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Selection: with tag integration-techniques [194 articles] 

 

Global MODIS fraction of green vegetation cover for monitoring abrupt and gradual vegetation changes

  
Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 4. (23 April 2018), 653, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10040653

Abstract

The presence and distribution of green vegetation cover in the biosphere are of paramount importance in investigating cause-effect phenomena at the land/atmosphere interface, estimating primary production rates as part of global carbon and water cycle assessments and evaluating soil protection and land use change over time. The fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) as estimated from satellite observations has already been demonstrated to be an extraordinarily useful product for understanding vegetation cover changes, for supporting ecosystem service assessments over areas with ...

 

Mapping the interaction between development aid and stunting in Nigeria

  
In 28th IUSSP International Population Conference (2017)

Abstract

For meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs) an improved understanding of geographic differences in health status, wealth and access to resources is crucial. The equitable and effcient allocation of international aid relies on knowing where funds are needed most. For instance, aid for poverty alleviation or financial access improvement requires knowledge of where the poor are. Unfortunately, detailed, reliable and timely information on the spatial distribution and characteristics of intended aid recipients in many low income countries are rarely available. This lack ...

References

  1. AidData, 2016. Nigeria AIMS geocoded research release, version 1.3.1. In: AidData Datasets. AidData, Williamsburg, VA and Washington, DC. http://aiddata.org/data/nigeria-aims-geocoded-research-release-level-1-v1-3-1 , http://aiddata.org/research-datasets , INRMM-MiD:14546755
  2. Alegana, V. A., Atkinson, P. M., Pezzulo, C., Sorichetta, A., Weiss, D., Bird, T., Erbach-Schoenberg, E., Tatem, A. J., 2015. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 (105), 20150073+. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073 , INRMM-MiD:14546782
 

Global land cover mapping at 30m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

  
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 103 (May 2015), pp. 7-27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.09.002

Abstract

Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational ...

 

Biomass production, supply, uses and flows in the European Union - First results from an integrated assessment

  
Vol. 28993 EN (2018), https://doi.org/10.2760/539520

Abstract

[Executive summary] This report illustrates part of the results from the first two years of JRC biomass study, carried out in the context of the mandate on the provision to EC services of data and analysis on biomass flow, supply and demand on a long-term basis. [\n] The JRC biomass study has a wide scope and is a long-term endeavour, not having a pre-defined duration. Here we refer to the results after the first two years, with a focus on the assessments of ...

 

Climate impacts from a removal of anthropogenic aerosol emissions

  
Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, No. 2. (28 January 2018), pp. 1020-1029, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl076079

Abstract

Limiting global warming to 1.5 or 2.0°C requires strong mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Concurrently, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols will decline, due to coemission with GHG, and measures to improve air quality. However, the combined climate effect of GHG and aerosol emissions over the industrial era is poorly constrained. Here we show the climate impacts from removing present-day anthropogenic aerosol emissions and compare them to the impacts from moderate GHG-dominated global warming. Removing aerosols induces a global mean surface ...

 

Seeking for the rational basis of the Median Model: the optimal combination of multi-model ensemble results

  
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 7, No. 24. (11 December 2007), pp. 6085-6098, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-6085-2007

Abstract

In this paper we present an approach for the statistical analysis of multi-model ensemble results. The models considered here are operational long-range transport and dispersion models, also used for the real-time simulation of pollutant dispersion or the accidental release of radioactive nuclides. [\n] We first introduce the theoretical basis (with its roots sinking into the Bayes theorem) and then apply this approach to the analysis of model results obtained during the ETEX-1 exercise. We recover some interesting results, supporting the heuristic approach ...

 

On the systematic reduction of data complexity in multimodel atmospheric dispersion ensemble modeling

  
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, No. D5. (16 March 2012), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd016503

Abstract

The aim of this work is to explore the effectiveness of theoretical information approaches for the reduction of data complexity in multimodel ensemble systems. We first exploit a weak form of independence, i.e. uncorrelation, as a mechanism for detecting linear relationships. Then, stronger and more general forms of independence measure, such as mutual information, are used to investigate dependence structures for model selection. A distance matrix, measuring the interdependence between data, is derived for the investigated measures, with the scope of ...

