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Selection: with tag local-scale [29 articles] 


Ant-inspired density estimation via random walks

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10534-10541,


[Significance] Highly complex distributed algorithms are ubiquitous in nature: from the behavior of social insect colonies and bird flocks, to cellular differentiation in embryonic development, to neural information processing. In our research, we study biological computation theoretically, combining a scientific perspective, which seeks to better understand the systems being studied, with an engineering perspective, which takes inspiration from these systems to improve algorithm design. In this work, we focus on the problem of population density estimation in ant colonies, demonstrating that extremely ...


Legal threat exposes gaps in climate-change planning

Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7669. (29 August 2017), pp. 508-509,


Australian lawsuit highlights how difficult it is to turn global warming data into useful advice. [Excerpt] [...] Climate scientist Andy Pitman at the Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science in Sydney, Australia, says that researchers have been warning companies and governments for years about the need to invest in climate modelling and the related field of climate services, which provides forecasts and other information to public and private users. [...] To be useful, he says, the forecasts would need to be ...


Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change

Global Change Biology (March 2017),


As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different ...


Outreach: local problems are a low research priority

Nature, Vol. 544, No. 7648. (05 April 2017), pp. 35-35,


[Excerpt] You ask what science can do [...] suggesting that it would be useful to work with local communities on research problems that could improve [...] quality of life (Nature 542, 391; 2017). I disagree. [...] Universities are global institutions that have the primary objectives of creating knowledge and educating people to continue the development of our societies. Building stronger links with local society and solving local problems should never be a priority for any university. ...


Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 3. (February 2016), pp. 776-794,


Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east–west transect. The analysis of 267 ...


Fine-grain modeling of species’ response to climate change: holdouts, stepping-stones, and microrefugia

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 7. (July 2014), pp. 390-397,


[Highlights] [::] Understanding of microclimates may revolutionize climate change biology. [::] Microrefugia will be rare under future climate change. [::] Conservation strategies should focus on managing holdouts and stepping stones. [Abstract] Microclimates have played a critical role in past species range shifts, suggesting that they could be important in biological response to future change. Terms are needed to discuss these future effects. We propose that populations occupying microclimates be referred to as holdouts, stepping stones and microrefugia. A holdout is a population that persists in a ...


Comparing and selecting spatial predictors using local criteria

Vol. 2013 (2013), 21-13


Remote sensing technology for the study of Earth and its environment has led to “Big Data” that, paradoxically, have global extent but may be spatially sparse. Furthermore, the variability in the measurement error and the latent process error may not fit conveniently into the Gaussian linear paradigm. In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting a predictor from a finite collection of spatial predictors of a spatial random process defined on D, a subset of d-dimensional Euclidean space. Critically, we ...


Local spatial-predictor selection

Vol. 2013 (2013), 09-13


Consider the problem of spatial prediction of a random process from a spatial dataset. Global spatial-predictor selection provides a way to choose a single spatial predictor from a number of competing predictors. Instead, we consider local spatial-predictor selection at each spatial location in the domain of interest. This results in a hybrid predictor that could be considered global, since it takes the form of a combination of local predictors; we call this the locally selected spatial predictor. We pursue this idea ...


Soil erosion assessment - Mind the gap

Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 43, No. 24. (28 December 2016), 2016GL071480,


Accurate assessment of erosion rates remains an elusive problem because soil loss is strongly nonunique with respect to the main drivers. In addressing the mechanistic causes of erosion responses, we discriminate between macroscale effects of external factors—long studied and referred to as “geomorphic external variability”, and microscale effects, introduced as “geomorphic internal variability.” The latter source of erosion variations represents the knowledge gap, an overlooked but vital element of geomorphic response, significantly impacting the low predictability skill of deterministic models at ...


