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Selection: with tag integration-techniques [177 articles] 


At the nexus of fire, water and society

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172,


The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...


A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22,


Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...


Exploring transdisciplinary integration within a large research program: empirical lessons from four thematic synthesis processes

Research Policy, Vol. 46, No. 3. (April 2017), pp. 678-692,


[Highlights] [::] We adapt a framework to compare integration across four synthesis processes. [::] We identify challenges and derive recommendations for future synthesis processes. [::] We recommend initiating synthesis processes concurrently with research projects. [::] We consider professional competences and management skills crucial for integration. [::] We recommend the promotion of communities of practice to support integration. [Abstract] What challenges do researchers face when leading transdisciplinary integration? We address this question by analyzing transdisciplinary integration within four thematic synthesis processes of the Swiss National Research Programme (NRP 61) ...


Transdisciplinary global change research: the co-creation of knowledge for sustainability

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 5, No. 3-4. (September 2013), pp. 420-431,


[Highlights] [::] A new framework for integrated, transdisciplinary global change research for sustainability is introduced. [::] From a practical perspective three different dimensions of integration (scientific, international and sectoral) are discussed. [::] Co-design of research agendas and co-production of knowledge are discussed as necessary integration approaches to address Future Earth research challenges. [Abstract] The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among ...


Boss competence and worker well-being

ILR Review, Vol. 70, No. 2. (March 2017), pp. 419-450,


Nearly all workers have a supervisor or “boss.” Yet little is known about how bosses influence the quality of employees’ lives. This study offers new evidence. First, the authors find that a boss’s technical competence is the single strongest predictor of a worker’s job satisfaction. Second, they demonstrate using longitudinal data, after controlling for fixed-effects, that even if a worker stays in the same job and workplace, a rise in the competence of a supervisor is associated with an improvement in ...


Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  


[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...


  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to

Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606,


[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...


Weighted median filters: a tutorial

IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing In Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 43, No. 3. (March 1996), pp. 157-192,


Weighted Median (WM) filters have the robustness and edge preserving capability of the classical median filter and resemble linear FIR filters in certain properties. Furthermore, WM filters belong to the broad class of nonlinear filters called stack filters. This enables the use of the tools developed for the latter class in characterizing and analyzing the behavior and properties of WM filters, e.g. noise attenuation capability. The fact that WM filters are threshold functions allows the use of neural network training methods ...


Multi-dimensional weighted median: the module "wmedian" of the Mastrave modelling library

In Semantic Array Programming with Mastrave - Introduction to Semantic Computational Modelling (2012)


Weighted median (WM) filtering is a well known technique for dealing with noisy images and a variety of WM-based algorithms have been proposed as effective ways for reducing uncertainties or reconstructing degraded signals by means of available information with heterogeneous reliability. Here a generalized module for applying weighted median filtering to multi-dimensional arrays of information with associated multi-dimensional arrays of corresponding weights is presented. Weights may be associated to single elements or to groups of elements along given dimensions of the ...


The common NFI database

In National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments, Vol. 20 (2011), pp. 99-119,


To test bridging techniques for the harmonized estimation of forest biodiversity indicators for each of the selected essential features a common database was constructed and populated with raw NFI data provided by some of the COST Action E43 participating countries. The database was structured with five tables in a relational database: one table for descriptive plot data, one for tree level data, one for deadwood pieces, one for shrub data and one for ground vegetation. The database was populated with data ...


Forest value: more than commercial

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6319. (23 December 2016), pp. 1541-1541,


[Excerpt] [...] Postulating a positive relation between tree species richness and commercial value could potentially have adverse environmental consequences. For example, concluding that megadiverse tropical forests have innate commercial value would make it unnecessary to supplement this supposed value with rewards for landowners who preserve their native forests. Landowners might then continue to convert such forests to profitable monocultures [...] which have real commercial value. Species-rich forests indeed have an extremely high conservation and ecosystem service value, but their commercial value ...


