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Selection: with tag local-over-complication [35 articles] 


Rules of thumb for judging ecological theories

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 19, No. 3. (March 2004), pp. 121-126,


An impressive fit to historical data suggests to biologists that a given ecological model is highly valid. Models often achieve this fit at the expense of exaggerated complexity that is not justified by empirical evidence. Because overfitted theories complement the traditional assumption that ecology is `messy', they generally remain unquestioned. Using predation theory as an example, we suggest that a fit-driven appraisal of model value is commonly misdirected; although fit to historical data can be important, the simplicity and generality of ...


Outreach: local problems are a low research priority

Nature, Vol. 544, No. 7648. (05 April 2017), pp. 35-35,


[Excerpt] You ask what science can do [...] suggesting that it would be useful to work with local communities on research problems that could improve [...] quality of life (Nature 542, 391; 2017). I disagree. [...] Universities are global institutions that have the primary objectives of creating knowledge and educating people to continue the development of our societies. Building stronger links with local society and solving local problems should never be a priority for any university. ...


Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 11. (15 March 2016), pp. 2982-2987,


[Significance] The remarkable ecological success of the human species has been attributed to our capacity to overcome environmental challenges through the development of complex technologies. Complex technologies are typically beyond the inventive capacities of individuals and result from a population process by which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present an experiment demonstrating that partially connected groups ...


The precision problem in conservation and restoration

Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2016),


Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 20

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   liquidambar-styraciflua   liriodendron-spp   liriodendron-tulipifera   list   literate-programming   lithocarpus-densiflorus   lithocarpus-glaber   lithocarpus-spp   lithuania   litter   local   local-average-invariance   local-over-complication   local-scale   lodoicea-maldivica   logging   logic-programming   logics   logistic-regression   lognormal-distribution   long-distance-dispersal   long-distance-pollen-flow   long-lived-changes   long-range-transport   long-term   lonicera-alpigena   lonicera-caerulea   lonicera-nigra   lonicera-periclymenum   lonicera-spp   lonicera-tatarica   lonicera-xylosteum   loranthus-europaeus   lose-lose-solution   low-diversity   low-intensity-agriculture   low-intensity-cumulated-effect   low-pass-filtering   lpj-guess   lucanidae   lupinus-incana   lupinus-spp   lymantria-dispar   lymantria-monacha   lyonothamnus-floribundus   lysiloma-latisiliquum   macchia   macedonia   machine-learning   maclura-spp   macro-remains   macroclimate   macroecology   macrofossils   macropsis-glandacea   maghreb   magnolia-acuminata   magnolia-grandiflora   magnoliophyta   mahalanobis-distance   mahonia-spp   malta   malus-crescimannoi   malus-dasyphylla   malus-pumila   malus-spp   malus-sylvestris   mammals   mammea-americana   management   management-indicators   management-strategies   manganese   mangifera-indica   mangrove-forest   mangroves   manifesto   manilkara-zapota   manual   manual-cutting   maple   maple-ash   maple-decline   maple-linden   mapping   mapping-networks   maps   maquis   marchalina   marginal-populations   marine-ecosystem   marssonina-betulae   mass-extinction   mass-spectrometry   mast-fruiting   mastixioideae   mastrave-modelling-library   mathematical-reasoning   mathematics  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Europe’s forest management did not mitigate climate warming

Science, Vol. 351, No. 6273. (2016), pp. 597-600,


[Europe's managed forests contribute to warming] For most of the past 250 years, surprisingly it seems that Europe's managed forests have been a net source of carbon, contributing to climate warming rather than mitigating it. Naudts et al. reconstructed the history of forest management in Europe in the context of a land-atmosphere model. The release of carbon otherwise stored in litter, dead wood, and soil carbon pools in managed forests was one key factor contributing to climate warming. Second, the conversion of ...


Are more complex physiological models of forest ecosystems better choices for plot and regional predictions?

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 75 (January 2016), pp. 1-14,


[Highlights] [::] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. [::] A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. [::] A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. [Abstract] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. Process-based forest ecosystem models vary from simple physiological, complex physiological, to hybrid empirical-physiological models. Previous studies indicate that complex models provide the best prediction at ...


Ironies of automation

Automatica, Vol. 19, No. 6. (November 1983), pp. 775-779,


This paper discusses the ways in which automation of industrial processes may expand rather than eliminate problems with the human operator. Some comments will be made on methods of alleviating these problems within the ‘classic’ approach of leaving the operator with responsibility for abnormal conditions, and on the potential for continued use of the human operator for on-line decision-making within human-computer collaboration. ...


