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Selection: with tag landscape-dynamics [36 articles] 


Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows: a case study in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22, No. 1. (1 February 2002), pp. 32-39,[0032:fetsdo];2


The spatial distribution of 961 debris flows in the Upper Aragón and Gállego valleys (Central Spanish Pyrenees) was analyzed. Most were located in the Flysch Sector (with a colluvium mantle derived from strongly tectonically modified materials), between 1000 and 1400 m above sea level, on 25?35° gradients with sunny exposure. These gradients were either hillslopes covered by frequently burned scrubland, abandoned fields, or reforested land, confirming the influence of land use and disturbed landscapes on the occurrence of debris flows. ...


Newly discovered landscape traps produce regime shifts in wet forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 38. (20 September 2011), pp. 15887-15891,


We describe the “landscape trap” concept, whereby entire landscapes are shifted into, and then maintained (trapped) in, a highly compromised structural and functional state as the result of multiple temporal and spatial feedbacks between human and natural disturbance regimes. The landscape trap concept builds on ideas like stable alternative states and other relevant concepts, but it substantively expands the conceptual thinking in a number of unique ways. In this paper, we (i) review the literature to develop the concept of landscape ...


Landscape - wildfire interactions in southern Europe: Implications for landscape management

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 92, No. 10. (October 2011), pp. 2389-2402,


[Abstract] Every year approximately half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires in southern Europe, causing large ecological and socio-economic impacts. Climate and land use changes in the last decades have increased fire risk and danger. In this paper we review the available scientific knowledge on the relationships between landscape and wildfires in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on its application for defining landscape management guidelines and policies that could be adopted in order to promote landscapes with ...


Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities

Nature (30 November 2016),


Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss1, 2. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity1, 3 and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref. 4), and it is thus unknown whether land-use intensification ...


Factors determining low Mediterranean ecosystems resilience to fire: the case of Pinus halepensis forests

In Ecology, Conservation and Management of Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems (2004), 20


Factors acting as drivers of low resilience to fire in Pinus halepensis ecosystems are being examined. The commonest factor seems to be fire interval. From the several time windows examined, that of, the shortest one ever reported in this type of communities (3 years only) seemed to be the most crucial. From the plant species previously existing on the site woody and herbaceous obligate seeders are mainly affected by this factor. Other factors, affecting mainly pine regeneration, are the abundance of Quercus coccifera individuals in the ...


Progress in wilderness fire science: embracing complexity

Journal of Forestry (May 2016), pp. 373-383,


Wilderness has played an invaluable role in the development of wildland fire science. Since Agee's review of the subject 15 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in the development of models and data, in understanding the complexity of wildland fire as a landscape process, and in appreciating the social factors that influence the use of wilderness fire. Regardless of all we have learned, though, the reality is that fire remains an extraordinarily complex process with variable effects that create essential ...


A climate-based model to predict potential treeline position around the globe

Alpine Botany, Vol. 124, No. 1. (2014), pp. 1-12,


In situ temperature measurements revealed that the position of the high-elevation treeline is associated with a minimum seasonal mean air temperature within a temperature-defined minimum season length across latitudes. Here, we build upon this experience and present the results of a global statistical analysis and a predictive model for low temperature treeline positions. We identified 376 natural treelines from satellite images across the globe, and searched for their closest climatic proxies using a climate database. The analysis included a snow and ...


The effects of temporally variable dispersal and landscape structure on invasive species spread

Ecological Applications, Vol. 20, No. 3. (April 2010), pp. 593-608,


Many invasive species are too widespread to realistically eradicate. For such species, a viable management strategy is to slow the rate of spread. However, to be effective, this will require detailed spread data and an understanding of the influence of environmental conditions and landscape structure on invasion rates. We used a time series of remotely sensed distribution maps and a spatial simulation model to study spread of the invasive Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. L. latifolium ...