Forest value: more than commercial - Response

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6319. (23 December 2016), pp. 1541-1542,


[Excerpt] Paul and Knoke address the commercial value and profitability of forest biodiversity, which differs fundamentally from the economic value that we outlined in our Research Article. [...] Our estimates pertain to the sole contribution of tree species diversity, as it exists today, to global forest productivity, from which the economic value accrues. Our analysis—which includes nonmarket values not commonly captured in commercial forestry but excludes the contribution of forest biodiversity to carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, and aesthetic and cultural values—reflects ...


Sequential disturbance effects of hailstorm and fire on vegetation in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

Ecosystems, Vol. 18, No. 7. (2015), pp. 1121-1134,


Frequency and intensity of disturbance is projected to increase for many ecosystems globally, with uncertain consequences, particularly when disturbances occur in rapid succession. We quantified community response (52 shrub species and the tree Eucalyptus todtiana) to a severe hailstorm followed 2 months later by prescribed fire for a Mediterranean-type shrubland in southwestern Australia. Partial overlap of hailstorm path and fire perimeter provided a unique opportunity to compare storm and fire effects along a storm severity gradient (high–moderate–none) with and without fire. ...


Disturbance and the carbon balance of US forests: a quantitative review of impacts from harvests, fires, insects, and droughts

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 143 (August 2016), pp. 66-80,


[Highlights] [::] Available data suggest harvest is the leading disturbance impact on C in US forests then fire, windthrow, insects, and droughts. [::] Disturbances in US forests lead to the loss of at least 200 Tg C in live biomass each year on average. [::] Regrowth roughly balances disturbance emissions, with growth enhancements contributing significantly to the net change in forest carbon. [::] Natural disturbance events are likely to rise in the future, leading to net release of forest carbon. [Abstract] Disturbances are a major determinant of ...


Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, No. 9. (23 May 2016), pp. 885-890,


Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios ...


Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas

(21 Sep 2016)


High resolution information of climatic conditions is essential to many application in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA algorithm to downscale temperature and precipitation estimates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) climatic reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim) to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The algorithm for temperature is based on a statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperature from the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors such as wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, ...


CHELSA climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas (Version 1.1)



CHELSA_v1.1 ( is a high resolution (30 arc sec, ~1 km) climate data set for the earth land surface areas. It includes monthly and annual mean temperature and precipitation patterns as well as derived bioclimatic and interannual parameters for the time period 1979-2013. CHELSA_v1.1 is based on a quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling of the ERA interim global circulation model ( with a GPCC ( and GHCN ( bias correction. ...


A radiative transfer model-based method for the estimation of grassland aboveground biomass

International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 54 (February 2017), pp. 159-168,


[Highlights] [::] The PROSAILH radiative transfer model was presented to estimate grassland AGB. [::] The ill-posed inversion problem was alleviated by using the ecological criteria. [::] Multi-source satellite products were used to filter the unrealistic combinations of retrieved free parameters. [::] Three empirical methods were also used to estimate the grassland AGB. [Abstract] This paper presents a novel method to derive grassland aboveground biomass (AGB) based on the PROSAILH (PROSPECT + SAILH) radiative transfer model (RTM). Two variables, leaf area index (LAI, m2m−2, defined as a one-side ...


Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 23, No. 5. (2014), 606,


Fire risk assessment should take into account the most relevant components associated to fire occurrence. To estimate when and where the fire will produce undesired effects, we need to model both (a) fire ignition and propagation potential and (b) fire vulnerability. Following these ideas, a comprehensive fire risk assessment system is proposed in this paper, which makes extensive use of geographic information technologies to offer a spatially explicit evaluation of fire risk conditions. The paper first describes the conceptual model, then ...


MSWEP: 3-hourly 0.25° global gridded precipitation (1979–2015) by merging gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions (30 May 2016), pp. 1-38,


Current global precipitation (P) datasets do not take full advantage of the complementary nature of satellite and reanalysis data. Here, we present Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), a global P dataset for the period 1979–2015 with a 3-hourly temporal and 0.25° spatial resolution, specifically designed for hydrological modeling. The design philosophy of MSWEP was to optimally merge the highest quality P data sources available as a function of time scale and location. The long-term mean of MSWEP was based on the CHPclim ...


