local scales. It is widely recognized that weather plays a key role in extreme fire situations. It is therefore of great interest to analyze projected changes in fire danger under climate change scenarios and to assess the consequent impacts of forest fires. In this study we estimated burned areas in the European Mediterranean (EU-Med) countries under past and future climate conditions. Historical ...

 

Landscape - wildfire interactions in southern Europe: Implications for landscape management

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 92, No. 10. (October 2011), pp. 2389-2402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.028

Abstract

[Abstract] Every year approximately half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires in southern Europe, causing large ecological and socio-economic impacts. Climate and land use changes in the last decades have increased fire risk and danger. In this paper we review the available scientific knowledge on the relationships between landscape and wildfires in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on its application for defining landscape management guidelines and policies that could be adopted in order to promote landscapes with ...

 

A review of the main driving factors of forest fire ignition over Europe

  
Environmental Management, Vol. 51, No. 3. (2013), pp. 651-662, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-012-9961-z

Abstract

Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with ...

 

Hydrological impact of forest fires and climate change in a Mediterranean basin

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 66, No. 2. (2013), pp. 609-628, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0503-z

Abstract

Forest fire can modify and accelerate the hydrological response of Mediterranean basins submitted to intense rainfall: during the years following a fire, the effects on the hydrological response may be similar to those produced by the growth of impervious areas. Moreover, climate change and global warming in Mediterranean areas can imply consequences on both flash flood and fire hazards, by amplifying these phenomena. Based on historical events and post-fire experience, a methodology to interpret the impacts of forest fire in terms ...

 

Short-term effects of particulate matter on mortality during forest fires in Southern Europe: results of the MED-PARTICLES Project

  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 72, No. 5. (01 May 2015), pp. 323-329, https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102459

Abstract

[Background] An association between occurrence of wildfires and mortality in the exposed population has been observed in several studies with controversial results for cause-specific mortality. In the Mediterranean area, forest fires usually occur during spring–summer, they overlap with Saharan outbreaks, are associated with increased temperature and their health effects are probably due to an increase in particulate matter. [Aim and methods] We analysed the effects of wildfires and particulate matter (PM10) on mortality in 10 southern European cities in Spain, France, Italy ...

 

Discussing the role of tropical and subtropical moisture sources in cold season extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean region from a climate change perspective

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1. (27 January 2016), pp. 269-285, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-269-2016

Abstract

This paper presents a review of a large number of research studies performed during the last few decades that focused on the investigation of cold season extreme precipitation events (EPEs) in the Mediterranean region (MR). The publications demonstrate the important role of anomalously intense transports of moist air from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic in the occurrence of EPEs in the MR. EPEs in the MR are directly or indirectly connected to narrow bands with a high concentration of moisture in ...

 

Factors determining low Mediterranean ecosystems resilience to fire: the case of Pinus halepensis forests

  
In Ecology, Conservation and Management of Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems (2004), 20

Abstract

Factors acting as drivers of low resilience to fire in Pinus halepensis ecosystems are being examined. The commonest factor seems to be fire interval. From the several time windows examined, that of, the shortest one ever reported in this type of communities (3 years only) seemed to be the most crucial. From the plant species previously existing on the site woody and herbaceous obligate seeders are mainly affected by this factor. Other factors, affecting mainly pine regeneration, are the abundance of Quercus coccifera individuals in the ...

 

Characteristics and controls of extremely large wildfires in the western Mediterranean Basin

  
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 121, No. 8. (August 2016), pp. 2141-2157, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016jg003389

Abstract

Large fires account for a disproportionally high percentage of area burned with potentially severe environmental and socioeconomic impacts. This study characterizes extremely large fires (ELFs; 2500–24,843 ha) in Portugal (1998–2013) and the concomitant fuel and weather conditions, analyzing the response of ELF size to their variation. ELF burned less shrubland-grassland (33% of the total ELF area) than forest (59% of total), the latter primarily composed by pine and pine-eucalypt. High fuel hazard was the norm, as indicated by median values of 0.98 ...

 

Modeling temporal changes in human-caused wildfires in Mediterranean Europe based on Land Use-Land Cover interfaces

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 378 (October 2016), pp. 68-78, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.07.020

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] LULC interfaces between forest and other land uses modeled human-caused wildfire. [::] Euro Mediterranean Europe was analyzed in two time periods, 1990s and 2000s. [::] Models positive related interface density to an increase in fire density. [::] At country-level analysis did not revealed significant differences in the models. [::] A ten year period can be scarce to detect significant LULC changes linked to fire. [Abstract] In the period 1980s–2010s, 95% of wildfires in Mediterranean Europe were due to human causes. In this highly populated region, socio-economic ...

