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Selection: with tag landslides [66 articles] 


Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows: a case study in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22, No. 1. (1 February 2002), pp. 32-39,[0032:fetsdo];2


The spatial distribution of 961 debris flows in the Upper Aragón and Gállego valleys (Central Spanish Pyrenees) was analyzed. Most were located in the Flysch Sector (with a colluvium mantle derived from strongly tectonically modified materials), between 1000 and 1400 m above sea level, on 25?35° gradients with sunny exposure. These gradients were either hillslopes covered by frequently burned scrubland, abandoned fields, or reforested land, confirming the influence of land use and disturbed landscapes on the occurrence of debris flows. ...


Investigation of root reinforcement decay after a forest fire in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) protection forest

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 400 (September 2017), pp. 339-352,


[Highlights] [::] Engineering resilience of Scots pine 4 years after forest fire has been quantified. [::] Spatial distribution of root reinforcement (RR) has been modeled. [::] RR decay by a factor of 3.6, 4 years after a stand replacing forest fire. [::] Natural regeneration has almost no root reinforcement 4 years after fire. [::] Decay of root mechanical properties determine most of RR loss. [Abstract] Natural disturbances may cause a temporary reduction or elimination of the protective effect of forests. The management of protection forests aims to influence ...


Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds

Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 61, No. 1. (17 March 2012), pp. 217-227,


Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these ...


The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

CATENA, Vol. 38, No. 4. (February 2000), pp. 279-300,


The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of logging on landslide activity in Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A total of 1004 landslides were documented in order to test the hypothesis that areas affected by logging activities show different density, frequency and magnitude characteristics of landsliding than areas unaffected by logging. The frequency of landslides in logged terrain was found to be nine times higher than in undisturbed forest. An exponential increase ...


Fire effects on soils: the human dimension

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (05 June 2016), 20150171,


Soils are among the most valuable non-renewable resources on the Earth. They support natural vegetation and human agro-ecosystems, represent the largest terrestrial organic carbon stock, and act as stores and filters for water. Mankind has impacted on soils from its early days in many different ways, with burning being the first human perturbation at landscape scales. Fire has long been used as a tool to fertilize soils and control plant growth, but it can also substantially change vegetation, enhance soil erosion ...


How does BGS classify landslides?

In Engineering geology (2016)


[Excerpt] The classification of landslides by the BGS currently follows the scheme based on Varnes (1978) and Cruden & Varnes (1996). The scheme terminology is also that suggested by the Unesco Working Party on the 'World Landslide Inventory' (WP/WLI 1990, 1993). [\n] The main classification criteria are: [::] type of movement (falls, topples, slides spreads, flows) [::] type of material involved in the movement (rock, debris, earth) [\n] Combining movement and material type terms enables an appropriately descriptive landslide name to be formulated. Naming can ...

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Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici



[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...


  1. ARPA Lombardia. Servizio Idrografico. .
  2. ASR Lombardia (2014). Valori medi dei terreni agricoli in Provincia di Cremona - Regione agraria. .
  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). .
  5. Autorità di bacino del

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA

Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 28, No. 11-12. (June 2009), pp. 1131-1146,


The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented post-fire geomorphic response. Here, we describe field observations and topographic analyses for three sites in the central Oregon Coast Range that ...


Wildfire-related debris flow from a hazards perspective

In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 363-385,


[Excerpt: Introduction] Wildland fire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Consumption of the rainfall-intercepting canopy and of the soil-mantling litter and duff, intensive drying of the soil, combustion of soil-binding organic matter, and the enhancement or formation of water-repellent soils can change the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, leading to decreased rainfall infiltration, subsequent significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil (e.g., Swanson, 1981; Spittler, 1995; Doerr et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; ...