Scale-free channeling patterns near the onset of erosion of sheared granular beds

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11788-11793,


[Significance] The response of erodible granular beds to shearing flows controls numerous natural phenomena. A central aspect is the existence of a threshold stress below which erosion stops, and whose microscopic underpinning is debated. We use an experiment where this threshold is spontaneously reached to study the spatial organization of the erosion flux. We find that erosion is heterogeneous in space and occurs along favored channels whose distribution is extremely broad, with strongly anisotropic spatial correlations. These findings can be quantitatively explained ...


From local scenarios to national maps: a participatory framework for envisioning the future of Tanzania

Ecology and Society, Vol. 21, No. 3. (2016),


Tackling societal and environmental challenges requires new approaches that connect top-down global oversight with bottom-up subnational knowledge. We present a novel framework for participatory development of spatially explicit scenarios at national scale that model socioeconomic and environmental dynamics by reconciling local stakeholder perspectives and national spatial data. We illustrate results generated by this approach and evaluate its potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the relationship between development pathways and sustainability. Using the lens of land use and land cover ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 20

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   liquidambar-styraciflua   liriodendron-spp   liriodendron-tulipifera   list   literate-programming   lithocarpus-densiflorus   lithocarpus-glaber   lithocarpus-spp   lithuania   litter   local   local-average-invariance   local-over-complication   local-scale   lodoicea-maldivica   logging   logic-programming   logics   logistic-regression   lognormal-distribution   long-distance-dispersal   long-distance-pollen-flow   long-lived-changes   long-range-transport   long-term   lonicera-alpigena   lonicera-caerulea   lonicera-nigra   lonicera-periclymenum   lonicera-spp   lonicera-tatarica   lonicera-xylosteum   loranthus-europaeus   lose-lose-solution   low-diversity   low-intensity-agriculture   low-intensity-cumulated-effect   low-pass-filtering   lpj-guess   lucanidae   lupinus-incana   lupinus-spp   lymantria-dispar   lymantria-monacha   lyonothamnus-floribundus   lysiloma-latisiliquum   macchia   macedonia   machine-learning   maclura-spp   macro-remains   macroclimate   macroecology   macrofossils   macropsis-glandacea   maghreb   magnolia-acuminata   magnolia-grandiflora   magnoliophyta   mahalanobis-distance   mahonia-spp   malta   malus-crescimannoi   malus-dasyphylla   malus-pumila   malus-spp   malus-sylvestris   mammals   mammea-americana   management   management-indicators   management-strategies   manganese   mangifera-indica   mangrove-forest   mangroves   manifesto   manilkara-zapota   manual   manual-cutting   maple   maple-ash   maple-decline   maple-linden   mapping   mapping-networks   maps   maquis   marchalina   marginal-populations   marine-ecosystem   marssonina-betulae   mass-extinction   mass-spectrometry   mast-fruiting   mastixioideae   mastrave-modelling-library   mathematical-reasoning   mathematics  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Human appropriation of photosynthesis products

Science, Vol. 294, No. 5551. (2001), pp. 2549-2552,


Previous global estimates of the human impact on terrestrial photosynthesis products depended heavily on extrapolation from plot-scale measurements. Here, we estimated this impact with the use of recent data, many of which were collected at global and continental scales. Monte Carlo techniques that incorporate known and estimated error in our parameters provided estimates of uncertainty. We estimate that humans appropriate 10 to 55% of terrestrial photosynthesis products. This broad range reflects uncertainty in key parameters and makes it difficult to ascertain ...


Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 13. (29 March 2016), pp. 3557-3562,


[Significance] Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of biodiversity in maintaining multiple ecosystem functions and services (multifunctionality) at local spatial scales, but it is unknown whether similar relationships are found at larger spatial scales in real-world landscapes. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that biodiversity can also be important for multifunctionality at larger spatial scales in European forest landscapes. Both high local (α-) diversity and a high turnover in species composition between locations (high β-diversity) were found to ...


