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Selection: with tag larix-decidua [49 articles] 


Pest categorisation of Cephalcia lariciphila

EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05106,


The Panel on Plant health performed a pest categorisation of the larch web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia lariciphila (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) for the EU. The insect has been reported in 11 EU Member States (MSs). It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Ireland and the UK (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and Jersey). C. lariciphila can feed on all species of the genus Larix. There have been reported outbreaks in the Czech ...


  1. Battisti, A., 1994a. Effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on the spruce web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia arvensis Panzer and its parasitoids in the field. Biocontrol Science and Technology 4, 95–102.
  2. Battisti, A., 1994b. Voltinism and diapause in the spruce web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia arvensis. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 70, 105–113.
  3. Bell, H., Wakefield, M., Macarthur, R., Stein, J., Collins, D., Hart, A., Roques, A., Augustin, S., Yart, A., Péré, C., Schrader, G., Wendt, C., Battisti,

Pest categorisation of Dendroctonus micans

EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7. (July 2017), 4880,


The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. D. micans is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) in Eurasia. Attacks on other conifers (Abies spp., Larix decidua, Pseudotsuga menziesii) are also reported. Supposedly originating from north-eastern Eurasia, D. micans has spread westward and is now distributed throughout the EU (22 Member States). It ...


  1. Akinci, H.A., Ozcan, G.E., Eroglu, M., 2009. Impacts of site effects on losses of oriental spruce during Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) outbreaks in Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 3934–3939. .
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris, 320 pp.
  3. Bergmiller, F., 1903. Dendroctonus micans und Rhizophagus grandis. Zentralblatt für das gesamte Forstwesen, 29, 252–256.
  4. Bevan, D., King, C.J., 1983. Dendroctonus micans

Environmental versus geographical determinants of genetic structure in two subalpine conifers

New Phytologist, Vol. 201, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 180-192,


[::] Alpine ecosystems are facing rapid human-induced environmental changes, and so more knowledge about tree adaptive potential is needed. This study investigated the relative role of isolation by distance (IBD) versus isolation by adaptation (IBA) in explaining population genetic structure in Abies alba and Larix decidua, based on 231 and 233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sampled across 36 and 22 natural populations, respectively, in the Alps and Apennines. [::] Genetic structure was investigated for both geographical and environmental groups, using analysis of ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 21

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   italy   iucn   iucn-critically-endangered-cr   iucn-data-deficient-dd   iucn-endangered-en   iucn-extinct-in-the-wild-ew   iucn-least-concern-lc   iucn-lower-risk-least-concern-lrlc   iucn-lower-risk-near-threatened-lrnt   iucn-near-threatened-nt   iucn-vulnerable-vu   iverson-bracket   janus-abbreviatus   japan   jatropha-curcas   joint-research-centre   journal-ranking   jubaea-chilensis   juglans-jamaicensis   juglans-mandshurica   juglans-nigra   juglans-regia   juglans-spp   juniper-wood   juniperus-californica   juniperus-cedrus   juniperus-communis   juniperus-deppeana   juniperus-drupacea   juniperus-excelsa   juniperus-foetidissima   juniperus-monosperma   juniperus-occidentalis   juniperus-osteosperma   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-phoenicea   juniperus-rigida   juniperus-silicicola   juniperus-spp   juniperus-thurifera   juniperus-virginiana   kalmia-latifolia   kalopanax-septemlobus   kappa   kazdaglari   kenya   kernel-based-methods   kk10   knn-distance   knowledge-engineering   knowledge-freedom   knowledge-integration   knowledge-management   kolkwitzia-amabilis   koompassia-excelsa   korea   kosovo   la-nina   laburnum-alpinum   laburnum-anagyroides   lag-effect   lagarostrobos-franklinii   lagerstroemia-speciosa   lagoon   lagopus-muta   lagunaria-patersoni   laguncularia-racemosa   lai   lamiastrum-galeobdolon   lamium-orvala   land   land-cover   land-disuse   land-evaluation   land-management   land-use   land-use-changes   land-use-driven-climate-change   land-use-dynamics   land-use-intensity   land-use-land-cover-changes   landform   landsat   landscape   landscape-changes   landscape-dynamics   landscape-genetics   landscape-modelling   landslides   landslides-as-major-erosion-process   language-design   languages   languages-death   lapse-rate   large-scale   large-vs-wide-scale   larix-chinensis   larix-decidua   larix-eurolepis  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Distribution map of European larch (Larix decidua)