Landslide-facilitated species diversity in a beech-dominant forest

Ecological Research In Ecological Research, Vol. 28, No. 1. (4 November 2013), pp. 29-41,


To evaluate the extent to which landslides affect community dynamics and consequent species diversity in a beech-dominated forest, differences in the composition and size structure of tree species were compared between landslide and adjacent stable (control) stands. Demography and changes in size were compared between the two stands over a 5-year period about 60 years after a landslide. In the control stand, replacement occurred even amongst late-successional species, with beech ( Fagus crenata )—the most dominant species—increasing in relative abundance. In ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 21

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   italy   iucn   iucn-critically-endangered-cr   iucn-data-deficient-dd   iucn-endangered-en   iucn-extinct-in-the-wild-ew   iucn-least-concern-lc   iucn-lower-risk-least-concern-lrlc   iucn-lower-risk-near-threatened-lrnt   iucn-near-threatened-nt   iucn-vulnerable-vu   iverson-bracket   janus-abbreviatus   japan   jatropha-curcas   joint-research-centre   journal-ranking   jubaea-chilensis   juglans-jamaicensis   juglans-mandshurica   juglans-nigra   juglans-regia   juglans-spp   juniper-wood   juniperus-californica   juniperus-cedrus   juniperus-communis   juniperus-deppeana   juniperus-drupacea   juniperus-excelsa   juniperus-foetidissima   juniperus-monosperma   juniperus-occidentalis   juniperus-osteosperma   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-phoenicea   juniperus-rigida   juniperus-silicicola   juniperus-spp   juniperus-thurifera   juniperus-virginiana   kalmia-latifolia   kalopanax-septemlobus   kappa   kazdaglari   kenya   kernel-based-methods   kk10   knn-distance   knowledge-engineering   knowledge-freedom   knowledge-integration   knowledge-management   kolkwitzia-amabilis   koompassia-excelsa   korea   kosovo   la-nina   laburnum-alpinum   laburnum-anagyroides   lag-effect   lagarostrobos-franklinii   lagerstroemia-speciosa   lagoon   lagopus-muta   lagunaria-patersoni   laguncularia-racemosa   lai   lamiastrum-galeobdolon   lamium-orvala   land   land-cover   land-disuse   land-evaluation   land-management   land-use   land-use-changes   land-use-driven-climate-change   land-use-dynamics   land-use-intensity   land-use-land-cover-changes   landform   landsat   landscape   landscape-changes   landscape-dynamics   landscape-genetics   landscape-modelling   landslides   landslides-as-major-erosion-process   language-design   languages   languages-death   lapse-rate   large-scale   large-vs-wide-scale   larix-chinensis   larix-decidua   larix-eurolepis  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Killer landslides: the lasting legacy of Nepal's quake

Nature, Vol. 532, No. 7600. (25 April 2016), pp. 428-431,


A year after a devastating earthquake triggered killer avalanches and rock falls in Nepal, scientists are wiring up mountainsides to forecast hazards. [Excerpt] [...] “It’s a real problem for reconstruction,” says Tara Nidhi Bhattarai, a geologist at Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu and chief scientist of Nepal’s National Reconstruction Authority — an agency established last year to manage the recovery efforts. “What are the safe places to rebuild, in a landscape that is evolving?” [\n] To answer that, geoscientists are wiring up the mountains ...


Sustainable land use in the European Union

CULTIVAR Cadernos de Análise e Prospetiva, Vol. 2 (2015), pp. 13-20


[Excerpt: Introduction] Soil is defined as the top layer of the earth’s crust. It is formed by mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms. In fact, soil is an extremely complex, variable and living medium. It can be considered essentially as a non-renewable resource since soil formation is an extremely slow process. Soil provides us with food, biomass and raw materials. It serves as a platform for human activities and landscape. It is also an archive of heritage and plays ...