Investigating the effects of large wood and forest management on flood risk and flood hydrology



The changes to catchment scale flood risk following river restoration works, including the addition of large wood logjams to the channel, are poorly quantified in the literature. Key concerns following river restoration for river managers and other stakeholders are changes to flood hydrology at the reach and catchment scale and changes in the mobility of large wood pieces. The effects of accumulations of large wood (logjams) on local flood hydrology have been documented in the literature, showing logjams slow flood wave ...


The future of the Brazilian Amazon

Science, Vol. 291, No. 5503. (19 January 2001), pp. 438-439,


The Brazilian Amazon is currently experiencing the world's highest absolute rate of forest destruction and is likely to suffer even greater degradation in the future because of government plans to invest $40 billion from 2000 to 2007 in dozens of major new highways and infrastructure projects. We developed two computer models that integrate spatial data on deforestation, logging, mining, highways and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wildfires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the ...


The effect of species geographical distribution estimation methods on richness and phylogenetic diversity estimates

International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 26, No. 11. (1 November 2012), pp. 2097-2109,


Diversity assessments are widely used in various fields of knowledge and rely on good estimates of species distribution. There are several methods available to estimate species distribution and the effect of using them is not clearly understood. In this research, we assess the effect of species distributions derived from four geographical distribution estimation methods on derived species richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We used the following four most common approaches to determine species geographical distributions: (1) range-wide occurrences are records of ...


Improving the assessment and reporting on rare and endangered species through species distribution models

Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 2 (December 2014), pp. 226-237,


Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to understand rare and endangered species distributions, as well as the environmental pressures affecting them. Detailed knowledge of their distribution is critical for reporting its conservation status, and SDMs are potential tools to provide the relevant information to conservation practitioners. In this study, we modeled the distribution of Veronica micrantha, a vulnerable plant whose conservation status has to be periodically assessed under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. [\n] The objective was to highlight the ...


Forest-landscape structure mediates effects of a spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak on subsequent likelihood of burning in Alaskan boreal forest

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 369 (June 2016), pp. 38-46,


[Highlights] [::] We measured forest-landscape structure effects on disturbance patterns in Alaska. [::] Disturbance patterns and interactions were related to tree-species composition. [::] Bark beetles lead to increased probability of fire in mixed-spruce stands. [::] Results can inform management of disturbance in Alaska with climate change. [Abstract] Characterizing how variation in forest landscape structure shapes patterns of natural disturbances and mediates interactions between multiple disturbances is critical for anticipating ecological consequences of climate change in high-latitude forest ecosystems. During the 1990s, a massive spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus ...


Uncertainty in soil data can outweigh climate impact signals in global crop yield simulations

Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (21 June 2016), 11872,


Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are increasingly used for agro-environmental assessments and estimates of climate change impacts on food production. Recently, the influence of climate data and weather variability on GGCM outcomes has come under detailed scrutiny, unlike the influence of soil data. Here we compare yield variability caused by the soil type selected for GGCM simulations to weather-induced yield variability. Without fertilizer application, soil-type-related yield variability generally outweighs the simulated inter-annual variability in yield due to weather. Increasing applications of ...


Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 14, No. 1. (1 January 2005), pp. 17-30,


[Aim] One of the limitations to using species’ distribution atlases in conservation planning is their coarse resolution relative to the needs of local planners. In this study, a simple approach to downscale original species atlas distributions to a finer resolution is outlined. If such a procedure yielded accurate downscaled predictions, then it could be an aid to using available distribution atlases in real-world local conservation decisions. [Location]  Europe. [Methods]  An iterative procedure based on generalized additive modelling is used to downscale original ...


A unified cropland layer at 250 m for global agriculture monitoring

Data, Vol. 1, No. 1. (19 March 2016), 3,


Accurate and timely information on the global cropland extent is critical for food security monitoring, water management and earth system modeling. Principally, it allows for analyzing satellite image time-series to assess the crop conditions and permits isolation of the agricultural component to focus on food security and impacts of various climatic scenarios. However, despite its critical importance, accurate information on the spatial extent, cropland mapping with remote sensing imagery remains a major challenge. Following an exhaustive identification and collection of existing ...