Working with four villages to end soil erosion in an entire river basin



[Excerpt] The entire catchment area of a river and its tributaries is a large, complex, interaction of ecosystems. In Albania, the Drini River basin is a Key Biodiversity Area that provides multiple services to the inhabitants of northern Albania. But currently rain is washing bare soil away into the river, and all of the beneficial ecosystem services along with it – like nutrients to provide crop fertility, water storage by forests, fresh water filtration and flood protection. [Soil erosion is a big problem ...


Are more complex physiological models of forest ecosystems better choices for plot and regional predictions?

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 75 (January 2016), pp. 1-14,


[Highlights] [::] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. [::] A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. [::] A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. [Abstract] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. Process-based forest ecosystem models vary from simple physiological, complex physiological, to hybrid empirical-physiological models. Previous studies indicate that complex models provide the best prediction at ...


Drivers of temporal changes in temperate forest plant diversity vary across spatial scales

Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, No. 10. (1 October 2015), pp. 3726-3737,


Global biodiversity is affected by numerous environmental drivers. Yet, the extent to which global environmental changes contribute to changes in local diversity is poorly understood. We investigated biodiversity changes in a meta-analysis of 39 resurvey studies in European temperate forests (3988 vegetation records in total, 17–75 years between the two surveys) by assessing the importance of (i) coarse-resolution (i.e., among sites) vs. fine-resolution (i.e., within sites) environmental differences and (ii) changing environmental conditions between surveys. Our results clarify the mechanisms underlying the ...


Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 48. (26 November 2013), pp. 19456-19459,


[Significance] A major advance of the last 20 y at the interface of biological, environmental, and conservation sciences has been the demonstration that plant biodiversity positively influences ecosystem function. Linking these results to applied conservation efforts hinges on the assumption that biodiversity is actually declining at the local scale at which diversity–function relationships are strongest. Our compilation and analysis of a global database of >16,000 repeat survey vegetation plots from habitats across the globe directly contradict this assumption. We find no general ...


Modelling runoff and soil erosion in logged forests: Scope and application of some existing models

CATENA, Vol. 67, No. 1. (August 2006), pp. 35-49,


Predictive erosion models are useful tools for evaluating the impact of land-use practices on soil and water properties, and as often used by environmental protection authorities, for setting guidelines and standards for regulation purposes. This study examines the application of three erosion models of varying complexity and design for predicting runoff and soil erosion from logged forest compartments in south eastern Australia. These are: the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), and TOPOG, a physically based ...


Climate and surface properties: hydrological response of small arid and semi-arid watersheds

Geomorphology, Vol. 42, No. 1-2. (January 2002), pp. 43-57,


A positive relationship between annual rainfall and geomorphic processes (runoff and erosion rates) and environmental factors (water regime, soil and vegetation cover) is often assumed for arid and semi-arid areas with an annual rainfall in the range of 100-300 mm. This assumption disregards the fact that changes along a climatic gradient, at desert margins, are not limited to purely climatic factors. They are often accompanied by a parallel change in surface properties; especially the relative extent of rocky or soil covered ...


Response of tree seedlings to the abiotic heterogeneity generated by nurse shrubs: an experimental approach at different scales

Ecography, Vol. 28, No. 6. (December 2005), pp. 757-768,


Spatial heterogeneity of abiotic factors influences patterns of seedling establishment at different scales. In stress-prone ecosystems such as Mediterranean ones, heterogeneity generated by shrubs has been shown to facilitate the establishment of tree species. However, how this facilitation is affected by spatial scale remains poorly understood. We have experimentally analysed the consequences of the abiotic heterogeneity generated by pioneer shrubs on survival, growth and physiology of seedlings of three important tree species from Mediterranean mountains (Acer opalus ssp. granatense, Quercus pyrenaica ...


A bottom-up institutional approach to cooperative governance of risky commons

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (14 July 2013), pp. 797-801,


Avoiding the effects of climate change may be framed as a public goods dilemma1, in which the risk of future losses is non-negligible2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, while realizing that the public good may be far in the future3, 7, 8, 9. The limited success of existing attempts to reach global cooperation has been also associated with a lack of sanctioning institutions and mechanisms to deal with those who do not contribute to the welfare of the planet or fail ...