  1. European Commission, 2006. Commission staff working document - Document accompanying the Communication from the Commission to the Council, The European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection - Impact assessment of the thematic strategy on soil protection. Commission Staff Working Document 2006 (SEC/2006/0620).
  2. Fenn, T., Fleet, D., Garrett, L., Daly, E., Elding, C., Hartman, M., Udo, J., 2014. Study on Economic and

European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Green paper on forest protection and information in the EU: preparing forests for climate change

COM Documents, Vol. 2010, No. COM/2010/0066 final. (1 March 2010)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The purpose of this Green Paper is to launch the debate on options for a European Union (EU) approach to forest protection and information in the framework of the EU Forest Action Plan, as announced by the Commission in the White Paper "Adapting to Climate Change: towards a European Framework for action"[1]. The Council conclusions of 25 June 2009 on this White Paper underlined that climate change has had and will have an impact, inter alia, on forests. As these ...


Commission staff working document - impact assessment, Part 1 accompanying the document: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0132 final. (16 April 2013)


[Excerpt: Climate change and the need for adaptation] The increase in global surface temperature is the most obvious aspect of anthropogenic climate change. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the preindustrial average, which makes the increase over Europe faster than the global average. Moreover, significant economic losses[6] and human fatalities associated with extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts and heavy precipitation, have been registered. [\n] Climate change will continue for ...


Ecological mitigation of hillslope instability: ten key issues facing researchers and practitioners

Plant and Soil, Vol. 377, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 1-23,


[Background] Plants alter their environment in a number of ways. With correct management, plant communities can positively impact soil degradation processes such as surface erosion and shallow landslides. However, there are major gaps in our understanding of physical and ecological processes on hillslopes, and the application of research to restoration and engineering projects. [Scope] To identify the key issues of concern to researchers and practitioners involved in designing and implementing projects to mitigate hillslope instability, we organized a discussion during the Third International Conference ...


Planted forests and water in perspective

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 251, No. 1-2. (October 2007), pp. 1-9,


Afforestation is increasingly considered as a land use activity that threatens water resources security. At the same time, it is advocated for a wide range of other water-related benefits. We review the contributions to this special issue and the wider literature, intended as a contribution towards a framework for predicting the impact on water resources and other water-related issues of afforestation in agricultural landscapes. Current evidence suggests that afforestation will typically reduce local average water yield as well as low flows. ...


Root cohesion of forest species in the Italian Alps

Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 71-89,


Forests can prevent and/or mitigate hydrogeomorphic hazards in mountainous landscapes. Their effect is particularly relevant in the case of shallow landslides phenomena, where plants decrease the water content of the soil and increase its mechanical strength. Although such an effect is well known, its quantification is a relatively new challenge. The present work estimates the effect of some forest species on hillslope stability in terms of additional root cohesion by means of a model based on the classical Wu and Waldron ...


The influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply: a flume-based investigation using sandy soil

Engineering Geology, Vol. 109, No. 3-4. (05 November 2009), pp. 161-169,
Keywords: discharge   hillslope   landslides   rainfall   sediment  


The impact of rainfall-induced shallow landslides on hillslope sediment discharge is not well understood. This paper reports experimental measurements of sediment discharge after water-induced shallow landslides are triggered on sandy soil in a flume under simulated rainfall. The principal aim of the research was to investigate how varying soil depth affects the location and occurrence of shallow slope failures, as well as how it affects sediment yields downslope. Four experiments were conducted using the same sandy soil and a 30° and ...


A suggested method for reporting landslide causes

In Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology - Bulletin de l'Association Internationale de Géologie de l'Ingénieur, Vol. 50, No. 1. (1994), pp. 71-74,
Keywords: landslides   methods   reporting  

Soil erosion assessment and its verification using the Universal Soil Loss Equation and geographic information system: a case study at Boun, Korea

In Environmental Geology, Vol. 45, No. 4. (2004), pp. 457-465,


This study is aimed at the evaluation of the hazard of soil erosion and its verification at Boun, Korea, using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. Precipitation, topographic, soil, and land use data were collected, processed, and constructed into a spatial database using GIS and remote sensing data. Areas that had suffered soil erosion were analysed and mapped using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The factors that influence soil erosion are rainfall erosivitiy (R) from the precipitation database, ...