Integrating biogeographical processes and local community assembly

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 39, No. 4. (April 2012), pp. 627-628,


[Excerpt] The nature of ecological communities has been a longstanding question in ecology since the debate between F.E. Clements and H.A. Gleason (Ricklefs, 2008). While Clements (1936) viewed communities as closed structures that tend to persist through time, Gleason (1926) perceived them as dynamic entities resulting from the mere coincidence of species’ distributions in space and time. [...] The absence of large-scale processes from Clements’ ideas – which focus exclusively on local interactions – may create the false impression that community ...


SESAM - a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 38, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 1433-1444,


Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts with constituent species to approximate the properties of assemblages. Here, we propose to unify the two approaches in a single ‘spatially explicit species assemblage modelling’ (SESAM) framework. This framework uses relevant designations of initial species source pools for modelling, macroecological variables, and ecological assembly rules to constrain predictions of the richness and composition ...


Stacking species distribution models and adjusting bias by linking them to macroecological models

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 1. (1 January 2014), pp. 99-112,


[Aim] Species distribution models (SDMs) are common tools in biogeography and conservation ecology. It has been repeatedly claimed that aggregated (stacked) SDMs (S-SDMs) will overestimate species richness. One recently suggested solution to this problem is to use macroecological models of species richness to constrain S-SDMs. Here, we examine current practice in the development of S-SDMs to identify methodological problems, provide tools to overcome these issues, and quantify the performance of correctly stacked S-SDMs alongside macroecological models. [Locations] Barents Sea, Europe and Dutch Wadden Sea. [Methods] We present formal mathematical arguments demonstrating how S-SDMs should ...


A global 1-km consensus land-cover product for biodiversity and ecosystem modelling

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 9. (1 September 2014), pp. 1031-1045,


[Aim] For many applications in biodiversity and ecology, existing remote sensing-derived land-cover products have limitations due to among-product inconsistency and their typically non-continuous nature. Here we aim to help address these shortcomings by generating a 1-km resolution global product that provides scale-integrated and accuracy-weighted consensus land-cover information on an approximately continuous scale. [Location] Global. [Methods] Using a generalized classification scheme and an accuracy-based integration approach, we integrated four global land-cover products. We evaluated the performance of this product compared with inputs for estimating subpixel 30-m resolution ...


An assessment of methods and remote-sensing derived covariates for regional predictions of 1 km daily maximum air temperature

Remote Sensing, Vol. 6, No. 9. (16 September 2014), pp. 8639-8670,


The monitoring and prediction of biodiversity and environmental changes is constrained by the availability of accurate and spatially contiguous climatic variables at fine temporal and spatial grains. In this study, we evaluate best practices for generating gridded, one-kilometer resolution, daily maximum air temperature surfaces in a regional context, the state of Oregon, USA. Covariates used in the interpolation include remote sensing derived elevation, aspect, canopy height, percent forest cover and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST). Because of missing values, ...


The role of European National Forest Inventories for international forestry reporting

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 73, No. 4. (2016), pp. 793-806,


[Key message] Despite agreements on definitions, the national data provided for international reporting are lacking comparability. To address this limitation the European National Forest Inventory Network has established criteria to harmonise definitions and to provide tools to transform national data into internationally comparable data. [Context] Forest reporting presents a series of challenges for countries, owing to diverse processes at international level such as the Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA), Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 17