Forest landscape change and biodiversity conservation

In Forest Landscapes and Global Change (2014), pp. 167-198,


Forest landscapes are changing at unprecedented rates in many regions of the world. This may have profound consequences for the diversity and resilience of forest ecosystems and may impose considerable challenges for their management. In this chapter, we review the different types of change that can occur in a forest landscape, including modifications in forest habitat amount, quality, fragmentation, connectivity, and heterogeneity. We describe the conceptual differences and potential interactions among these changes and provide a summary of the possible responses ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 19

(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   lag-effect   lagarostrobos-franklinii   lagerstroemia-speciosa   lagoon   lagunaria-patersoni   laguncularia-racemosa   lai   lamiastrum-galeobdolon   land   land-cover   land-disuse   land-evaluation   land-use   land-use-changes   land-use-driven-climate-change   land-use-dynamics   land-use-intensity   landform   landsat   landscape   landscape-dynamics   landscape-genetics   landscape-modelling   landslides   landslides-as-major-erosion-process   language-design   languages   languages-death   large-scale   large-vs-wide-scale   larix-chinensis   larix-decidua   larix-eurolepis   larix-gmelinii   larix-kaempferi   larix-leptolepis   larix-lyallii   larix-marschlinsii   larix-occidentalis   larix-olgensis   larix-sibirica   larix-spp   last-glacial-maximum   last-interglacial   late-mesolithic   late-quaternary   latex   lathyrus-aureus   latitude   latvia   laurus-azorica   laurus-nobilis   laurus-spp   layer   leaf   leaf-analysis   leaf-area   leaf-area-index   leaf-dry-weight   leaf-growth   leaf-litter-processing   leaf-respiration   leaf-senescence   leaf-thickness   leaf-traits   learning-strategies   lecanosticta-acicola   lecointea-amazonica   legal-issues   legislation   lepidoptera   leptographium-spp   leucaena-leucocephala   leucoma-salicis   library   license--cc-by-2-0   license--cc-by-3-0   license--cc-by-4-0   license--cc0-1-0   license--open-government-licence-v3   license--public-domain   license-gnu-gpl   licensing   lichens   lidar   life-science   light-availability   light-response   lignification   lignin   ligustrum-spp   ligustrum-vulgare   limited-flexibility-ecosystem   limiting-factor   lines-of-code   linnaea-borealis   linux-kernel   liquidambar-orientalis  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


The climatic signature of incised river meanders

Science, Vol. 327, No. 5972. (2010), pp. 1497-1501,


Climate controls landscape evolution, but quantitative signatures of climatic drivers have yet to be found in topography on a broad scale. Here we describe how a topographic signature of typhoon rainfall is recorded in the meandering of incising mountain rivers in the western North Pacific. Spatially averaged river sinuosity generated from digital elevation data peaks in the typhoon-dominated subtropics, where extreme rainfall and flood events are common, and decreases toward the equatorial tropics and mid-latitudes, where such extremes are rare. Once ...


Natural afforestation and landscape changes in the Eastern Prealps of Italy

Revue de Géographie Alpine, Vol. 81, No. 3. (1993), pp. 95-102


The paper describes the consequences of agricultural decline on the vegetation and landscapes of the Italian eastern Prealps (Friuli - Venezia Giulia). Since the beginning of the century, and in particular from the 1950s onwards, the area covered by forest has increased as agricultural land and abandoned meadows have given way to successions of secondary vegetation. The most common woodlands are formed of ash and sycamore, manna-larch and hop hornbeam, or durmast-oak and hop hornbeam. These vegetation formations are susceptible to ...


Feedbacks and landscape-level vegetation dynamics

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 30, No. 5. (10 May 2015), pp. 255-260,


[::] Landscape-level feedbacks are critical for understanding of the risk of rapid switching between ecological states, such as forest and savanna biomes. [::] These feedbacks are difficult to study because the spatial and temporal scales preclude classical experiment approaches. [::] We suggest that identifying and understanding the role of landscape-level feedbacks demands a synthetic approach that blends observational, experimental, model-based approaches, conceptual models, and narratives. [\n] Alternative stable-state theory (ASS) is widely accepted as explaining landscape-level vegetation dynamics, such as switches between forest and ...


Italian Historical Rural Landscapes

edited by Mauro Agnoletti


Sustainable development and rural policies have pursued strategies where farming has been often regarded as a factor deteriorating the ecosystem. But the current economic, social and environmental problems of the Earth probably call for examples of a positive integration between human society and nature. This research work presents more than a hundred case studies where the historical relationships between man and nature have generated, not deterioration, but cultural, environmental, social and economic values. The results show that is not only the ...


