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Selection: with tag irreversibility [9 articles] 


Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (19 January 2018), e0191027,


Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a ...


Passing the point of no return

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1109-1109,


[Excerpt] In the field of ecology, regime shifts are massive changes in function and character that occur when an ecosystem passes a tipping point. Regime shifts sometimes have severe consequences for human well-being through losses of ecosystem services, including desertification in arid regions and marine fisheries collapses. These changes are difficult to predict and sometimes impossible to reverse. For these reasons, understanding how to anticipate and prevent regime shifts is one of the most important challenges faced by environmental scientists. [\n] Theoretical analyses ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 20

(February 2014)
Keywords: incomplete-knowledge   incongruity   india   indian-ocean   indicator-driven-bias   indicator-species   indicators   indices   individual-emissions   indonedia   industry   inequality   infiltration   information   information-systems   information-technology-benefits   infrastructure   initial-conditions   innovation   inrmm   inrmm-list-of-tags   inrmm-relationship-schemata   insect-outbreak   insect-outbreaks   insect-resistance   insects   inspire   instability   institutional-change   insurance   integral-modelling   integral-quality-index   integrated-biodiversity-observation-system   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integrated-water-resources-management   integration-constraints   integration-techniques   intelligence   inter-specific-crossing   interactions   interception-capacity   interdisciplinary   interdisciplinary-research   interface   interglacial   international-trade   interoperability   interval-analysis   interview   intra-specific-crossing   intractable-problem   intraspecific-differentiation   intraspecific-variation   intraspecific-vs-interspecific   introduction   introgression   intsia-palembanica   invariance   invasion   invasive-pathogens   invasive-plant   invasive-species   inventories   invertebrates   invisible-hand-myth   ipcc   ipcc-scenarios   ipcc-tier-1   ips-acuminatus   ips-amitinus   ips-cembrae   ips-confusus   ips-duplicatus   ips-paraconfusus   ips-pini   ips-sexdentatus   ips-spp   ips-subelongatus   ips-typographus   iran   iraq   ireland   iron   irreversibility   irvingia-gabonensis   islands   iso   isochrone   isoenzyme   isolation   isolation-by-distance   isolation-frequency   isoprene   isozyme-analysis   isozyme-variation   isozymes   israel   italian-alps  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Ice plug prevents irreversible discharge from East Antarctica

Nature Clim. Change, Vol. 4, No. 6. (4 June 2014), pp. 451-455,


Changes in ice discharge from Antarctica constitute the largest uncertainty in future sea-level projections, mainly because of the unknown response of its marine basins1. Most of West Antarctica’s marine ice sheet lies on an inland-sloping bed2 and is thereby prone to a marine ice sheet instability3, 4, 5. A similar topographic configuration is found in large parts of East Antarctica, which holds marine ice equivalent to 19 m of global sea-level rise6, that is, more than five times that of West ...


Navigating the Anthropocene: improving Earth system governance

Science, Vol. 335, No. 6074. (16 March 2012), pp. 1306-1307,


Science assessments indicate that human activities are moving several of Earth's sub-systems outside the range of natural variability typical for the previous 500,000 years (1, 2). Human societies must now change course and steer away from critical tipping points in the Earth system that might lead to rapid and irreversible change (3). This requires fundamental reorientation and restructuring of national and international institutions toward more effective Earth system governance and planetary stewardship. ...


Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. 6. (10 January 2009), pp. 1704-1709,


The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly ...


Optimal Environmental Management in the Presence of Irreversibilities

Journal of Economic Theory, Vol. 96, No. 1-2. (January 2001), pp. 180-207,


We consider an environment of a fixed size that can be converted to another use. This conversion can be made in steps, but it is irreversible. The future benefits (per unit) from the original use, and from the alternative use, follow a diffusion process. For a fairly general case, we show that the value function must be the unique (viscosity) solution to the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. We also exhibit several properties of the solution for the case of constant relative risk ...


Extinction risk from climate change

Nature, Vol. 427, No. 6970. (08 January 2004), pp. 145-148,


Climate change over the past 30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of extinction shows a power-law relationship with geographical range size, we predict, on the basis of mid-range climate-warming scenarios for 2050, that ...


Approaching a state shift in Earth/'s biosphere

Nature, Vol. 486, No. 7401. (7 June 2012), pp. 52-58,


Localized ecological systems are known to shift abruptly and irreversibly from one state to another when they are forced across critical thresholds. Here we review evidence that the global ecosystem as a whole can react in the same way and is approaching a planetary-scale critical transition as a result of human influence. The plausibility of a planetary-scale tipping point highlights the need to improve biological forecasting by detecting early warning signs of critical transitions on global as well as local scales, ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.