The distribution maps on this page were compiled by experts contributing to EUFORGEN activities, based on existing bibliography and other information sources. Individuals may use the distribution maps for personal, educational, scientific or other non-commercial purposes without prior permission from the EUFORGEN Secretariat but they must acknowledge EUFORGEN as the source of information. In case the distribution maps are used for a publication, the EUFORGEN Secretariat would appreciate receiving a notification or a copy of the publication. ...


Climate change increases the drought risk in Central European forests: what are the options for adaptation?

Forestry Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 January 2014),


The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher ...


Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 311 (January 2014), pp. 3-16,


[Highlights] [::] C:N ratio in forest floor, peat and mineral topsoil mainly depend on tree species. [::] Most important differences in C:N ratios are seen between deciduous and evergreen species. [::] Either soil type, ecoregion or humus type was the second most important explanatory factor. [::] There was no consistent relationship between modelled deposition and C:N ratios. [Abstract] The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of ...


Root cohesion of forest species in the Italian Alps

Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 71-89,


Forests can prevent and/or mitigate hydrogeomorphic hazards in mountainous landscapes. Their effect is particularly relevant in the case of shallow landslides phenomena, where plants decrease the water content of the soil and increase its mechanical strength. Although such an effect is well known, its quantification is a relatively new challenge. The present work estimates the effect of some forest species on hillslope stability in terms of additional root cohesion by means of a model based on the classical Wu and Waldron ...


Snow forces on forest plants due to creep and glide

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 257, No. 2. (January 2009), pp. 546-552,


Snow forces impede afforestation in the subalpine region; in particular juvenescent trees can be damaged by extraction from the ground. Such forces are mainly triggered by intense snow gliding which is a frequent phenomenon on slopes with a smooth ground surface. In this article we have investigated the effects of snow gliding processes on forest plants. The study area was situated on a south-facing slope (altitude 1900 m, inclination 30°) in the Stubai valley, Tyrol, Austria. The site is characterized by a ...


Debris-flow mitigation measures

In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 445-487,


[Excerpt] Integrated risk management is a tool to prevent, intervent, and avoid natural hazards (Amman, 2001). This includes a combination of land use planning and technical and bioengineering measures to guarantee an optimal cost-benefit ratio. An essential aspect of risk management is the design of mitigation measures which reduce the existing risk to an accepted level of residual risk. Two types of mitigation measures can be distinguished (Zollinger, 1985): active measures and passive measures. Active measures focus on the hazard, while passive measures focus on the potential damage (Huebl ...


How have exotic forest pests impacted Europe?

In Risks of Exotic Forest Pests and Their Impact on Trade (2001)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The forests of Europe, predominantly coniferous, span a wide range of age and species. For example, in the former USSR, forest cover has been present for many thousands of years, whereas in the UK, the present coniferous forest cover is typically less than 100 hundred years old. The range of pests present in any area and, more importantly, the damage they cause reflect this age and species range. Thus, efforts directed at either controlling or in some areas, keeping ...


Pathogens of the bark beetle Ips cembrae: microsporidia and gregarines also known from other Ips species

Journal of Applied Entomology, Vol. 137, No. 3. (1 April 2013), pp. 181-187,


The objective of the current study was to identify pathogens of the large larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae, which is a secondary pest that has produced several local outbreaks across Europe in recent years. Beetles were collected from pheromone traps, trap trees and emergence traps (Larix decidua) during 2007 to 2011 at 10 study sites in central Europe. A total of 3379 mature and callow beetles were examined with a light microscope, and only two microsporidian pathogens [Chytridiopsis typographi and a ...


Phenotypic and DNA sequence data comparisons reveal three discrete species in the Ceratocystis polonica species complex

Mycological Research, Vol. 109, No. 10. (October 2005), pp. 1137-1148,


Ceratocystis polonica and C. laricicola are two morphologically similar species that occur on conifers and reside in the Ceratocystis coerulescens species complex. They, however, represent two ecologically distinct entities. C. polonica causes blue stain on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and other spruce species (Picea spp.) in Eurasia and is associated with the bark beetles Ips typographus, I. typographus japonicus, I. amitinus and I. duplicatus. In contrast, C. laricicola lives in a symbiotic relationship with the bark beetles Ips cembrae and I. ...