(February 2014)
Keywords: humidity   humus   hungary   hura-crepitans   hybrid-poplars   hybridisation   hydraulic-conductivity   hydraulic-properties   hydrogeology   hydrology   hydropower-energy   hylastes-cunicularius   hylobius-abietis   hylurgops-palliatus   hymenaea-courbaril   hymenoscyphus-pseudoalbidus   hyper-heuristics   hyphantria-cunea   hypoglycin-a   hypoxylon-mediterraneum   hypsipyla-robusta   iatrogenic-problem   iberian-peninsula   iberian-region   ica   ice-cover   ice-sheet   iceland   idl   ieee   iland   ilarvirus   ilex-aquifolium   ilex-spp   illyrian   ilwis   image-processing-analysis   impact   impact-factor   impacts   impatiens-spp   importance   in-situ-conservation   in-vitro-culture   inaction   inbreeding   incompatibility   incomplete-knowledge   incongruity   india   indian-ocean   indicator-species   indicators   indices   individual-emissions   indonedia   industry   inequality   infiltration   information   information-systems   information-technology-benefits   infrastructure   initial-conditions   innovation   inrmm   inrmm-list-of-tags   inrmm-relationship-schemata   insect-outbreak   insect-outbreaks   insect-resistance   insects   inspire   instability   insurance   integral-modelling   integral-quality-index   integrated-biodiversity-observation-system   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integrated-water-resources-management   integration-constraints   integration-techniques   intelligence   inter-specific-crossing   interactions   interception-capacity   interdisciplinary-research   interglacial   international-trade   interoperability   interval-analysis   interview   intra-specific-crossing   intractable-problem   intraspecific-differentiation   intraspecific-variation   introduction   introgression  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets

Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2016), pp. 1406-1420,


We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging that incorporates and spatializes the biomass patterns ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Software Dependencies, Work Dependencies, and Their Impact on Failures

IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 6. (November 2009), pp. 864-878,


Prior research has shown that customer-reported software faults are often the result of violated dependencies that are not recognized by developers implementing software. Many types of dependencies and corresponding measures have been proposed to help address this problem. The objective of this research is to compare the relative performance of several of these dependency measures as they relate to customer-reported defects. Our analysis is based on data collected from two projects from two independent companies. Combined, our data set encompasses eight ...


Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity

Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 61-62, No. 1-3. (2004), pp. 155-165,


Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists. Biodiversity is a forest value that does not carry a market price. It is the foundation, however, upon which productive systems depend. The relationship between agroforestry ...


The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 5. (02 February 2016), pp. 1285-1290,


[Significance] Quantitative knowledge of terrestrial carbon pathways and processes is fundamental for understanding the biosphere’s response to a changing climate. Carbon allocation, stocks, and residence times together define the dynamic state of the terrestrial carbon cycle. These quantities are difficult to measure and remain poorly quantified on a global scale. Here, we retrieve global 1° × 1° carbon state and process variables by combining a carbon balance model with satellite observations of biomass and leaf area (where and when available) and global ...

Visual summary

  • Figure:
  • Source:
  • Caption: Retrievals of C residence time (RT) in live biomass and dead organic C pools; residence times are retrieved at 1° × 1° using a Bayesian MDF approach (Fig. 1). Brown denotes ecosystems with high residence times for all C pools, green denotes ecosystems with long live biomass C residence times, and orange denotes ecosystems with low live

Application of consensus theory to formalize expert evaluations of plant species distribution models

Applied Vegetation Science, Vol. 17, No. 3. (1 July 2014), pp. 528-542,


[::Aim] Application of environmental envelope modelling (EEM) for conservation planning requires careful validation. Opinions of experts who have worked with species of interest in the field can be a valuable and independent information source to validate EEM because of their first-hand experience with species occurrence and absence. However, their use in model validation is limited because of the subjectivity of their feedback. In this study, we present a method on the basis of cultural consensus theory to formalize expert model evaluations. [::Methods] We ...


Water Management and Ecosystems: Living with Change



[Excerpt: Introduction] This report, based on the links between water and ecosystems, outlines how ecosystem-focused approaches may be incorporated into integrated water resources management (IWRM). It analyses to what degree water is involved in the relationship between society and the surrounding ecosystems, clarifies how humans and ecosystems are sharing the same water, and shows how ecosystem sustainability may be strengthened within the IWRM process. The report will provide a conceptual background to support land/water integration in a catchment based ecosystem approach to ...