Application of the revised universal soil loss equation model on landslide prevention. An example from N. Euboea (Evia) Island, Greece

In Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 70, No. 7. (2013), pp. 3255-3266,
Keywords: greece   landslides   soil-loss  

Physically based modelling of shallow landslide sediment yield at a catchment scale

Environmental Geology, Vol. 35, No. 2-3. (1998), pp. 89-99,


A shallow landslide erosion and sediment yield component, applicable at the basin scale, has been incorporated into the physically based, spatially distributed, hydrological and sediment transport modelling system, SHETRAN. The component determines when and where landslides occur in a basin in response to time-varying rainfall and snowmelt, the volume of material eroded and released for onward transport, and the impact on basin sediment yield. Derived relationships are used to link the SHETRAN grid resolution (up to 1 km), at which the basin ...


Landslide erosion controlled by hillslope material

Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, No. 4. (28 February 2010), pp. 247-251,
Keywords: erosion   fluvial   glacial   hillslope   landslides  


Steep hillslopes in mountain belts are eroded by landslides, and landsliding is ultimately driven by the topographic relief produced by fluvial and glacial erosion1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Landslide erosion rates are derived from estimates of landslide volume and can help to appraise landscape responses to tectonic, climatic and anthropogenic forcing. However, the scaling relationships—power-law equations that are used to estimate the volume of the landslide from the area of the failure—are derived from a limited number of measurements, and do ...


Linking plant morphological traits to uprooting resistance in eroded marly lands (Southern Alps, France)

Plant and Soil In Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 31-42,


In marly catchments of the French Southern Alps, soils are subjected to harsh water erosion that can result in concentrated flows uprooting small plants. Evaluating and predicting plant resistance to uprooting from simple plant traits is therefore highly important so that the most efficient plant strategy for future restoration of eroded slopes can be defined. Twelve species growing on marly land were studied. For each species, in-situ lateral uprooting tests were conducted and morphological plant traits were measured on small plants ...


Assessing the role of vegetation on soil slopes in urban areas

In Proceedings of the 10th IAEG International Congress, IAEG2006 (2006), 744


Vegetation has generally been recognised for its aesthetic landscaping qualities in the urban environment, especially along transportation corridors and for use as noise barriers. The detrimental effects of vegetation are also recognised. Trees and shrubs draw out moisture from the ground through evapotranspiration processes, which leads to the seasonal shrinkage and swelling of clay soils. In adverse climatic conditions, e.g. prolonged hot and dry summers, moisture reduction in clay soils may cause substantial damage to buildings and property. This paper reports on recent projects and studies in ...


Stabilization of landslides with bio-engineering measures in South Tyrol/Italy and Thankot/Nepal

In Proceedings of the International Congress INTERPRAEVENT 2002 in the Pacific Rim, Vol. 2 (2002), pp. 827-837


Soil bioengineering is a suitable technique to protect slopes against surface erosion, to reduce the risk of planar sliding and to improve surface drainage. It uses living plants and other auxiliary materials for construction. Plants for soil bioengineering purposes are selected for criteria such as pioneer plant character, dense and deep rooting system, potential of adventitious rooting system and fast and simple propagation. The research work at the Vienna Department of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction was especially focussed on these ...


Estimation of direct landslide costs in industrialized countries: Challenges, concepts, and case study

In Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment (2014), pp. 661-667,


This paper presents a short summary of the challenges and concepts in previous landslide loss studies and introduces a methodological framework for the estimation of direct landslide costs in industrialized countries. A case study of landslide losses for federal roads in the Lower Saxon Uplands (NW Germany) exemplifies the application of this methodology in a regional setting. [\n] Globally, the costs of landslide damage are proven to be of economic significance, but yet efforts for their systematic estimation are still rare. The ...