Comparing and combining physically-based and empirically-based approaches for estimating the hydrology of ungauged catchments

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 508 (January 2014), pp. 227-239,


[Highlights] [::] Methods for estimating various hydrological indices at ungauged sites were compared. [::] Methods included a TopNet rainfall-runoff model and a Random Forest empirical model. [::] TopNet estimates were improved through correction using Random Forest estimates. [::] Random Forests provided the best estimates of all indices except mean flow. [::] Mean flow was best estimated using an already published empirical method. [Summary] Predictions of hydrological regimes at ungauged sites are required for various purposes such as setting environmental flows, assessing availability of water resources or ...


Comparison of empirical and theoretical remote sensing based bathymetry models in river environments

River Research and Applications, Vol. 28, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 118-133,


Knowledge of underwater morphology is an essential component of many hydrological and environmental applications such as flood modelling and lotic habitat mapping. Remote sensing allows modelling of bathymetry at spatial scales that are impossible to achieve with traditional methods. However, the use of passive remote sensing for modelling water depth in fluvial environments remains a challenge. Different methods of computing bathymetry models based on remotely sensed imagery combined with ground measurements for calibration were investigated in order to produce a digital bathymetry ...


Tree hitched a ride to island

Nature, Vol. 510, No. 7505. (18 June 2014), pp. 320-321,


Acacia analysis reveals globetrotting seed trekked 18,000 kilometres from Hawaii to Réunion. [excerpt] In what is probably the farthest single dispersal event ever recorded, researchers have shown using genetic analysis that an acacia tree endemic to Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean is directly descended from a common Hawaiian tree known as the koa. In fact, these two trees on small specks of land on opposite sides of the globe turn out to be the same species. The event is remarkable not ...


Computer science and parsimony: a reappraisal, with discussion of methods for poorly structured datasets

Cladistics (1 June 2014), pp. n/a-n/a,


In recent years, several publications in computer science journals have proposed new heuristic methods for parsimony analysis. This contribution discusses those papers, including methods highly praised by their authors, such as Hydra, Sampars and GA + PR + LS. Trees of comparable or better scores can be obtained using the program TNT, but from one to three orders of magnitude faster. In some cases, the search methods are very similar to others long in use in phylogenetics, but the enormous speed differences seem to correspond ...


A view of 20th and 21st century software engineering

In Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Software Engineering (2006), pp. 12-29,


George Santayana's statement, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it," is only half true. The past also includes successful histories. If you haven't been made aware of them, you're often condemned not to repeat their successes.In a rapidly expanding field such as software engineering, this happens a lot. Extensive studies of many software projects such as the Standish Reports offer convincing evidence that many projects fail to repeat past successes.This paper tries to identify at least some ...


Contrasting views of complexity and their implications for network-centric infrastructures

Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 40, No. 4. (July 2010), pp. 839-852,


There exists a widely recognized need to better understand and manage complex “systems of systems,” ranging from biology, ecology, and medicine to network-centric technologies. This is motivating the search for universal laws of highly evolved systems and driving demand for new mathematics and methods that are consistent, integrative, and predictive. However, the theoretical frameworks available today are not merely fragmented but sometimes contradictory and incompatible. We argue that complexity arises in highly evolved biological and technological systems primarily to provide mechanisms ...


Algorithm = Logic + Control

Commun. ACM, Vol. 22, No. 7. (July 1979), pp. 424-436,


An algorithm can be regarded as consisting of a logic component, which specifies the knowledge to be used in solving problems, and a control component, which determines the problem-solving strategies by means of which that knowledge is used. The logic component determines the meaning of the algorithm whereas the control component only affects its efficiency. The efficiency of an algorithm can often be improved by improving the control component without changing the logic of the algorithm. We argue that computer programs ...


Predictive ecology: systems approaches

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, Vol. 367, No. 1586. (19 January 2012), pp. 163-169,


The world is experiencing significant, largely anthropogenically induced, environmental change. This will impact on the biological world and we need to be able to forecast its effects. In order to produce such forecasts, ecology needs to become more predictive--to develop the ability to understand how ecological systems will behave in future, changed, conditions. Further development of process-based models is required to allow such predictions to be made. Critical to the development of such models will be achieving a balance between the ...


Educating Future Scientists

Science, Vol. 301, No. 5639. (12 September 2003), pp. 1485-1485,


Significant cultural changes are urgently needed if the burgeoning scientific opportunities in biology are to be tackled by a well-prepared cadre of young scientists from all disciplines. Interdisciplinary cooperation must encompass the individual investigator, academic department, research institution, and federal funding agencies. This Policy Forum describes principles and recommendations that have emerged from an ongoing experiment in interdisciplinary training that since 1996 has included three cycles of grant awards to ten institutions, involving several hundred trainees and their mentors. ...