 

Integrated environmental modeling: a vision and roadmap for the future

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 39 (January 2013), pp. 3-23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.09.006

Abstract

Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the extent of the environmental system involved, dynamic and interdependent nature of stressors and their impacts, diversity of stakeholders, and integration of social, economic, and environmental considerations. IEM provides a science-based structure to develop and organize relevant knowledge and information and apply it to ...

 

Impact of asymmetric uncertainties in ice sheet dynamics on regional sea level projections

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 12. (04 December 2017), pp. 2125-2141, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-17-2125-2017

Abstract

Currently a paradigm shift is made from global averaged to spatially variable sea level change (SLC) projections. Traditionally, the contribution from ice sheet mass loss to SLC is considered to be symmetrically distributed. However, several assessments suggest that the probability distribution of dynamical ice sheet mass loss is asymmetrically distributed towards higher SLC values. Here we show how asymmetric probability distributions of dynamical ice sheet mass loss impact the high-end uncertainties of regional SLC projections across the globe. For this purpose ...

 

US natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation

  
Environmental Management, Vol. 44, No. 6. (2009), pp. 1001-1021, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9345-1

Abstract

Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; ...

 

Environmental and geographic variables are effective surrogates for genetic variation in conservation planning

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 48. (28 November 2017), pp. 12755-12760, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711009114

Abstract

[Significance] To protect biodiversity for the long term, nature reserves and other protected areas need to represent a broad range of different genetic types. However, genetic data are expensive and time-consuming to obtain. Here we show that freely available environmental and geographic variables can be used as effective surrogates for genetic data in conservation planning. This means that conservation planners can, with some confidence, design protected area systems to represent intraspecific genetic diversity without investing in expensive programs to obtain and analyze ...

 

Comparison of methods used in European National Forest Inventories for the estimation of volume increment: towards harmonisation

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 73, No. 4. (2016), pp. 807-821, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-016-0554-5

Abstract

[Key message] The increment estimation methods of European NFIs were explored by means of 12 essential NFI features. The results indicate various differences among NFIs within the commonly acknowledged methodological frame. The perspectives for harmonisation at the European level are promising. [Context] The estimation of increment is implemented differently in European National Forest Inventories (NFIs) due to different historical origins of NFIs and sampling designs and field assessments accommodated to country-specific conditions. The aspired harmonisation of increment estimation requires a comparison and an analysis ...

 

Integrating biodiversity distribution knowledge: toward a global map of life

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 27, No. 3. (March 2012), pp. 151-159, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.09.007

Abstract

Global knowledge about the spatial distribution of species is orders of magnitude coarser in resolution than other geographically-structured environmental datasets such as topography or land cover. Yet such knowledge is crucial in deciphering ecological and evolutionary processes and in managing global change. In this review, we propose a conceptual and cyber-infrastructure framework for refining species distributional knowledge that is novel in its ability to mobilize and integrate diverse types of data such that their collective strengths overcome individual weaknesses. The ultimate ...

 

Bias correction in species distribution models: pooling survey and collection data for multiple species

  
Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, No. 4. (1 April 2015), pp. 424-438, https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12242

Abstract

[::] Presence-only records may provide data on the distributions of rare species, but commonly suffer from large, unknown biases due to their typically haphazard collection schemes. Presence–absence or count data collected in systematic, planned surveys are more reliable but typically less abundant. [::] We proposed a probabilistic model to allow for joint analysis of presence-only and survey data to exploit their complementary strengths. Our method pools presence-only and presence–absence data for many species and maximizes a joint likelihood, simultaneously estimating and adjusting ...

 

The most recent view of vulnerability

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 70-84

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] Over the past decades, vulnerability research has made considerable progress in understanding some of the root causes and dynamic pressures that influence the progression of vulnerability and raised awareness that disasters are not natural but predominantly a product of social, economic and political conditions (Wisner et al., 2004). [\n] Vulnerability assessments are a response to the call for evidence by decision- makers for use in pre-disaster risk assessment, prevention and reduction, as well as the development and implementation of appropriate preparedness and effective disaster response strategies by providing information on people, communities or regions at risk. [\n] ...

References

  1. Alexander, D., Magni, M., 2013. Mortality in the L'Aquila ( Central Italy ) Earthquake of 6 April 2009. PLOS Current Disasters, (April 2009).
  2. Alexander, D., 2010. The L'Aquila Earthquake of 6 April 2009 and Italian Government Policy on Disaster Response. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 2(4), 325–342.
  3. Alexander, D., 2013. Resilience and disaster risk reduction: An etymological journey. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 13 (11), 2707–2716.
 

