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Selection: with tag knowledge-integration [63 articles] 

 

A new definition of complexity in a risk analysis setting

  
Reliability Engineering & System Safety (November 2017), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2017.11.018

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A new definition of complexity is presented [::] It allows for improved clarity on the links between complexity and risk [::] The idea is to link complexity to activities, and the knowledge about the consequences of these at different levels [Abstract] In this paper, we discuss the concept of complexity in a risk analysis context. Inspired by the work of Johansen and Rausand, a new perspective on complexity is presented which includes several common definitions of complexity as special cases. The idea ...

 

Scale-dependent portfolio effects explain growth inflation and volatility reduction in landscape demography

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 47. (21 November 2017), pp. 12507-12511, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704213114

Abstract

[Significance] Population demography is central to many problems in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology, yet there is a gap between the information needed about the demography of population over multiple spatial scales and the available data, which are largely local. Inspired by concepts from landscape ecology and Markowitz's investment portfolio theory, we address this lacuna by developing a method for quantifying and predicting the demography of multiple populations across spatial scales and apply it to gypsy moth populations. We show that population ...

 

Bridging national and reference definitions for harmonizing forest statistics

  
Forest Science (June 2012), pp. 214-223, https://doi.org/10.5849/forsci.10-067

Abstract

Harmonization is the process of making information and estimates comparable across administrative borders. The degree to which harmonization succeeds depends on many factors, including the conciseness of the definitions, the availability and quality of data, and the methods used to convert an estimate according to a local definition to an estimate according to the reference definition. Harmonization requires the availability and use of common reference definitions and methods for converting from estimates based on national definitions to estimates based on reference ...

 

Comparison of methods used in European National Forest Inventories for the estimation of volume increment: towards harmonisation

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 73, No. 4. (2016), pp. 807-821, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-016-0554-5

Abstract

[Key message] The increment estimation methods of European NFIs were explored by means of 12 essential NFI features. The results indicate various differences among NFIs within the commonly acknowledged methodological frame. The perspectives for harmonisation at the European level are promising. [Context] The estimation of increment is implemented differently in European National Forest Inventories (NFIs) due to different historical origins of NFIs and sampling designs and field assessments accommodated to country-specific conditions. The aspired harmonisation of increment estimation requires a comparison and an analysis ...

 

Integrating biodiversity distribution knowledge: toward a global map of life

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 27, No. 3. (March 2012), pp. 151-159, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.09.007

Abstract

Global knowledge about the spatial distribution of species is orders of magnitude coarser in resolution than other geographically-structured environmental datasets such as topography or land cover. Yet such knowledge is crucial in deciphering ecological and evolutionary processes and in managing global change. In this review, we propose a conceptual and cyber-infrastructure framework for refining species distributional knowledge that is novel in its ability to mobilize and integrate diverse types of data such that their collective strengths overcome individual weaknesses. The ultimate ...

 

Sand in demand: trapped behind dams

  
Science, Vol. 358, No. 6360. (12 October 2017), pp. 180-180, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9964

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Estimates of total sediment entrapment behind large dams over the past half-century may be on the order of 100 billion metric tons, or 30% of the total potential global flux [...] United Nations estimates project that 66% of the world's population will be urban by 2050, an increase of 2.5 billion people [...]. If this urbanization is the primary driver of accelerated sand appropriation, demand will markedly increase. It is possible that reservoirs and impoundments will therefore be both ...

 

To model or not to model, that is no longer the question for ecologists

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 20, No. 2. (2017), pp. 222-228, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-016-0068-x

Abstract

Here, I argue that we should abandon the division between “field ecologists” and “modelers,” and embrace modeling and empirical research as two powerful and often complementary approaches in the toolbox of 21st century ecologists, to be deployed alone or in combination depending on the task at hand. As empirical research has the longer tradition in ecology, and modeling is the more recent addition to the methodological arsenal, I provide both practical and theoretical reasons for integrating modeling more deeply into ecosystem ...