A new Chionosphaera species associated with conifer inhabiting bark beetles

Mycological Research, Vol. 105, No. 11. (November 2001), pp. 1403-1408,


An undescribed species of the heterobasidiomycetous genus Chionosphaera is carried by the bark beetles Dryocoetus autographus, Hylurgops palliatus, Ips acuminatus, Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus, Orthotomicus laricis, Pityogenes chalcographus, Pityokteines spinidens, and Polygraphus poligraphus infesting conifers in Europe (Abies alba, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris). Chionosphaera cuniculicola sp. nov. differs morphologically from C. apobasidialis in the more slender basidiospores. The segregation of the two species is supported by comparison of partial sequences of the large subunit of the ribosomal gene. ...


Flooding tolerance of Central European tree and shrub species

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (November 2006), pp. 1-13,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-campestre   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanus   aesculus-hippocastanum   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   betula-pendula   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   cornus-sanguinea   corylus-avellana   crataegus-monogyna   disturbances   fagus-sylvatica   floods   forest-resources   frangula-alnus   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-communis   larix-decidua   malus-sylvestris   picea-abies   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   prunus-domestica   prunus-mahaleb   prunus-padus   prunus-spinosa   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   robinia-pseudoacacia   salix-alba   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sambucus-nigra   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   taxus-baccata   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   tolerance   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   viburnum-opulus   water-resources  


Extensive efforts have been made in recent years to restore rivers with a view to increasing the ecological value of riparian areas and the surrounding landscape and to improving the protection provided against extreme flooding events. One of the important factors for the successful establishment and survival of tree and shrub species in enlarged river corridors (particularly in lowlands) – and in retention basins – is their capacity to survive in anoxic conditions, i.e. their flooding tolerance. The importance of improving ...


History of Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) since 130 ka

Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 124 (September 2015), pp. 224-247,


Retrospective studies focussing on forest dynamics using fossil and genetic data can provide important keys to prepare forests for the future. In this study we analyse the impact of past climate and anthropogenic changes on Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) populations based on a new range-wide fossil compilation encompassing the last 130 ka and on recently produced genetic data (nuclear, mitochondrial). Results demonstrate that during the last 130 ka L. decidua persisted close to its current distribution range and colonized vast ...


A tree-ring reconstruction of wind disturbances in a forest of the Slovakian Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 21, No. 1. (February 2010), pp. 31-42,


[Question] Have past windstorm events influenced the structure and composition of mountain forests in the Tatra Mountains? Can severe and infrequent wind disturbances lead to dynamic coexistence of two tree species with different ecological requirements? [Location] Subalpine mixed spruce-larch forest at 1200-1300 m a.s.l. in the Slovakian Tatra Mountains. A forested site affected by catastrophic large-scale windthrow on 19 November 2004. [Methods] Sixty-seven spruce and 30 larch cross-sections from the oldest cohorts were collected in a regular pattern in a 100-ha plot. Tree-ring ...


Programme for the restoration of plant cover in the Kampinos National Park

Memorabilia Zoologica, Vol. 32 (1979), pp. 149-158


A competent cooperation with natural processes of the recovery of plant com m unities is considered as a basis for the restoration of plant cover in the Kampinos Forest through the reforestation of arable lands and reconstruction of the species composition of already existing tree stands. The author describes 12 potential phytosociological units (associations and subassociations) recognized on the “Map of potential plant communities of the Kampinos Forest” being the m ain reference source in carrying out the programme for the ...


Larix decidua Mill. in Romania: current and past distribution, coenotic preferences, and conservation status

Contribuții Botanice, Vol. 48 (2013), pp. 39-50


This paper aims to present an overview of the Larix decidua Mill. formations in Romania, in terms of phytosociology, sozology and phytohistory. We have analyzed data from the literature regarding the associations containing larch, and their current fragmented distribution in the Romanian Carpathians. The latter is influenced by the ecological requirements of the species, as well as by human influence through deforestation and reforestation. It is assumed that natural populations of Larix decidua are concentrated in five major centres: the Ceahlau, ...