A high-accuracy map of global terrain elevations

  
Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, No. 11. (16 June 2017), pp. 5844-5853, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl072874
 

Combining multiple classifiers: an application using spatial and remotely sensed information for land cover type mapping

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 74, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 545-556, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(00)00145-0

Abstract

This article discusses two new methods for increasing the accuracy of classifiers used land cover mapping. The first method, called the product rule, is a simple and general method of combining two or more classification rules as a single rule. Stacked regression methods of combining classification rules are discussed and compared to the product rule. The second method of increasing classifier accuracy is a simple nonparametric classifier that uses spatial information for classification. Two data sets used for land cover mapping ...

 

At the nexus of fire, water and society

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0172

Abstract

The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...

 

A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

  
Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22, https://doi.org/10.3390/f7010022

Abstract

Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...

 

Exploring transdisciplinary integration within a large research program: empirical lessons from four thematic synthesis processes

  
Research Policy, Vol. 46, No. 3. (April 2017), pp. 678-692, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.01.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We adapt a framework to compare integration across four synthesis processes. [::] We identify challenges and derive recommendations for future synthesis processes. [::] We recommend initiating synthesis processes concurrently with research projects. [::] We consider professional competences and management skills crucial for integration. [::] We recommend the promotion of communities of practice to support integration. [Abstract] What challenges do researchers face when leading transdisciplinary integration? We address this question by analyzing transdisciplinary integration within four thematic synthesis processes of the Swiss National Research Programme (NRP 61) ...

 

Transdisciplinary global change research: the co-creation of knowledge for sustainability

  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 5, No. 3-4. (September 2013), pp. 420-431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.001

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A new framework for integrated, transdisciplinary global change research for sustainability is introduced. [::] From a practical perspective three different dimensions of integration (scientific, international and sectoral) are discussed. [::] Co-design of research agendas and co-production of knowledge are discussed as necessary integration approaches to address Future Earth research challenges. [Abstract] The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among ...

 

Boss competence and worker well-being

  
ILR Review, Vol. 70, No. 2. (March 2017), pp. 419-450, https://doi.org/10.1177/0019793916650451

Abstract

Nearly all workers have a supervisor or “boss.” Yet little is known about how bosses influence the quality of employees’ lives. This study offers new evidence. First, the authors find that a boss’s technical competence is the single strongest predictor of a worker’s job satisfaction. Second, they demonstrate using longitudinal data, after controlling for fixed-effects, that even if a worker stays in the same job and workplace, a rise in the competence of a supervisor is associated with an improvement in ...

 

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

  
Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  

Abstract

[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52013DC0659 , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to
 

Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620503114

Abstract

[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...

 

Weighted median filters: a tutorial

  
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing In Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 43, No. 3. (March 1996), pp. 157-192, https://doi.org/10.1109/82.486465

Abstract

Weighted Median (WM) filters have the robustness and edge preserving capability of the classical median filter and resemble linear FIR filters in certain properties. Furthermore, WM filters belong to the broad class of nonlinear filters called stack filters. This enables the use of the tools developed for the latter class in characterizing and analyzing the behavior and properties of WM filters, e.g. noise attenuation capability. The fact that WM filters are threshold functions allows the use of neural network training methods ...

 

Multi-dimensional weighted median: the module "wmedian" of the Mastrave modelling library

  
In Semantic Array Programming with Mastrave - Introduction to Semantic Computational Modelling (2012)

Abstract

Weighted median (WM) filtering is a well known technique for dealing with noisy images and a variety of WM-based algorithms have been proposed as effective ways for reducing uncertainties or reconstructing degraded signals by means of available information with heterogeneous reliability. Here a generalized module for applying weighted median filtering to multi-dimensional arrays of information with associated multi-dimensional arrays of corresponding weights is presented. Weights may be associated to single elements or to groups of elements along given dimensions of the ...