Response of tree seedlings to the abiotic heterogeneity generated by nurse shrubs: an experimental approach at different scales

Ecography, Vol. 28, No. 6. (December 2005), pp. 757-768,


Spatial heterogeneity of abiotic factors influences patterns of seedling establishment at different scales. In stress-prone ecosystems such as Mediterranean ones, heterogeneity generated by shrubs has been shown to facilitate the establishment of tree species. However, how this facilitation is affected by spatial scale remains poorly understood. We have experimentally analysed the consequences of the abiotic heterogeneity generated by pioneer shrubs on survival, growth and physiology of seedlings of three important tree species from Mediterranean mountains (Acer opalus ssp. granatense, Quercus pyrenaica ...


Uncertainty and the optimal level of specialization

Research in Economics, Vol. 66, No. 3. (September 2012), pp. 213-218,


Using a two-sector one-factor comparative-advantage-based trade model under uncertainty, we show that (1) to specialize according to comparative advantages may be sub-optimal in a multi-period setting; (2) there are conditions under which, even if agents are risk-neutral, the decentralized solution is inefficient and characterized by overspecialization. ⺠Comparative-advantage-induced full specialization may be sub-optimal in a multi-period setting. ⺠The centralized and the decentralized optimal level of specialization are different in a multi-period setting. ⺠The decentralized optimal level of specialization is ...


Distribution of Knowledge, Group Network Structure, and Group Performance

Management Science, Vol. 46, No. 5. (01 May 2000), pp. 612-625,


This study investigates the effect of knowledge distribution and group structure on performance in MBA game teams. We found that group performance was contingent on the distribution of knowledge within the group and networks of social relationships among group members. Studying 39 teams of MBA students in two management simulation games, we found that, in general, groups that had broadly distributed knowledge, i.e., groups made up of members who had general knowledge, outperformed groups that had knowledge concentrated in different members, ...


Shaking Up Science

Science, Vol. 339, No. 6118. (25 January 2013), pp. 386-389,


Ferric Fang and Arturo Casadevall are an unlikely duo that disenchantment brought together. The two had nagging worries about an unwelcome transformation in academic science: Discovery for its own sake was being sidelined by a push to publish in high-impact journals and funding was scarcer than ever. The two quickly began publishing editorials together, exploring scientists' dependence on grants to pay their salaries and questioning proposed changes to peer review. They hope to fill the void of information, asking if prizes ...


Enhancing transdisciplinary dialogue in curricula development

Ecological Economics, Vol. 38, No. 1. (July 2001), pp. 1-5,


A crucial step towards realizing transdisciplinary understanding is to address transdisciplinary issues in university curricula, and to train students in critically analyzing and understanding disciplinary metaphors. We present an experimental exercise at Stockholm University with the aim of finding a constructive way to introduce transdisciplinary elements in disciplinary courses and thus increase student awareness of disciplinary metaphors. The exercise required a minimum of formal university decision procedures and thus circumvented the institutional barriers that tend to obstruct the establishment of full ...


Higher education's sustainability imperative: how to practically respond?

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2012), pp. 19-33,


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe four phases for how universities have addressed a sustainability agenda and offer specific lessons for how and where experiences on one campus, the University of Colorado Boulder, have been met with success and other challenges. The authors offer general reflections for executing university-wide sustainability initiatives with a central intent of illuminating central barriers against, and incentives for, a coordinated and integrated approach to campus sustainability. Design/methodology/approach – The approach for arriving at ...


The impact of economics on environmental policy

Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 39, No. 3. (May 2000), pp. 375-399,


Environmental economists have seen their ideas translated into the rough-and-tumble policy world for over two decades. They have witnessed the application of economic instruments to several environmental issues, including preserving wetlands, lowering lead levels, and curbing acid rain. This essay examines the impact of the rise of economics in the policy world on the making of environmental policy. I focus on two related, but distinct phenomena—the increasing interest in the use of incentive-based mechanisms, such as tradable permits, to achieve environmental ...


Some Consequences of Having Too Little

Science, Vol. 338, No. 6107. (02 November 2012), pp. 682-685,


Poor individuals often engage in behaviors, such as excessive borrowing, that reinforce the conditions of poverty. Some explanations for these behaviors focus on personality traits of the poor. Others emphasize environmental factors such as housing or financial access. We instead consider how certain behaviors stem simply from having less. We suggest that scarcity changes how people allocate attention: It leads them to engage more deeply in some problems while neglecting others. Across several experiments, we show that scarcity leads to attentional ...