Il valore economico del cipresso: paesaggio e ambiente

In Contributo del Cipresso alla valorizzazione Economica ed Ambientale del Territorio (2004), pp. 88-90


[Excerpt] Il cipresso ha un notevole valore ed importanza paesaggistico-ambientale. [\n] I più appariscenti impieghi del cipresso sono quelli legati al suo uso come pianta forestale produttiva e come frangivento. [\n] In zone a clima caldo-arido e battute da brezze (zone litoranee), il cipresso, nella sua varietà horizontalis, considerata la buona resistenza alla forza impattante del vento, può essere impiegato nella costituzione di barriere e cortine frangivento a protezione di retrostanti colture agrarie. Oltretutto il cipresso grazie alla facoltà di rigenerare la chioma in modo efficace e ...


Influence of landslides on biophysical diversity - A perspective from British Columbia

Geomorphology, Vol. 89, No. 1-2. (September 2007), pp. 55-69,


Landslides have long been overlooked or underestimated as important natural disturbance agents. In particular the ecological role of landslides in maintaining biological diversity has been largely ignored. Here we provide a western Canadian (British Columbian) perspective on the influences of landslides on biophysical diversity, which is related in several ways to biological diversity. We recognize several types of biophysical/ecological diversity: site diversity, soil diversity, and the derivative habitat or ecosystem (including aquatic ecosystems) diversity. There are also a variety of landslide ...


Wildfires and landscape patterns in the Eastern Iberian peninsula

Landscape Ecology, Vol. 17, No. 8. (2002), pp. 745-759,


The relations between disturbance regime and landscape patterns have been developed from a theoretical perspective, but few studies have tested these relations when forces promoting opposing heterogeneity patterns are simultaneously operating on a landscape. This work provides quantitative evidence of these relations in areas dominated by human activity, showing that landscape heterogeneity decreases disturbance spread. In turn, disturbance introduces a source of landscape heterogeneity, but it is not enough to counterbalance the homogeneity trend due to agricultural abandonment. Land cover changes ...


Cascading effects of feedbacks, disease, and climate change on alpine treeline dynamics

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 62 (December 2014), pp. 85-96,


[Highlights] [::] Facilitation, particularly from whitebark pine, drives tree island development. [::] Positive and negative feedbacks influence whitebark pine treeline dynamics. [::] Climate amelioration reduces facilitation benefits, causing dispersed tree pattern. [::] Blister rust disease-killed pine impacts all species, despite climate improvement. [::] Treeline responded negatively with disease introduction, even when climate improved. [Abstract] Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is important for tree island development in some alpine treeline ecosystems in western North America; therefore the effects of an exotic disease on whitebark pine may cascade to ...


Inefficient epidemic spreading in scale-free networks

Physical Review E, Vol. 77, No. 2. (Feb 2008), 026113,


Highly heterogeneous degree distributions yield efficient spreading of simple epidemics through networks, but can be inefficient with more complex epidemiological processes. We study diseases with nonlinear force of infection whose prevalences can abruptly collapse to zero while decreasing the transmission parameters. We find that scale-free networks can be unable to support diseases that, on the contrary, are able to persist at high endemic levels in homogeneous networks with the same average degree. ...


Robinia pseudoacacia L.: A Lesser Known Tree Species for Biomass Production

BioEnergy Research In BioEnergy Research, Vol. 2, No. 3. (2009), pp. 123-133,


Experiments with fast-growing tree species for biomass production in Germany have been mainly focused on the growth performance of Populus and Salix spp. Among the lesser-known species for energy plantations is Robinia pseudoacacia L. Special features of this species are its drought tolerance and its ability to fix nitrogen. Given the large share of marginal arable land in NE-Germany and the predicted climate change, R. pseudoacacia is expected to grow in importance. In order to evaluate the growth performance of this ...


Forests of the Mediterranean region: gaps in knowledge and research needs

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 132, No. 1. (June 2000), pp. 97-109,


Mediterranean forests are characterised by a remarkable set of features that make them naturally and aesthetically attractive, on the one hand, but also quite fragile, on the other, therefore calling for careful strategies for their conservation and management. An exceptionally large variation of environmental conditions characterises the Mediterranean countries, where the environment can limit forest growth and succession but can also give rise, more often than it is supposed, to lush, mesic forest ecosystems, similar to those of central Europe. Moreover, ...