Larix decidua

In Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie, Vol. 3 (2002)


Die Weichselkirsche ist ein höchstens 10 m hoher, kleiner Baum mit kurzem Stamm und breiter Krone, auf ungünstigen Standorten bleibt sie ein Strauch. Ihr Verbreitungsgebiet liegt in Südeuropa und zieht sich über den Kaukasus bis nach Turkestan hin. Als dürreresistente, thermophile Art mit hohen Lichtansprüchen gedeiht sie vor allem auf felsigen, flachen Kalkböden; in geschlossenen Waldbeständen kommt sie nicht vor. Da das Holz angenehm nach Cumarin duftet, stellt man Schmuck und kleinere Gebrauchsgegenstände daraus her. Ihre etwas bitter schmeckenden Früchte verwendet ...


Mechanisms, effects and management implications of rockfall in forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 215, No. 1-3. (August 2005), pp. 183-195,


At the scale of forest stands, there is a lack of quantitative, statistically valid data on the protective effect of forests against rockfall. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to quantify the velocities, rebound heights as well as the residual hazard of rockfall on a forested and a non-forested slope. The second objective was to evaluate existing rockfall protection forest management guidelines, as well as the underlying criteria. We carried out and analysed 100 real size rockfall experiments at ...


Larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

In Trees III, Vol. 16 (1991), pp. 446-470,
edited by Y. P. S. Bajaj


The genus Larix includes about 15 species of deciduous trees, widely distributed over the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They grow in central and northern Europe, in North America, and in Asia, from the Himalayas to Siberia and Japan. The altitudinal range of Larix extends from sea level to the upper treeline in mountains. Many larch species grow in the cool regions of Asia, where they belong to the economically most important species (Krüssmann 1979; Horsman 1988). ...


Larix decidua

In Fire Effects Information System (1994)


The Fire Effects Information System is an online collection of reviews of the scientific literature about fire effects on plants and animals and about fire regimes of plant communities in the United States. FEIS reviews are based on thorough literature searches, often supplemented with insights from field scientists and managers. FEIS provides reviews that are efficient to use, thoroughly documented, and defensible. Approximately 15 to 30 new or revised reviews are published in FEIS each year. There are 3 types of ...


Current trends in management practices for European larch in North America

The Forestry Chronicle, Vol. 78, No. 6. (December 2002), pp. 822-829,


European larch (Larix decidua Miller) was introduced to North America in the mid-19th century. Its rapid growth led to its use as a reforestation species in northeastern North America during the early part of the 20th century. Proper site selection and vegetation management are crucial to the successful establishment and productivity of this species. On comparable sites, yields of European larch commonly exceed those of native species. Management practices and applied research for this species in North America include the refinement ...


Larix decidua var. polonica - Version 2014.3

In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2014), 34161/0


[Excerpt] This variety is very limited in its distribution and the localities mentioned in the literature that could be trusted are few, probably only three to five. Some mapped occurrences by Ostenfeld and Syrach Larsen (1930) on the Wista near Warsaw and even beyond are more probably based on introduced larch trees than on natural subpopulations. The localities discussed and photographed are all near each other where “single specimens” are mapped and these are vouchered by herbarium collections. Its area of ...


Das Alphorn in der Schweiz


Larix decidua - Version 2014.3

In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2014), 42309/0


[Excerpt] Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)The species is widespread and common to abundant in much of its range; the European Larch is in fact expanding (northwards) with the abandonment of alpine cattle grazing in many parts of high altitude Europe. Larix decidua var. polonica has been assessed separately as it is Endangered. As this variety represents only a very small part of the European population and range, that assessment does not affect the ...


The larch casebearer and its host tree:: I. Population dynamics of the larch casebearer (Coleophora laricella Hbn.) from latent to outbreak density in the field

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 136, No. 1-3. (October 2000), pp. 11-22,


The population changes of two larch casebearer (Coleophora laricella Hbn.) populations were analysed under field conditions from 1991 to 1995 using a differential analysis: one insect species feeding at the same time on two needle types (spurshoot and longshoot needles) of two host species (European and Japanese Larch) under two different environments (Solling hills: resource-rich stand, lowlands: resource-poor stand). Casebearer density in the lowlands was always significantly lower than in the Solling hills. The main factors regulating casebearer density were obviously ...


Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (1 March 2015), pp. 281-295,


[Summary] [::] The resilience, diversity and stability of mountain ecosystems are threatened by climatic as well as land-use changes, but the combined effects of these drivers are only poorly understood. [::] We combine two high-resolution sediment records from Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) and Lauenensee (1382 m a.s.l.) at different elevations in the Northern Swiss Alps to provide a detailed history of vegetational changes during the period of first pastoralism (ca. 7000–5000 cal. BP, 5000–3000 BC) in order to understand ongoing and future changes ...


Ecological effects of introduced tree species in Britain

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (2001), pp. 31-42,


Non-native trees have been introduced to Britain and native trees have been redistributed for over 2000 years, but most species were introduced in the last 400 years, and the ecological consequences have not yet been fully manifested. Introduction has been followed by various forms of adaptation to British conditions: (i) genetic changes in the trees themselves, (ii) assimilation into forest communities, (iii) colonisation by native plants, animals and fungi and (iv) gradual cultural acceptance. Nevertheless, some naturalised shrubs are widely regarded ...


Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 2. (4 February 2015), pp. 225-245,


Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water-holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, the ...


Flooding tolerance of Central European tree and shrub species

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (2006), pp. 1-13,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-campestre   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanus   aesculus-hippocastanum   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   amelancier-ovalis   anoxia   berberis-vulgaris   betula-pendula   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   central-europe   corylus-avellana   crataegus-laevigata   crataegus-monogyna   fagus-sylvatica   flooding-tolerance   frangula-alnus   fraxinus-excelsior   hippophae-rhamnoides   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-communis   larix-decidua   ligustrum-vulgare   lonicera-xylosteum   malus-sylvestris   picea-abies   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   processes   prunus-avium   prunus-domestica   prunus-malaheb   prunus-padus   prunus-spinosa   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   rhamnus-cathartica   riparian-forest   river-restoration   robinia-pseudoacacia   salix-alba   salix-appendiculata   salix-caprea   salix-cinera   salix-daphnoides   salix-elaeagnos   salix-fragilis   salix-myrsinifolia-nigricans   salix-pentandra   salix-purpurea   salix-triandra   salix-viminalis   sambucus-nigra   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   taxus-baccata   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus  


Extensive efforts have been made in recent years to restore rivers with a view to increasing the ecological value of riparian areas and the surrounding landscape and to improving the protection provided against extreme flooding events. One of the important factors for the successful establishment and survival of tree and shrub species in enlarged river corridors (particularly in lowlands) – and in retention basins – is their capacity to survive in anoxic conditions, i.e. their flooding tolerance. The importance of improving ...


Genetic differentiation in Zeiraphera diniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, the larch budmoth): polymorphism, host races or sibling species?

Heredity, Vol. 75, No. 4. (October 1995), pp. 416-424,


Eleven larch- and pine-feeding populations of the larch budmoth were studied in Western Europe using 24 allozyme loci. Hierarchical F-statistics between larch and pine forms (FST≈0.065) were much greater than those between localities within larch (FST≈0.002) and within pine (FST≈0.026), even when sympatric host-associated populations were considered. Analysis of Nei's genetic distance produced similar results, and a upgma tree of all populations consistently clustered samples from the same hosts together. Three loci, autosomal Pgm and Mdh-s and sex-linked Idh-s, were the ...


The role of larch budmoth (Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) on forest succession in a larch (Larix decidua Mill.) and Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) stand in the Susa Valley (Piedmont, Italy)

Trees In Trees, Vol. 20, No. 3. (2006), pp. 371-382,


In the Alps, larch (Larix decidua Mill.) is severely affected by larch budmoth (Zeiraphera diniana Guénée) (LBM) attacks. The impact of these outbreaks on the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) and on the dynamic processes acting in subalpine forest stands are still not well known. Dendroecological methods were used in this study to reconstruct past LBM outbreaks in Susa Valley, Piedmont, Italy. The analysis was carried out on 62 cores from larch and 101 cores from stone pine. The length ...