The true loss caused by biodiversity offsets

Biological Conservation, Vol. 192 (December 2015), pp. 552-559,


Biodiversity offsets aim to achieve a “no-net-loss” of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services due to development. The “no-net-less” objective assumes that the multi-dimensional values of biodiversity in complex ecosystems can be isolated from their spatial, evolutionary, historical, social, and moral context. We examine the irreplaceability of ecosystems, the limits of restoration, and the environmental values that claim to be compensated through ecosystem restoration. We discuss multiple ecological, instrumental, and non-instrumental values of ecosystems that should be considered in offsetting calculations. Considering ...


An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

Ecosystem Services, Vol. 17 (February 2016), pp. 14-23,


[Highlights] [::] EU Member states have to map and assess ecosystems and their services (MAES). [::] We present the MAES conceptual model which links biodiversity to human wellbeing. [::] Typologies of ecosystems and their services ensure comparability across countries. [::] We present a list of indicators that can be used for national MAES assessments. [::] We critically discuss the data gaps and challenges of the MAES typologies. [Abstract] In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key ...

Visual summary


The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations



Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of ...


Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES): Consultation on Version 4, August-December 2012



[Excerpt: Executive Summary] [:1] This Report documents the development of a Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES), following the most recent round of consultation between August and December 2012. [:2] We confirm the need to frame the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) around human needs, and recommend that CICES is regarded primarily as a way of describing ecosystem outputs as they directly contribute to human well-being, so that discussions about appropriate assessment frameworks (economic, social, aesthetic and moral) can take ...


Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services

Ecology and Society, Vol. 11, No. 1. (2006), 28


Ecosystem service (ES) trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, a trade-off may be an explicit choice; but in others, trade-offs arise without premeditation or even awareness that they are taking place. Trade-offs in ES can be classified along three axes: spatial scale, temporal ...

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State of Europe's forests 2015



The Summary for Policy Makers is a brief document based on information included in the “State of Europe’s Forests 2015”report. This document off ers a comprehensive overview of European forests, their current status, trends and policy responses related to them, as well as an insight into sustainable forest management (SFM) in Europe. [\n] The State of Europe’s Forests 2015 report will, along with other publications, serve as background information for political discussions on future opportunities and challenges, and the associated political responses. This report is focused on the current status and ...


  1. Alberdi, I., Michalak, R., Fischer, C., Gasparini, P., Brändli, U.-B., Tomter, S.M., Kuliesis, A., Snorrason, A., Redmond, J., Hernández, L., Cañellas, I., Lanz, A., Vidondo, A., Stoyanov, N., Stoyanova, M., Vestman, M., Barreiro, S., Vidal, C. (Submitted). A common FAWS definition is of major importance for the results of any simulation of the European Forest projections. Annals of Forest Science.
  2. Berg, A., Ehnström, B., Gustafsson, L., Hallingbäck, T., Jonsell, M., Weslien, J., 1994. Threatened

The new blue and green water paradigm: breaking new ground for water resources planning and management

Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 132, No. 3. (May 2006), pp. 129-132,


[Excerpt: Water for Food and Hunger Alleviation] The production of biomass for direct human use—e.g., as food and timber—is by far the largest freshwater-consuming human activity on Earth. However, water policy and development concentrate on a fraction of the water for food challenge, namely, irrigated agriculture, which uses an estimated 25% of the global water used in agriculture, and on the industrial and domestic water supply, which corresponds to less than 10% of direct human water requirements (considering only water for food, ...


Geomorphology and vegetation on hillslopes: Interactions, dependencies, and feedback loops

Geomorphology, Vol. 116, No. 3-4. (01 April 2010), pp. 206-217,


The linkages between vegetation and hillslope geomorphology have been the subject of serious study for years, but traditionally, ecologists and geomorphologists have viewed these interactions as unidirectional. On the one hand, botanists and landscape ecologists have examined the effects of hillslope features, processes, and materials on vegetation structure, composition, and dynamics. Focus has been placed on the effects of topography (elevation, slope angle, slope aspect), edaphic factors, rock type, and geomorphic disturbance (mass movement, snow avalanches, land surface erosion). On the ...

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