Erosional power in the Swiss Alps: characterization of slope failure in the Illgraben

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 37, No. 15. (December 2012), pp. 1627-1640,


Landslides and rockfalls are key geomorphic processes in mountain basins. Their quantification and characterization are critical for understanding the processes of slope failure and their contributions to erosion and landscape evolution. We used digital photogrammetry to produce a multi-temporal record of erosion (1963-2005) of a rock slope at the head of the Illgraben, a very active catchment prone to debris flows in Switzerland. Slope failures affect 70% of the study slope and erode the slope at an average rate of 0.39±0.03myr-1. ...


Patterns of Land-use Abandonment Control Tree-recruitment and Forest Dynamics in Mediterranean Mountains

Ecosystems In Ecosystems, Vol. 10, No. 6. (1 September 2007), pp. 936-948,


Mediterranean ecosystems have been impacted for millennia by human practices, particularly agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, land-use abandonment has lead to scrubland and forest expansion, especially in mountain areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. This study aimed at analyzing how grazing history affects subsequent forest dynamics at a site located in the limestone foothills of the Southern Alps (France). The approach combines archival documents and dendroecology to investigate the origin, establishment and development of forest ...


Regeneration patterns after intermediate wind disturbance in an old-growth Fagus–Abies forest in southeastern Slovenia

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 226, No. 1-3. (May 2006), pp. 268-278,


We studied patterns of tree regeneration in relation to canopy structure in a 1-ha plot damaged by an intermediate windstorm in 1983 and a 1-ha control plot regulated by small-scale canopy gaps in an old-growth Fagus sylvatica–Abies alba forest, southeastern Slovenia. In the windthrow plot, a maze of interconnected gaps covered 55% of the plot, while more discrete canopy openings covered 27% of the control plot. The different canopy structures resulted in marked differences in the density and spatial patterns of ...


Hillslopes Record the Growth and Decay of Landscapes

Science, Vol. 341, No. 6148. (23 August 2013), pp. 868-871,


Earth's surface archives the combined history of tectonics and erosion, which tend to roughen landscapes, and sediment transport and deposition, which smooth them. We analyzed hillslope morphology in the tectonically active Dragon’s Back Pressure Ridge in California, United States, to assess whether tectonic uplift history can be reconstructed using measurable attributes of hillslope features within landscapes. Hilltop curvature and hillslope relief mirror measured rates of vertical displacement caused by tectonic forcing, and their relationships are consistent with those expected when idealizing ...


Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 21. (21 May 2013), pp. 8387-8392,


Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to ...


Does fire increase the spatial heterogeneity of bird communities in Mediterranean landscapes?

Ibis, Vol. 145, No. 2. (1 April 2003), pp. 307-317,


The occurrence of large burnt areas has increased considerably in southern Europe in recent years. In order to design management plans to prevent large wildfires while preserving biodiversity, understanding of the ways in which birds respond to these fires is required. We investigated the spatial variability of both avifauna and habitat structure in three zones: unburnt, burnt in 1982, and burnt in 1994. The habitat structure of the unburnt zone was the most variable spatially. However, bird species composition between sampling ...


Estimating dispersibility of Acer, Fraxinus and Tilia in fragmented landscapes from patterns of seedling establishment

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 1, No. 3. (1988), pp. 175-187,


Relative dispersibility of Tilia americana L., Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh, was inferred from the ratio among species-specific regression coefficients (β) computed from seedling density-distance plots. Density counts were made in spatially-uniform old fields adjacent to single seed sources or monotypic fencerows. Resultant seedling shadow curves approximate the negative exponential form expected for many seeds (log y=a−βX). This basic curve shape fit species of differing dispersibility, dispersal under a range of wind directions and one-year-old or all-aged cohorts. The ...