 

Europe’s Joint Research Centre, although improving, must think bigger

  
Nature, Vol. 550, No. 7674. (3 October 2017), pp. 8-8, https://doi.org/10.1038/550008a

Abstract

External report criticizes lack of exploratory research. [Excerpt] The European Union’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) uses the label EU Science Hub now. Whether the rebranding will increase its profile is one question. What science gets done inside this hub is another. In response to that query, there is some positive news. It is doing what it should be, and doing it well: collecting scientific and technical evidence in support of EU policies. That’s according to the report of an external evaluation released ...

 

Climatological risk: wildfires

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 294-305

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] There is a vast amount of information on wildfires at local, regional and global scales. However, problems remain at different scales in terms of harmonising or standardising practices for the assessment and management of wildfire risk. [\n] Resilience theory is providing a suitable framework by which to explain abrupt changes in socioecological systems. The importance of community participation and building social capital through collective learning and governance mechanisms has been highlighted as a required basis for building disaster resilience (Aldunce et al., 2015; Aldunce et al., 2016; Montiel and Kraus, 2010; O’Brien et al., ...

References

  1. SCION, 2009. Fire behavioiur app. https://www.scionresearch.com/research/forest-science/rural-fire-research/tools/fire-behaviour-smartphone-apps .
  2. NFPA, 2016 Firewise Communities Program. http://www.firewise.org/ .
  3. GOV.UK, n.d. LH1: Management of lowland heathlandhttps://www.gov.uk/countryside-stewardship-grants/management-of-lowland-heathland-lh1 .
  4. KWFW, 2014. Wildfire Threat Analysis (WTA):NERC-funded scoping project with Forestry Commission. http://www.kfwf.org.uk/_assets/documents/Wildfire_Threat_Analysis_post-project_report.pdf .
  5. HM Tresaury, 2013. Orange book: management of risk - principles and concepts. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/orange-book .
  6. Cabinet Office, 2015. National Risk
 

The most recent view of vulnerability

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 70-84

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] Over the past decades, vulnerability research has made considerable progress in understanding some of the root causes and dynamic pressures that influence the progression of vulnerability and raised awareness that disasters are not natural but predominantly a product of social, economic and political conditions (Wisner et al., 2004). [\n] Vulnerability assessments are a response to the call for evidence by decision- makers for use in pre-disaster risk assessment, prevention and reduction, as well as the development and implementation of appropriate preparedness and effective disaster response strategies by providing information on people, communities or regions at risk. [\n] ...

References

  1. Alexander, D., Magni, M., 2013. Mortality in the L'Aquila ( Central Italy ) Earthquake of 6 April 2009. PLOS Current Disasters, (April 2009).
  2. Alexander, D., 2010. The L'Aquila Earthquake of 6 April 2009 and Italian Government Policy on Disaster Response. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 2(4), 325–342.
  3. Alexander, D., 2013. Resilience and disaster risk reduction: An etymological journey. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 13 (11), 2707–2716.
 

The European Fire Database: technical specifications and data submission

  
Vol. 26546 (2014), https://doi.org/10.2788/2175

Abstract

The European Fire Database is an important component of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), the EC focal point of information on forest fires established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment to provide up to date and harmonized information on forest fires in Europe. As of 2014 EFFIS is part of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE), following the new EU Forest Strategy adopted in 2013. The Fire Database is the largest repository ...

 

How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. E5187-E5196, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701090114

Abstract

[Significance] A dataset from one of the last protected tropical peat swamps in Southeast Asia reveals how fluctuations in rainfall on yearly and shorter timescales affect the growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands over thousands of years. The pattern of rainfall and the permeability of the peat together determine a particular curvature of the peat surface that defines the amount of naturally sequestered carbon stored in the peatland over time. This principle can be used to calculate the long-term carbon dioxide emissions ...