 

Exploring the spatial patterns of fire density in southern Europe using geographically weighted regression

  
Applied Geography, Vol. 51 (July 2014), pp. 143-157, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.04.002

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We explored the spatial patterns of fire density in two regions of Southern Europe. [::] Geographically Weighted Regression was applied to investigate main drivers of fire. [::] A strong spatial variability of the explanatory power of the variables was found. [::] Precipitation, livestock and shrubland were significant factors in both regions. [::] Fire prevention strategies can be adjusted to particular fire conditions in an area. [Abstract] The spatial patterns of fire occurrence were analyzed in two regions of Southern Europe, focusing on the long-term factors that ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

Climate change: the 2015 Paris Agreement thresholds and Mediterranean basin ecosystems

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6311. (28 October 2016), pp. 465-468, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah5015

Abstract

[A warming limit for the Mediterranean basin] Pollen cores from sediments provide rich detail on the history of vegetation and climate in the Mediterranean during the Holocene (the most recent ~10,000 years). Guiot and Cramer used this information as a baseline against which to compare predictions of future climate and vegetation under different climate-change scenarios. Vegetation and land-use systems observed in the Holocene records may persist under a 1.5°C warming above preindustrial temperature levels. A 2°C warming, however, is likely over the ...

 

Forest fire danger projections in the Mediterranean using ENSEMBLES regional climate change scenarios

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 122, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 185-199, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-1005-z

Abstract

We present future fire danger scenarios for the countries bordering the Mediterranean areas of Europe and north Africa building on a multi-model ensemble of state-of-the-art regional climate projections from the EU-funded project ENSEMBLES. Fire danger is estimated using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and a related set of indices. To overcome some of the limitations of ENSEMBLES data for their application on the FWI System—recently highlighted in a previous study by Herrera et al. (Clim Chang 118:827–840, 2013)—we ...

 

Identifying refugia from climate change using coupled ecological and genetic data in a transitional Mediterranean-temperate tree species

  
Molecular Ecology, Vol. 22, No. 8. (April 2013), pp. 2128-2142, https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12252

Abstract

Populations occurring in areas of overlap between the current and future distribution of a species are particularly important because they can represent “refugia from climate change”. We coupled ecological and range-wide genetic variation data to detect such areas and to evaluate the impacts of habitat suitability changes on the genetic diversity of the transitional Mediterranean-temperate tree Fraxinus angustifolia. We sampled and genotyped 38 natural populations comprising 1006 individuals from across Europe. We found the highest genetic diversity in western and northern ...

 

Spatiotemporal patterns of changes in fire regime and climate: defining the pyroclimates of south-eastern France (Mediterranean Basin)

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 129, No. 1-2. (2015), pp. 239-251, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1332-3

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on fires are expected to be highly variable spatially and temporally. In heavily anthropized landscapes, the great number of factors affecting fire regimes further limits our ability to predict future fire activity caused by climate. To address this, we develop a new framework for analysing regional changes in fire regimes from specific spatiotemporal patterns of fires and climate, so-called pyroclimates. We aim to test the trends of fire activity and climate (1973–2009) across the Mediterranean and ...

 

Modelling the spatial patterns of ignition causes and fire regime features in southern France: implications for fire prevention policy

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 25, No. 7. (2016), 785, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf15205

Abstract

A good knowledge of the spatiotemporal patterns of the causes of wildfire ignition is crucial to an effective fire policy. However, little is known about the situation in south-eastern France because the fire database contains unreliable data. We used data for cases with well-established causes from 1973–2013 to determine the location of spatial hotspots, the seasonal distribution, the underlying anthropogenic and environmental drivers and the tendency of five main causes to generate large fires. Anthropogenic ignitions were predominant (88%) near human ...

 

Linking ecological information and radiative transfer models to estimate fuel moisture content in the Mediterranean region of Spain: solving the ill-posed inverse problem

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 113, No. 11. (16 November 2009), pp. 2403-2411, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2009.07.001

Abstract

Live fuel moisture content (FMC) is a key factor required to evaluate fire risk and its operative and accurate estimation is essential for allocating pre-fire resources as a part of fire prevention. This paper presents an operative and accurate procedure to estimate FMC though MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data and simulation models. The new aspects of the method are its consideration of several ecological criteria to parameterize the models and consistently avoid simulating unrealistic spectra which might produce indetermination (ill-posed) ...

 

How does forest landscape structure explain tree species richness in a Mediterranean context?

  
Biodiversity and Conservation In Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 17, No. 5. (1 May 2008), pp. 1227-1240, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-007-9277-0

Abstract

Although the strong relationship between vegetation and climatic factors is widely accepted, other landscape composition and configuration characteristics could be significantly related with vegetation diversity patterns at different scales. Variation partitioning was conducted in order to analyse to what degree forest landscape structure, compared to other spatial and environmental factors, explained forest tree species richness in 278 UTM 10 × 10 km cells in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia (NE Spain). Tree species richness variation was decomposed through linear regression into three groups of ...

 

Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of species diversity in a Mediterranean ecosystem following fire

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 7, No. 4. (1997), 307, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf9970307

Abstract

This study examines species richness, species diversity (H'-Shannon-Weiner Index) and species dominance (C- Simpson-Index) in a Mediterranean ecosystem as a function of time elapsed since fire and the extent to which micro-climate regulates these indexes after wildfire occurrence. The study was conducted in an eastern Mediterranean ecosystem (Israel) over three consecutive years. About 400 ha of a mixed oak - pine forest burned in the summer of 1983 and part of it also suffered from a repeat fire in the summer ...

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