An integrative approach for analysing landscape dynamics in diverse cultivated and natural mountain areas

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 24, No. 5. (2009), pp. 611-628,


Our landscape can be regarded as a development process that is affected and subsequently shaped by a series of different environmental and human-induced factors. However, to date, concrete data about the impact of each of these factors are still missing. One key reason for this is that methods of acquisition and evaluation of these factors inherently have differences, thereby preventing meaningful comparative analyses. This study presents an integrative methodical approach that bridges many of these gaps. Our approach also has the ...


Uncertainties in landscape analysis and ecosystem service assessment

Journal of Environmental Management (January 2013),


Landscape analysis and ecosystem service assessment have drawn increasing concern from research and application at the landscape scale. Thanks to the continuously emerging assessments as well as studies aiming at evaluation method improvement, policy makers and landscape managers have an increasing interest in integrating ecosystem services into their decisions. However, the plausible assessments carry numerous sources of uncertainties, which regrettably tend to be ignored or disregarded by the actors or researchers. In order to cope with uncertainties and make them more ...


Landscape ecology: what is the state of the science?

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 36, No. 1. (2005), pp. 319-344,


Landscape ecology focuses on the reciprocal interactions between spatial pattern and ecological processes, and it is well integrated with ecology. The field has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. The persistent influence of land-use history and natural disturbance on contemporary ecosystems has become apparent. Development of pattern metrics has largely stabilized, and they are widely used to relate landscape pattern to ecological responses. Analyses conducted at multiple scales have demonstrated the importance of landscape pattern for many taxa, and spatially ...


Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world

Ecology, Vol. 91, No. 10. (October 2010), pp. 2833-2849,


Disturbance regimes are changing rapidly, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems and linked social-ecological systems will be profound. This paper synthesizes current understanding of disturbance with an emphasis on fundamental contributions to contemporary landscape and ecosystem ecology, then identifies future research priorities. Studies of disturbance led to insights about heterogeneity, scale, and thresholds in space and time and catalyzed new paradigms in ecology. Because they create vegetation patterns, disturbances also establish spatial patterns of many ecosystem processes on the ...


The relative importance of climatic effects, wildfires and management for future forest landscape dynamics in the Swiss Alps

Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, No. 8. (1 August 2006), pp. 1435-1450,


Forest landscape dynamics result from the complex interaction of driving forces and ecological processes operating on various scales. Projected climate change for the 21st century will alter climate-sensitive processes, causing shifts in species composition and also bringing about changes in disturbance regimes, particularly regarding wildfires. Previous studies of the impact of climate change on forests have focused mainly on the direct effects of climate. In the present study, we assessed the interactions among forest dynamics, climate change and large-scale disturbances such ...


Dam impacts on the Changjiang (Yangtze) River sediment discharge to the sea: The past 55 years and after the Three Gorges Dam

Water Resources Research, Vol. 42, No. 4. (15 April 2006), W04407,


In 5 recent years (2000–2004), the Changjiang (Yangtze) River has discharged past Datong (600 km from the river mouth) an average of ∼250 million tons (mt) of sediment per year, a decrease of more than 40% since the 1950s and 1960s, whereas water discharge at Datong has increased slightly. Water and sediment discharge data from the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river suggest that the reduction of the Changjiang sediment load has occurred in two phases between 1950 and ...


Interactions matter—complexity in landscapes and ecosystems

Ecological Complexity, Vol. 2, No. 2. (June 2005), pp. 117-130,


In this review we argue that theories and methodology arising from the field of complex systems form a new paradigm for ecology. Patterns and processes resulting from interactions between individuals, populations, species and communities in landscapes are the core topic of ecology. These interactions form complex networks, which are the subject of intense research in complexity theory, informatics and statistical mechanics. This research has shown that complex natural networks often share common structures such as loops, trees and clusters. The observed ...


Network analysis to assess landscape connectivity trends: application to European forests (1990–2000)

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 11, No. 2. (19 March 2011), pp. 407-416,


Landscape networks and ecosystems worldwide are undergoing changes that may impact in different ways relevant ecological processes such as gene flow, pollination, or wildlife dispersal. A myriad of indices have been developed to characterize landscape patterns, but not all of them are equally suited to evaluate temporal changes in landscape connectivity as is increasingly needed for biodiversity monitoring and operational indicator delivery. Relevant advancements in this direction have been recently proposed based on graph theoretical methods to analyze landscape network connectivity ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.