 

The challenge of knowledge soup

  
In Research Trends in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (May 2006), pp. 55-90

Abstract

People have a natural desire to organize, classify, label, and define the things, events, and patterns of their daily lives. But their best-laid plans are overwhelmed by the inevitable change, growth, innovation, progress, evolution, diversity, and entropy. These rapid changes, which create difficulties for people, are far more disruptive for the fragile databases and knowledge bases in computer systems. The term knowledge soup better characterizes the fluid, dynamically changing nature of the information that people learn, reason about, act upon, and ...

 

Software simplified

  
Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7656. (29 May 2017), pp. 173-174, https://doi.org/10.1038/546173a

Abstract

Containerization technology takes the hassle out of setting up software and can boost the reproducibility of data-driven research. [Excerpt] [...] Containers are essentially lightweight, configurable virtual machines — simulated versions of an operating system and its hardware, which allow software developers to share their computational environments. Researchers use them to distribute complicated scientific software systems, thereby allowing others to execute the software under the same conditions that its original developers used. In doing so, containers can remove one source of variability in ...

 

A concise review on the role of author self-citations in information science, bibliometrics and science policy

  
Scientometrics, Vol. 67, No. 2. (2006), pp. 263-277, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-006-0098-9

Abstract

The objective of the present study is twofold: (1) to show the aims and means of quantitative interpretation of bibliographic features in bibliometrics and their re-interpretation in research policy, and (2) to summarise the state-of-art in self-citation research. The authors describe three approaches to the role of author self-citations and possible conflicts arising from the different perspectives. From the bibliometric viewpoint we can conclude that that there is no reason for condemning self-citations in general or for removing them from macro ...

 

Exploring transdisciplinary integration within a large research program: empirical lessons from four thematic synthesis processes

  
Research Policy, Vol. 46, No. 3. (April 2017), pp. 678-692, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.01.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We adapt a framework to compare integration across four synthesis processes. [::] We identify challenges and derive recommendations for future synthesis processes. [::] We recommend initiating synthesis processes concurrently with research projects. [::] We consider professional competences and management skills crucial for integration. [::] We recommend the promotion of communities of practice to support integration. [Abstract] What challenges do researchers face when leading transdisciplinary integration? We address this question by analyzing transdisciplinary integration within four thematic synthesis processes of the Swiss National Research Programme (NRP 61) ...

 

Transdisciplinary global change research: the co-creation of knowledge for sustainability

  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 5, No. 3-4. (September 2013), pp. 420-431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.001

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A new framework for integrated, transdisciplinary global change research for sustainability is introduced. [::] From a practical perspective three different dimensions of integration (scientific, international and sectoral) are discussed. [::] Co-design of research agendas and co-production of knowledge are discussed as necessary integration approaches to address Future Earth research challenges. [Abstract] The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among ...

 

Meta-ecosystems: a theoretical framework for a spatial ecosystem ecology

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 6, No. 8. (August 2003), pp. 673-679, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00483.x

Abstract

This contribution proposes the meta-ecosystem concept as a natural extension of the metapopulation and metacommunity concepts. A meta-ecosystem is defined as a set of ecosystems connected by spatial flows of energy, materials and organisms across ecosystem boundaries. This concept provides a powerful theoretical tool to understand the emergent properties that arise from spatial coupling of local ecosystems, such as global source–sink constraints, diversity–productivity patterns, stabilization of ecosystem processes and indirect interactions at landscape or regional scales. The meta-ecosystem perspective thereby has ...

 

I-Ispra: framework contract for the provision of forest data and services in support to the European Forest Data Centre

  
Supplement to the Official Journal of the European Union (November 2008)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] This service aims to broaden the knowledge base of the JRC's European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC) that was established to supply European Union decision-makers with policy-relevant forest data and information as specified in COM(2006) 302. To this end the tender is targeting the support of the activities of the EFDAC through providing the European Commission with forest-related data and information from a local to European scale and related services, such as reports, studies, workshops and conferences. [...] ...