Ecosystem service evaluation to support land-use policy

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 154 (July 2012), pp. 78-84,


Regular economic activity takes into account ecosystem goods and services that are exchanged for money in the market (e.g. food, fibre, water) but normally ignores more intangible ones left away from market transactions (e.g. soil protection, climate regulation, disturbance control, habitat provision), even in cases when they become irreversibly impaired. However, because of the increasing pressure brought by the public opinion, the attempts to assign an economic, yet volatile, valuation to ecosystems assets has multiplied in recent years, and policy communities ...


Computer programming as an art

Communications of the ACM, Vol. 17, No. 12. (1 December 1974), pp. 667-673,


When Communications of the ACM began publication in 1959, the members of ACM's Editorial Board made the following remark as they described the purposes of ACM's periodicals [2]: “If computer programming is to become an important part of computer research and development, a transition of programming from an art to a disciplined science must be effected.” Such a goal has been a continually recurring theme during the ensuing years; for example, we read in 1970 of the “first steps toward transforming ...


Performance Anti-Patterns

Queue, Vol. 4, No. 1. (February 2006), pp. 44-50,


Performance pathologies can be found in almost any software, from user to kernel, applications, drivers, etc. At Sun we’ve spent the last several years applying state-of-the-art tools to a Unix kernel, system libraries, and user applications, and have found that many apparently disparate performance problems in fact have the same underlying causes. Since software patterns are considered abstractions of positive experience, we can talk about the various approaches that led to these performance problems as anti-patterns—something to be avoided rather than ...


A crucial step toward realism: responses to climate change from an evolving metacommunity perspective

Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2012), pp. 154-167,


We need to understand joint ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change to predict future threats to biological diversity. The ‘evolving metacommunity’ framework emphasizes that interactions between ecological and evolutionary mechanisms at both local and regional scales will drive community dynamics during climate change. Theory suggests that ecological and evolutionary dynamics often interact to produce outcomes different from those predicted based on either mechanism alone. We highlight two of these dynamics: (i) species interactions prevent adaptation of nonresident species to new ...


More than the sum of their parts? Interdisciplinarity and sustainability

In Sustainability education : perspectives and practice across higher education (2010)

Learning for change: an educational contribution to sustainability science

Sustainability Science, Vol. 8, No. 1. (January 2013), pp. 103-119,


Transition to sustainability is a search for ways to improve the social capacity to guide interactions between nature and society toward a more sustainable future and, thus, a process of social learning in its broadest sense. Accordingly, it is not only learning that is at issue but education and educational science, of which the latter is about exploring the preconditions of and opportunities for learning and education—whether individual or social, in formal or informal settings. Analyzing how educational science deals with ...


Diffusion of sustainable development in universities’ curricula: an empirical example from Cardiff University

Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, No. 7. (17 May 2010), pp. 637-644,


During the last decade an increasing number of higher education institutions (HEIs) have been incorporating and institutionalizing the principles of Sustainable development (SD) into their curricula, research, operations, outreach, and assessment and reporting. This article focuses on the adoption and diffusion of SD in curricula by analyzing the results from the curricula audit of over 5800 course descriptions from 19 of the 28 schools from Cardiff University. The audit was done using the Sustainability Tool for Auditing UNiversities Curricula in Higher ...


The Semantic Web: The Origins of Artificial Intelligence Redux

In Third International Workshop on the History and Philosophy of Logic, Mathematics and Computation (HPLMC-04 2005) (2005)


Introduction. The World Wide Web is considered by many to be the most significant computational phenomenon yet, although even by the standards of computer science its development has been chaotic. While the promise of artificial intelligence to give us machines capable of genuine human-level intelligence seems nearly as distant as it was during the heyday of the field, the ubiquity of the World Wide Web is unquestionable. If anything it is the Web, not artificial intelligence as traditionally conceived, that has ...


Cross-Disciplinary Lessons for the Future Internet

Vol. 7281 (2012), pp. 42-54,


There are many societal concerns that emerge as a consequence of Future Internet (FI) research and development. A survey identified six key social and economic issues deemed most relevant to European FI projects. During a SESERV-organized workshop, experts in Future Internet technology engaged with social scientists (including economists), policy experts and other stakeholders in analyzing the socio-economic barriers and challenges that affect the Future Internet, and conversely, how the Future Internet will affect society, government, and business. The workshop aimed to ...


Complexity, its in the mind of the beholder

The Journal of Object Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1. (2006), pp. 31-37,


Complexity is a much analyzed, much debated, much measured property of software-intensive products. From a strategic point of view, complexity has implications for the development and evolution of software-intensive products. In this issue of Strategic Software Engineering I will consider multiple views of complexity, sources of complexity and actions that manage complexity. ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.