Game theory: building up cooperation

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (14 July 2013), pp. 782-783,


Can we achieve the ambitious mitigation targets needed to avert dangerous global warming? Research now shows that local sanctioning institutions may succeed where global agreements fall short. ...


Does the terrestrial biosphere have planetary tipping points?

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 396-401,


Tipping points where systems shift radically and potentially irreversibly into a different state have received considerable attention in ecology. Although there is convincing evidence that human drivers can cause regime shifts at local and regional scales, the increasingly invoked concept of planetary scale tipping points in the terrestrial biosphere remains unconfirmed. By evaluating potential mechanisms and drivers, we conclude that spatial heterogeneity in drivers and responses, and lack of strong continental interconnectivity, probably induce relatively smooth changes at the ...


Multi-scale robust modelling of landslide susceptibility: regional rapid assessment and catchment robust fuzzy ensemble

IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 413 (2013), pp. 321-335,


Landslide susceptibility assessment is a fundamental component of effective landslide prevention. One of the main challenges in landslides forecasting is the assessment of spatial distribution of landslide susceptibility. Despite the many different approaches, landslide susceptibility assessment still remains a challenge. A semi-quantitative method is proposed combining heuristic, deterministic and probabilistic approaches for a robust catchment scale assessment. A fuzzy ensemble model has been exploited for aggregating an array of different susceptibility zonation maps. Each susceptibility zonation has been obtained by applying ...


Climate change and slope stability in the UK: challenges and approaches

Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Vol. 43, No. 4. (01 November 2010), pp. 371-385,


It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring and that this will affect the processes and parameters that determine the stability of slopes. There remains, however, significant uncertainty in forecasting these changes in the long term. This issue was addressed in a series of workshops, organized as part of a UK-wide network on CLimate Impact Forecasting For Slopes (CLIFFS). The major outcomes from the workshop discussions provide a focus for the modelling environment relevant to long-term forecasting of slope ...


Advances in global change research require open science by individual researchers

Global Change Biology, Vol. 18, No. 7. (1 July 2012), pp. 2102-2110,


Understanding how species and ecosystems respond to climate change requires spatially and temporally rich data for a diverse set of species and habitats, combined with models that test and predict responses. Yet current study is hampered by the long-known problems of inadequate management of data and insufficient description of analytical procedures, especially in the field of ecology. Despite recent institutional incentives to share data and new data archiving infrastructure, many ecologists do not archive and publish their data and code. Given ...


A stochastic approach to optimize Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stand management scheduling under fire risk. An application in Portugal

Annals of Operations Research In Annals of Operations Research (26 January 2011), pp. 1-19,


The paper discusses research aiming at the development of a management scheduling model for even-aged stands that may take into consideration fuel treatments to address the risk of wildfires. A Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is proposed to determine the policy (e.g. the fuel treatment and thinning schedules and the rotation age) that produces the maximum expected discounted net revenue. Fuel treatment activities encompass shrub cleanings. Emphasis was on combining a deterministic stand-level growth and yield model with wildfire occurrence and ...


A Stochastic Dynamic Programming Approach to Optimize Short-Rotation Coppice Systems Management Scheduling: An Application to Eucalypt Plantations under Wildfire Risk in Portugal

Forest Science, Vol. 58, No. 4. (August 2012), pp. 353-365,


This article presents and discusses research with the aim of developing a stand-level management scheduling model for short-rotation coppice systems that may take into account the risk of wildfire. The use of the coppice regeneration method requires the definition of both the optimal harvest age in each cycle and the optimal number of coppice cycles within a full rotation. The scheduling of other forest operations such as stool thinning and fuel treatments (e.g., shrub removals) must be further addressed. In this ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.