 

European databases on invasive alien species

  
In Introduced tree species in European forests: opportunities and challenges (2016), pp. 136-143

Abstract

[Excerpt] The capacity to identify and mitigate threats from invasive alien species (IAS) relies on accurate, updated and easily accessible information. This would help to synthesise risks and impacts of the most common and/or threatening IAS and to prevent and control biological invasions into European forests. [\n] The EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020 (COM 2011) has dedicated an action to prevent the introduction and establishment of IAS. The EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, recently entered into force (EU ...

References


  1. Benesperi, R., Giuliani, C., Zanetti, S., Gennai, M., Lippi, M.M., Guidi, T., Foggi, B., 2012. Forest plant diversity is threatened by Robinia pseudoacacia (black-locust) invasion. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(14), 3555–3568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0380-5 .
  2. Brundu, G., Richardson, D.M., 2016. Planted forests and invasive alien trees in Europe: a Code for managing existing and future plantings to mitigate the risk of negative impacts from invasions. NeoBiota 30, 5–47. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.30.7015 .
  3. Chytrý, M., Lindsay, C.M.,
 

The status of our scientific understanding of lodgepole pine and mountain pine beetles - A focus on forest ecology and fire behavior

  
Global Fire Initiative technical report, Vol. 2008, No. 2. (2008), pp. 1-13

Abstract

A synthesis of our current knowledge about the effects of the mountain pine beetle epidemic on lodgepole pine forests and fire behavior, with a geographic focus on Colorado and southern Wyoming. [Excerpt: Implications for future forests] Models for predicting future climates have progressed dramatically in recent years, but their accuracy is questionable for planning purposes, particularly at local levels. Nonetheless, model predictions suggest significant alterations in climate from past observed patterns. These predictions are supported by recent climate events that themselves had largely been predicted several years ago. Therefore, the potential ...

 

Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association

  
iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 8, No. 2. (01 April 2015), pp. 126-134, https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1231-008

Abstract

Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham), respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence of infected trees. During ...

 

Harmonized classification scheme of fire causes in the EU adopted for the European Fire Database of EFFIS

  

Abstract

The information on the causes of forest fires is of paramount importance to support the environmental and civil protection policies and design appropriate prevention measure. At the European level a simple common scheme with 4 fire causes classes (deliberate, accident/negligence, natural and unknown) has been used to record information on fire causes since 1992. European countries use national schemes which in most cases are much more detailed than the simple 4 common classes, but they are not harmonized and detailed cross ...

 

Fire behaviour knowledge in Australia: a synthesis of disciplinary and stakeholder knowledge on fire spread prediction capability and application

  
(2014)

Abstract

[Executive summary] This project undertook a survey of the fire behaviour knowledge currently used by operational fire behaviour analysts (FBANs) in Australia and New Zealand for the purpose of predicting the behaviour and spread of bushfires. This included a review of the science, applicability and validation of current fire behaviour models, an examination of the fire perimeter propagation software currently being used by FBANs, and a survey of those FBANs to determine current work practices when carrying out fire behaviour predictions. ...

 

Decreasing fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 3. (16 March 2016), e0150663, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150663

Abstract

Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the ...

 

The precision problem in conservation and restoration

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2016), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.08.001

Abstract

Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit ...

 

The bio-economy concept and knowledge base in a public goods and farmer perspective

  
Bio-based and Applied Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1. (2012), pp. 47-63

Abstract

Currently an industrial perspective dominates the EU policy framework for a European bio-economy. The Commission’s proposal on the bio-economy emphasises greater resource-efficiency, largely within an industrial perspective on global economic competitiveness, benefiting capital-intensive industries at higher levels of the value chain. However a responsible bio-economy must initially address the sustainable use of resources. Many farmers are not only commodity producers but also providers of quality food and managers of the eco-system. A public goods-oriented bio-economy emphasises agro-ecological methods, organic and low ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 18