Landslide process and impacts: A proposed classification method

Catena, Vol. 104 (May 2013), pp. 219-232,


Various impacts of landslides have increased in past decades due to the rapid growth of urbanization in the developing world. Landslide effects have damaged many aspects of human life and the natural environment, and many difficulties remain for accurate assessments and evaluations. Many investigations by landslide researchers have attempted to achieve a comprehensive view of landslide consequences, however, the lack of further systematic studies have resulted in a limited view. Hence, this study considers an alternative classification theory concerning significant concepts ...


Economic valuation of landslide damage in hilly regions: A case study from Flanders, Belgium

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 447 (March 2013), pp. 323-336,


Several regions around the globe are at risk of incurring damage from landslides, but only few studies have concentrated on a quantitative estimate of the overall damage caused by landslides at a regional scale. This study therefore starts with a quantitative economic assessment of the direct and indirect damage caused by landslides in a 2910 km2 study area located west of Brussels, a low-relief region susceptible to landslides. Based on focus interviews as well as on semi-structured interviews with homeowners, civil ...


Evidence for repeated re-activation of old landslides under forest

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 34, No. 3. (15 March 2009), pp. 352-365,


Local reactivations of landslides in forests are rarely reported in landslide catalogues. The occurrence of hillslope sections with fresh morphological landslide features in forested old, deep-seated landslides, however, suggests that landslide reactivations are not restricted to residential areas. In this study, a dendrogeomorphological analysis of beech stands was used to investigate the periods of reactivation of a deep-seated rotational slide in the Koppenberg forest (Flemish Ardennes, Belgium). The relation to rainfall and the correspondence to landslide reactivations reported in a nearby ...


Association between cedar decline and hillslope stability in mountainous regions of southeast Alaska

Geomorphology, Vol. 46, No. 1-2. (July 2002), pp. 129-142,


Old-growth forests experiencing widespread decline of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) in southeast Alaska have a 3.8-fold increase in the frequency of landslides. We report here on an investigation of the cause of this increased slope instability. Time since death of cedar was assessed using surveys around landslide sites. Root decay on dead trees was used to estimate the decline in the apparent soil strength provided by roots. Changes in soil hydrology were measured with 120 piezometers located in areas of healthy cedar, ...


Significance of tree root decomposition for shallow landslides

Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2009), pp. 79-94


Tree-root systems can prevent shallow landslides. In layers permeated by roots, the soil shows greater stability as roots are able to absorb forces. When protective forests die off extensively as a consequence of a bark beetle outbreak or of another disturbance (e.g. storms or fires), their protective power on the slope stability decreases with the decomposition of the roots of the dead trees. By determining the relation between the tensile strength of roots and the tree's time of death, the decrease ...


Mechanisms, effects and management implications of rockfall in forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 215, No. 1-3. (August 2005), pp. 183-195,


At the scale of forest stands, there is a lack of quantitative, statistically valid data on the protective effect of forests against rockfall. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to quantify the velocities, rebound heights as well as the residual hazard of rockfall on a forested and a non-forested slope. The second objective was to evaluate existing rockfall protection forest management guidelines, as well as the underlying criteria. We carried out and analysed 100 real size rockfall experiments at ...


Landslide hazard assessment: summary review and new perspectives

Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol. 58, No. 1. (1999), pp. 21-44,


This paper deals with several aspects of the assessment of hazard and risk of landsliding. In recent years the interest in this topic has increased greatly and there are many technical papers dealing with this subject in the literature. This article presents a summary review and a classification of the main approaches that have been developed world-wide. The first step is the subdivision between qualitative and quantitative methods. The first group is mainly based on the site-specific experience of experts with ...