Species selection for soil reinforcement and protection

In Slope Stability and Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions (2008), pp. 167-210,


Species selection is vitally important for ensuring the success of any ecotechnological solution that may be employed on a particular site. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the engineer with a database of plant species that are suitable for both soil and slope stability by either mechanical or hydrological means, i.e., anchoring and buttressing of deep tap roots; bank and channel reinforcement; deep reinforcement and soil strength enhancement; removing soil moisture, surface protection, shallow reinforcement and erosion control. Protection ...


Selecting tree species for use in rockfall-protection forests

Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 77-88


Research on protection forests designed to alleviate rockfall hazard has increased enormously over the last decade. Data are available concerning the most suitable stem spacing and density regimes in stands.The species used in protection forests can also influence enormously the effectiveness of the forest in conferring a protective role. Little information exists, however, about either the mechanical resistance of different species to rock impacts or the recovery processes after sustaining a wound. This paper provides a short review of the work ...


Ice age legacies in the geographical distribution of tree species richness in Europe

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 16, No. 2. (1 March 2007), pp. 234-245,
Keywords: abies-alba   abies-borisii-regis   abies-cephalonica   abies-pinsapo   alnus-cordata   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   celtis-australis   climate-change   corylus-colurna   fagus-orientalis   fagus-sylvatica   forest-resources   juglans-regia   juniperus-drupacea   juniperus-excelsa   larix-decidua   laurus-nobilis   ostrya-carpinifolia   paleo-climate   picea-abies   picea-omorika   pinus-brutia   pinus-cembra   pinus-halepensis   pinus-heldreichii   pinus-nigra   pinus-peuce   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   quercus-canariensis   quercus-cerris   quercus-faginea   quercus-frainetto   quercus-ilex   quercus-pedunculiflora   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-pyrenaica   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-sicula   quercus-suber   salix-alba   salix-fragilis   taxus-baccata   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor  


Aim  This study uses a high-resolution simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate to assess: (1) whether LGM climate still affects the geographical species richness patterns in the European tree flora and (2) the relative importance of modern and LGM climate as controls of tree species richness in Europe. Location  The parts of Europe that were unglaciated during the LGM. Methods  Atlas data on the distributions of 55 tree species were linked with data on modern and LGM climate and ...


Limited filling of the potential range in European tree species

Ecology Letters, Vol. 7, No. 7. (01 June 2004), pp. 565-573,


The relative roles of environment and history in controlling large-scale species distributions are important not only theoretically, but also for forecasting range responses to climatic change. Here, we use atlas data to examine the extent to which 55 tree species fill their climatically determined potential ranges in Europe. Quantifying range filling (R/P) as realized/potential range size ratios using bioclimatic envelope modelling we find mean R/P = 38.3% (±30.3% SD). Many European tree species naturalize extensively outside their native ranges, providing support for interpreting ...


Quantifying components of risk for European woody species under climate change

Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, No. 9. (September 2006), pp. 1788-1799,


Estimates of species extinction risk under climate change are generally based on differences in present and future climatically suitable areas. However, the locations of potentially suitable future environments (affecting establishment success), and the degree of climatic suitability in already occupied and new locations (affecting population viability) may be equally important determinants of risk. A species considered to be at low risk because its future distribution is predicted to be large, may actually be at high risk if these areas are out ...


Scientific Opinion of the PLH Panel: Evaluation of Pest Risk Analysis on Phytophthora ramorum

EFSA Journal, Vol. 9, No. 6. (2011), 2186,


The Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Pest Risk Analysis on Phytophthora ramorum prepared by the FP6 project RAPRA, taking into account comments by Member States and additional information since RAPRA. P. ramorum is the oomycete causing sudden oak death in the USA and leaf and twig blight/dieback on a range of ornamental species in North America and Europe. Currently P. ramorum is not listed as a harmful organism in Council Directive 2000/29/EC, but ...


Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Vol. 2, No. 4. (11 April 2014), pp. 2639-2680,


Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, ...


Remote sensing of larch phenological cycle and analysis of relationships with climate in the Alpine region

Global Change Biology, Vol. 16, No. 9. (March 2010), pp. 2504-2517,


This research aims at developing a remote sensing technique for monitoring the interannual variability of the European larch phenological cycle in the Alpine region of Aosta Valley (Northern Italy) and to evaluate its relationships with climatic factors. Phenological field observations were conducted in eight test sites from 2005 to 2007 to determine the dates of completion of different phenological phases. MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) 250 m 16-days normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series were fitted with double logistic curves and ...