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   intsia-palembanica   invariance   invasion   invasive-pathogens   invasive-plant   invasive-species   inventories   invertebrates   invisible-hand-myth   ipcc   ipcc-scenarios   ipcc-tier-1   ips-acuminatus   ips-cembrae   ips-confusus   ips-duplicatus   ips-paraconfusus   ips-pini   ips-sexdentatus   ips-spp   ips-subelongatus   ips-typographus   iran   iraq   ireland   iron   irreversibility   irvingia-gabonensis   islands   iso   isochrone   isoenzyme   isolation   isolation-by-distance   isolation-frequency   isoprene   isozyme-analysis   isozyme-variation   isozymes   israel   italian-alps   italy   iucn   iucn-critically-endangered-cr   iucn-data-deficient-dd   iucn-endangered-en   iucn-extinct-in-the-wild-ew   iucn-least-concern-lc   iucn-lower-risk-least-concern-lrlc   iucn-lower-risk-near-threatened-lrnt   iucn-near-threatened-nt   iucn-vulnerable-vu   iverson-bracket   janus-abbreviatus   japan   jatropha-curcas   joint-research-centre   journal-ranking   jubaea-chilensis   juglans-jamaicensis   juglans-mandshurica   juglans-nigra   juglans-regia   juglans-spp   juniper-wood   juniperus-californica   juniperus-cedrus   juniperus-communis   juniperus-deppeana   juniperus-drupacea   juniperus-excelsa   juniperus-foetidissima   juniperus-monosperma   juniperus-occidentalis   juniperus-osteosperma   juniperus-oxycedrus   juniperus-phoenicea   juniperus-rigida   juniperus-silicicola   juniperus-spp   juniperus-thurifera   kalmia-latifolia   kalopanax-septemlobus   kappa   kazdaglari   kenya   kk10   knn-distance   knowledge-engineering   knowledge-freedom   knowledge-integration   knowledge-management   kolkwitzia-amabilis   koompassia-excelsa   kosovo   la-nina   laburnum-alpinum   laburnum-anagyroides  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

European atlas of forest tree species

  
Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  

Abstract

[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...

 

The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 5. (02 February 2016), pp. 1285-1290, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515160113

Abstract

[Significance] Quantitative knowledge of terrestrial carbon pathways and processes is fundamental for understanding the biosphere’s response to a changing climate. Carbon allocation, stocks, and residence times together define the dynamic state of the terrestrial carbon cycle. These quantities are difficult to measure and remain poorly quantified on a global scale. Here, we retrieve global 1° × 1° carbon state and process variables by combining a carbon balance model with satellite observations of biomass and leaf area (where and when available) and global ...

Visual summary


  • Figure: http://www.pnas.org/content/113/5/1285/F4.large.jpg
  • Source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515160113
  • Caption: Retrievals of C residence time (RT) in live biomass and dead organic C pools; residence times are retrieved at 1° × 1° using a Bayesian MDF approach (Fig. 1). Brown denotes ecosystems with high residence times for all C pools, green denotes ecosystems with long live biomass C residence times, and orange denotes ecosystems with low live
 

Keeping up to date: an academic researcher's information journey

  
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (1 November 2015), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23623

Abstract

Keeping up to date with research developments is a central activity of academic researchers, but researchers face difficulties in managing the rapid growth of available scientific information. This study examined how researchers stay up to date, using the information journey model as a framework for analysis and investigating which dimensions influence information behaviors. We designed a 2-round study involving semistructured interviews and prototype testing with 61 researchers with 3 levels of seniority (PhD student to professor). Data were analyzed following a ...

 

Wikipedia ranking of world universities

  
(29 Nov 2015)

Abstract

We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the Wikipedia Ranking of World Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60 percent overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically ...