Estimating the effects of water-induced shallow landslides on soil erosion

IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 7, No. 2. (November 2014), 910137,


Rainfall-induced landslides and soil erosion are part of a complex system of multiple interacting processes, and both are capable of significantly affecting sediment budgets. These sediment mass movements also have the potential to significantly impact on a broad network of ecosystems, in terms of their health, functionality and the services they provide. To support the integrated assessment of these processes it is necessary to develop reliable modelling architectures. This paper proposes a semi-quantitative integrated methodology for a robust assessment of soil ...


  1. W.J. van Asch, "Water erosion on slopes and landsliding in a Mediterranean landscape," Ph.D dissertation, Utrecht Univ., 1980
  2. P.H. Van Beek, "Assessment of the Influence of Changes in Landuse and Climate on Landslide Activity in a Mediterranean Environment," Ph.D dissertation, Utrecht Univ., Utrecht, 200
  3. A. Cochrane, and Acharya, G., "Changes in sediment delivery from hillslopes affected by shallow landslides and soil armouring," Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand), vol. 50, no. 1,

Influence of landslides on biophysical diversity - A perspective from British Columbia

Geomorphology, Vol. 89, No. 1-2. (September 2007), pp. 55-69,


Landslides have long been overlooked or underestimated as important natural disturbance agents. In particular the ecological role of landslides in maintaining biological diversity has been largely ignored. Here we provide a western Canadian (British Columbian) perspective on the influences of landslides on biophysical diversity, which is related in several ways to biological diversity. We recognize several types of biophysical/ecological diversity: site diversity, soil diversity, and the derivative habitat or ecosystem (including aquatic ecosystems) diversity. There are also a variety of landslide ...


Spatial indicators for the assessment of ecosystem services: providing, benefiting and connecting areas and landscape metrics

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 21 (October 2012), pp. 80-88,


The ecosystem services approach is an established framework for the balanced evaluation of ecological, economic and social landscape resources. It promotes functional synergies (win–win situations) as well as trade-offs among various benefits resulting from ecosystem processes. Spatial aspects of heterogeneity and configuration play a major role in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services and hence in human wellbeing. Cultural artifacts also contribute to landscape functionality. Because of the underlying areal aspects, an additional term, landscape service has been proposed and is increasingly ...


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe

No. COM(2012) 60 final. (2012)


[Excerpt] A bioeconomy strategy for Europe In order to cope with an increasing global population, rapid depletion of many resources, increasing environmental pressures and climate change, Europe needs to radically change its approach to production, consumption, processing, storage, recycling and disposal of biological resources. The Europe 2020 Strategy calls for a bioeconomy as a key element for smart and green growth in Europe. Advancements in bioeconomy research and innovation uptake will allow Europe to improve the management of its renewable biological ...


Applying lessons from ecological succession to the restoration of landslides

Plant and Soil In Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 157-168,


Landslides are excellent illustrations of the dynamic interplay of disturbance and succession. Restoration is difficult on landslide surfaces because of the high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in soil stability and fertility. Principles derived from more than a century of study of ecological succession can guide efforts to reduce chronic surface soil erosion and restore both biodiversity and ecosystem function. Promotion of the recovery of self-sustaining communities on landslides is feasible by stabilization with native ground cover, applications of nutrient ...


Engineering ecological protection against landslides in diverse mountain forests: Choosing cohesion models

Ecological Engineering, Vol. 45 (August 2012), pp. 55-69,


Vegetation is increasingly used to protect artificial and natural slopes against shallow landslides. Mechanically, plant roots reinforce soil along a slope by providing cohesion (cr). cr is usually estimated using either of two models: a Wu and Waldron's Model (WWM) or a Fiber Bundle Model (FBM). The WWM assumes that all fine and medium roots break simultaneously during shearing, whereas the FBM assumes progressive breakage of these roots. Both models are based on measurements of root density (RD), root tensile strength ...