Phenological monitoring of grassland and larch in the Alps from Terra and Aqua MODIS images

Italian Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 43 (31 October 2011), pp. 83-96,


This study compares MODIS NDVI 16-day (250 m) time series, acquired by Terra and Aqua platforms, for monitoring the phenological cycle of larch and grasslands in an alpine environment. The accuracy of MODIS 250 m Terra and Aqua phenological metrics was evaluated for larch forests through comparison with field data. At regional level it was carried out a correlation analysis between the mean dates of start and end of season detected from MODIS Terra and Aqua in different years. Regional maps ...


Conifers as invasive aliens: a global survey and predictive framework

Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 10, No. 5-6. (06 September 2004), pp. 321-331,


We summarize information on naturalized and invasive conifers (class Pinopsida) worldwide (data from 40 countries, some with remote states/territories), and contrast these findings with patterns for other gymnosperms (classes Cycadopsida, Gnetopsida and Ginkgoopsida) and for woody angiosperms. Eighty conifer taxa (79 species and one hybrid; 13% of species) are known to be naturalized, and 36 species (6%) are 'invasive'. This categorization is based on objective and conservative criteria relating to consistency of reproduction, distance of spread from founders, and degree of ...


Growth trends and dynamics in sub-alpine forest stands in the Varaita Valley (Piedmont, Italy) and their relationships with human activities and global change

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 12, No. 2. (April 2001), pp. 219-230,


A study of the forest lines, tree lines and the structures of the sub-alpine forest was performed in Vallone Vallanta and in Alevé forest in the Varaita Valley (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, Italy). Forest- and tree lines were analysed over 1728 ha while forest structures were studied on six 3000-m2 plots located at the tree line (2), at the forest line (2) and inside the sub-alpine forest (2). Dendro-ecological analysis of living plants and stumps showed that Larix decidua was more abundant ...


Waves of Larch Budmoth Outbreaks in the European Alps

Science, Vol. 298, No. 5595. (01 November 2002), pp. 1020-1023,


Spatially extended population models predict complex spatiotemporal patterns, such as spiral waves and spatial chaos, as a result of the reaction-diffusion dynamics that arise from trophic interactions. However, examples of such patterns in ecological systems are scarce. We develop a quantitative technique to demonstrate the existence of waves in Central European larch budmoth (Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) outbreaks. We show that these waves travel toward the northeast-east at 210 kilometers per year. A theoretical model involving a moth-enemy interaction predicts directional waves, ...


Disturbance history and dynamics of an old-growth mixed species mountain forest in the Slovenian Alps

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 257, No. 9. (April 2009), pp. 1893-1901,


A long history of human presence in the Alps has made studies of natural forest structure, composition, and disturbance processes difficult. In the Slovenian Alps, we identified a mixed European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)-silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)-Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand with old-growth characteristics that escaped past cutting. We reconstructed the dynamics of the stand using a combination of stand and age structure analyses, dendroecological evidence of past canopy disturbance, and historical evidence of past human activities. The ...


Growth responses to climate in a multi-species tree-ring network in the Western Carpathian Tatra Mountains, Poland and Slovakia

Tree Physiology, Vol. 27, No. 5. (01 May 2007), pp. 689-702,


We analyzed growth responses to climate of 24 tree-ring width and four maximum latewood density chronologies from the greater Tatra region in Poland and Slovakia. This network comprises 1183 ring-width and 153 density measurement series from four conifer species (Picea abies (L.) Karst., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba (L.) Karst., and Pinus mugo (L.)) between 800 and 1550 m a.s.l. Individual spline detrending was used to retain annual to multi-decadal scale climate information in the data. Twentieth century temperature and precipitation ...


Plant pathology: Sudden larch death

Nature, Vol. 466, No. 7308. (12 August 2010), pp. 824-825,


An aggressive and unpredictable fungal pathogen is devastating larch plantations in Britain. Its remarkably broad host range, and the possibility of further geographical spread, give heightened cause for concern. ...

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