 

Reframing ecosystem management in the era of climate change: issues and knowledge from forests

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 165 (September 2013), pp. 115-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.05.020

Abstract

We discuss “ecosystem management (EM)” to face contemporary climate change issues. EM focuses on sustaining ecosystems to meet both ecological and human needs. EM plans have been largely developed independent of concerns about climate change. However, EM is potentially effective for climate change mitigation and adaptation. We provide the principle guidelines based on EM to adaptively tackle the issues. Climate change is one of the significant concerns in land and resource management, creating an urgent need to build social–ecological capacity to ...

 

The true loss caused by biodiversity offsets

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 192 (December 2015), pp. 552-559, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.016

Abstract

Biodiversity offsets aim to achieve a “no-net-loss” of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services due to development. The “no-net-less” objective assumes that the multi-dimensional values of biodiversity in complex ecosystems can be isolated from their spatial, evolutionary, historical, social, and moral context. We examine the irreplaceability of ecosystems, the limits of restoration, and the environmental values that claim to be compensated through ecosystem restoration. We discuss multiple ecological, instrumental, and non-instrumental values of ecosystems that should be considered in offsetting calculations. Considering ...

 

Rainfall infiltration and soil hydrological characteristics below ancient forest, planted forest and grassland in a temperate northern climate

  
Ecohydrology (2015), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1658

Abstract

How rainfall infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics develop over time under forests of different ages in temperate regions is poorly understood. In this study, infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics were investigated under forests of different ages and under grassland. Soil hydraulic characteristics were measured at different scales under a 250-year-old grazed grassland (GL), 6-year-old (6yr) and 48-year-old (48yr) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantations, remnant 300-year-old individual Scots pine (OT) and a 4000-year-old Caledonian Forest (AF). In situ field-saturated hydraulic ...

 

Indicators for ecosystem services

  
In OpenNESS Ecosystem Service Reference Book (2015)
edited by M. Potschin, K. Jax

Abstract

[Excerpt: Indicators in a policy context] The main purpose of using indicators in a policy context is to provide messages to stakeholders and policy actors to achieve better (more informed) governance. This involves indicators being used for normative goals in addition to descriptive purposes (Heink and Kowarik, 2010). Hence, not all indicators used are solely science-based. Several major factors that determine the “usefulness” and “success” of an indicator are outside of the scope of science. [\n] The use of scientific information for policy ...

Visual summary

 

An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

  
Ecosystem Services, Vol. 17 (February 2016), pp. 14-23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.10.023

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] EU Member states have to map and assess ecosystems and their services (MAES). [::] We present the MAES conceptual model which links biodiversity to human wellbeing. [::] Typologies of ecosystems and their services ensure comparability across countries. [::] We present a list of indicators that can be used for national MAES assessments. [::] We critically discuss the data gaps and challenges of the MAES typologies. [Abstract] In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key ...

Visual summary


 

The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations

  
(2010)

Abstract

Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of ...

 

Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES): Consultation on Version 4, August-December 2012

  
(2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive Summary] [:1] This Report documents the development of a Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES), following the most recent round of consultation between August and December 2012. [:2] We confirm the need to frame the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) around human needs, and recommend that CICES is regarded primarily as a way of describing ecosystem outputs as they directly contribute to human well-being, so that discussions about appropriate assessment frameworks (economic, social, aesthetic and moral) can take ...

 

Expert group and workshop on valuation of forest ecosystem services

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests create multiple benefits for the society, providing renewable raw materials and play an important role in human wellbeing, biological diversity, the global carbon cycle, water balance, erosion control, combating desertification and the prevention of natural hazards, among others. Forests contribute to environmental stability, economic prosperity and offer social, ecosystem and recreational services. [\n] They improve the knowledge about ecosystem services, its value and natural capital allow us to see the direct ways in which we depend on the natural environment and how local policy makers can address policy challenges in many ...