Watering the forest for the trees: an emerging priority for managing water in forest landscapes

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 11, No. 6. (08 August 2013), pp. 314-321,


Widespread threats to forests resulting from drought stress are prompting a re-evaluation of priorities for water management on forest lands. In contrast to the widely held view that forest management should emphasize providing water for downstream uses, we argue that maintaining forest health in the context of a changing climate may require focusing on the forests themselves and on strategies to reduce their vulnerability to increasing water stress. Management strategies would need to be tailored to specific landscapes but could include ...


Hydrogeomorphic processes and vegetation: disturbance, process histories, dependencies and interactions

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 January 2012), pp. 9-22,


Riparian vegetation and hydrogeomorphic processes are intimately connected parts of upland catchment and fan environments. Trees, shrubs and grasses and hydrogeomorphic processes interact and depend on each other in complex ways on the hillslopes, channels and cone-shaped fans of torrential watersheds. While the presence and density of vegetation have a profound influence on hydrogeomorphic processes, the occurrence of the latter will also exert control on the presence, vitality, species, and age distribution of vegetation. This contribution aims at providing a review ...


Species selection for soil reinforcement and protection

In Slope Stability and Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions (2008), pp. 167-210,


Species selection is vitally important for ensuring the success of any ecotechnological solution that may be employed on a particular site. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the engineer with a database of plant species that are suitable for both soil and slope stability by either mechanical or hydrological means, i.e., anchoring and buttressing of deep tap roots; bank and channel reinforcement; deep reinforcement and soil strength enhancement; removing soil moisture, surface protection, shallow reinforcement and erosion control. Protection ...


Selecting tree species for use in rockfall-protection forests

Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 77-88


Research on protection forests designed to alleviate rockfall hazard has increased enormously over the last decade. Data are available concerning the most suitable stem spacing and density regimes in stands.The species used in protection forests can also influence enormously the effectiveness of the forest in conferring a protective role. Little information exists, however, about either the mechanical resistance of different species to rock impacts or the recovery processes after sustaining a wound. This paper provides a short review of the work ...


Watershed and forest management for landslide risk reduction

In Landslides – Disaster Risk Reduction (2009), pp. 633-649,


Landslide hazard can be influenced by natural resource management and rural development related activities, such as forest management, road construction, agricultural practices and river management. Vegetation cover and its utilizations may play a role in mitigating the risk of landsliding. Moreover and above all, it does play a role in mitigating the processes leading to increased landslide hazard, such as gully erosion. Thus, forest management and development are of particular concern. But all people living in mountain areas rely on the ...


Mountain protection forests against natural hazards and risks: new French developments by integrating forests in risk zoning

Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 33, No. 3. (2004), pp. 395-404,


Forests can play a very significant role in protection against natural hazards and risks in mountain lands, especially against erosion and rockfalls. This paper first assesses knowledge concerning the capacity of forests to control natural hazards, with emphasis placed on forest location in catchments or slopes. Zoning aspects are then presented; based on the use of GIS, they allow determining priorities for forestry operations (cuts and biological engineering), in view to setting up an ”optimal management” of mountain forest ecosystems. Finally, ...


Cellular‐Automata Models Applied to Natural Hazards

Computing in Science & Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3. (01 May 2000), pp. 42-51,


The concept of self‐organized criticality evolved from studies of three simple cellular‐automata models: the forest‐fire, slider‐block, and sandpile models. Each model is associated with natural hazards, which have frequency‐size statistics that are well approximated by power‐law distributions. These distributions have important implications for probabilistic hazard assessments. ...


Landslide inventories and their statistical properties

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 29, No. 6. (June 2004), pp. 687-711,


Landslides are generally associated with a trigger, such as an earthquake, a rapid snowmelt or a large storm. The landslide event can include a single landslide or many thousands. The frequency–area (or volume) distribution of a landslide event quantifies the number of landslides that occur at different sizes. We examine three well-documented landslide events, from Italy, Guatemala and the USA, each with a different triggering mechanism, and find that the landslide areas for all three are well approximated by the same ...

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