 

Integrating local and scientific knowledge for environmental management

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 91, No. 8. (22 August 2010), pp. 1766-1777, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.03.023

Abstract

This paper evaluates the processes and mechanisms available for integrating different types of knowledge for environmental management. Following a review of the challenges associated with knowledge integration, we present a series of questions for identifying, engaging, evaluating and applying different knowledges during project design and delivery. These questions are used as a basis to compare three environmental management projects that aimed to integrate knowledge from different sources in the United Kingdom, Solomon Islands and Australia. Comparative results indicate that integrating different ...

Visual summary

 

Forestry in the Anthropocene

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 771-771, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad2208

Abstract

[Excerpt] Human activity has had enormous effects on the species composition of floras and faunas, creating new ecological biomes worldwide. A principal challenge in forestry research and conservation is how to deal with these novel ecosystems. Most attention to this phenomenon is centered on the negative effects of species introductions and the need to stem the tide of species invasion. However, we need to scientifically understand new ecosystems and learn to recognize adaptive species combinations that will function sustainably in changing ...

 

Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

  
Infection and Immunity, Vol. 83, No. 4. (01 April 2015), pp. 1229-1233, https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.02939-14

Abstract

Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. ...

 

Interactive comment (reply to Anonymous Referee 3) on Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility - by Bosco et al

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Vol. 2 (2014), pp. C1786-C1795, https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1379902

Abstract

Throughout the public discussion of our article Bosco et al. (Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2, 2639-2680, 2014), the Anonymous Referee 3 provided (Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2, C1592-C1594, 2014) a variety of insights. This work presents our replies to them. ...

 

Interactive comment (reply to Dino Torri) on Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility - by Bosco et al

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Vol. 2 (2014), pp. C671-C688, https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1379901

Abstract

During the public discussion of our article Bosco et al. (Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2, 2639-2680, 2014), D. Torri provided numerous insights (Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. 2, C528-C532, 2014). This work offers our replies to them. ...

 

Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 12. (24 March 2015), pp. 3835-3840, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1421692112

Abstract

[Significance] When making decisions together, we tend to give everyone an equal chance to voice their opinion. To make the best decisions, however, each opinion must be scaled according to its reliability. Using behavioral experiments and computational modelling, we tested (in Denmark, Iran, and China) the extent to which people follow this latter, normative strategy. We found that people show a strong equality bias: they weight each other’s opinion equally regardless of differences in their reliability, even when this strategy was at ...

 

W(h)ither the Oracle? Cognitive biases and other human challenges of integrated environmental modeling

  
In Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA (2014), 113

Abstract

Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) can organize and increase our knowledge of the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control the quality of our environments. Human behavior, however, must be taken into account. Human biases/heuristics reflect adaptation over our evolutionary past to frequently experienced situations that affected our survival and that provided sharply distinguished feedbacks at the level of the individual. Unfortunately, human behavior is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced, less frequently encountered, problems and issues that ...

 

Development of indicators reflecting criteria of spatial differentiation - 1.6. Natural assets environmental indicators

  
(1999)

Abstract

[Excerpt] In the task sharing established at the Preparatory Meeting of the Study Programme on European Spatial Planning (SPESP), Brussels, 7 December 1998, it was agreed that the Work Group in charge of the development of theme 1.6, Indicators on Natural Assets, would be made up of the National Focal Points (NFP’s) of Spain and Denmark. Furthermore, it was planned that the work would be carried out in close collaboration with the European Environment Agency (EEA), given the obvious relationship of this organisation with the theme under study. Apart ...

 

Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 2. (4 February 2015), pp. 225-245, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-225-2015

Abstract

Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water-holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, the ...

 

Technical support

  
Nature, Vol. 517, No. 7536. (28 January 2015), pp. 528-528, https://doi.org/10.1038/517528a

Abstract

[Excerpt] Given that technical and support staff are such an important pillar of academic life, it is perhaps surprising that so little academic attention has been paid to their lot — and whether they are content with it. In 2011, researchers at King’s College London did publish a rare survey of skills and training in the United Kingdom, which raised a series of red flags (see go.nature.com/n74jsb). Technical staff are exposed on the front line when funding cuts bite: numbers working ...

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