 

The common NFI database

  
In National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments, Vol. 20 (2011), pp. 99-119, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0482-4_4

Abstract

To test bridging techniques for the harmonized estimation of forest biodiversity indicators for each of the selected essential features a common database was constructed and populated with raw NFI data provided by some of the COST Action E43 participating countries. The database was structured with five tables in a relational database: one table for descriptive plot data, one for tree level data, one for deadwood pieces, one for shrub data and one for ground vegetation. The database was populated with data ...

 

Forest value: more than commercial

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6319. (23 December 2016), pp. 1541-1541, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal2499

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Postulating a positive relation between tree species richness and commercial value could potentially have adverse environmental consequences. For example, concluding that megadiverse tropical forests have innate commercial value would make it unnecessary to supplement this supposed value with rewards for landowners who preserve their native forests. Landowners might then continue to convert such forests to profitable monocultures [...] which have real commercial value. Species-rich forests indeed have an extremely high conservation and ecosystem service value, but their commercial value ...

 

Forest value: more than commercial - Response

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6319. (23 December 2016), pp. 1541-1542, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal2612

Abstract

[Excerpt] Paul and Knoke address the commercial value and profitability of forest biodiversity, which differs fundamentally from the economic value that we outlined in our Research Article. [...] Our estimates pertain to the sole contribution of tree species diversity, as it exists today, to global forest productivity, from which the economic value accrues. Our analysis—which includes nonmarket values not commonly captured in commercial forestry but excludes the contribution of forest biodiversity to carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, and aesthetic and cultural values—reflects ...

 

Sequential disturbance effects of hailstorm and fire on vegetation in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 18, No. 7. (2015), pp. 1121-1134, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9886-5

Abstract

Frequency and intensity of disturbance is projected to increase for many ecosystems globally, with uncertain consequences, particularly when disturbances occur in rapid succession. We quantified community response (52 shrub species and the tree Eucalyptus todtiana) to a severe hailstorm followed 2 months later by prescribed fire for a Mediterranean-type shrubland in southwestern Australia. Partial overlap of hailstorm path and fire perimeter provided a unique opportunity to compare storm and fire effects along a storm severity gradient (high–moderate–none) with and without fire. ...

 

Disturbance and the carbon balance of US forests: a quantitative review of impacts from harvests, fires, insects, and droughts

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 143 (August 2016), pp. 66-80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.06.002

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Available data suggest harvest is the leading disturbance impact on C in US forests then fire, windthrow, insects, and droughts. [::] Disturbances in US forests lead to the loss of at least 200 Tg C in live biomass each year on average. [::] Regrowth roughly balances disturbance emissions, with growth enhancements contributing significantly to the net change in forest carbon. [::] Natural disturbance events are likely to rise in the future, leading to net release of forest carbon. [Abstract] Disturbances are a major determinant of ...

 

Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, No. 9. (23 May 2016), pp. 885-890, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3039

Abstract

Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios ...

 

Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (Sep 2017), 170122, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122

Abstract

High-resolution information on climatic conditions is essential to many applications in environmental and ecological sciences. Here we present the CHELSA (Climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas) data of downscaled model output temperature and precipitation estimates of the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The temperature algorithm is based on statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperatures. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors including wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, with a subsequent bias correction. ...

 

CHELSA climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas (Version 1.1)

  

Abstract

CHELSA_v1.1 (http://chelsa-climate.org/) is a high resolution (30 arc sec, ~1 km) climate data set for the earth land surface areas. It includes monthly and annual mean temperature and precipitation patterns as well as derived bioclimatic and interannual parameters for the time period 1979-2013. CHELSA_v1.1 is based on a quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling of the ERA interim global circulation model (http://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim) with a GPCC (https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/gpcc/gpcc.html) and GHCN (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ghcnm/) bias correction. ...

 

A radiative transfer model-based method for the estimation of grassland aboveground biomass

  
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 54 (February 2017), pp. 159-168, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2016.10.002

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] The PROSAILH radiative transfer model was presented to estimate grassland AGB. [::] The ill-posed inversion problem was alleviated by using the ecological criteria. [::] Multi-source satellite products were used to filter the unrealistic combinations of retrieved free parameters. [::] Three empirical methods were also used to estimate the grassland AGB. [Abstract] This paper presents a novel method to derive grassland aboveground biomass (AGB) based on the PROSAILH (PROSPECT + SAILH) radiative transfer model (RTM). Two variables, leaf area index (LAI, m2m−2, defined as a one-side ...

 

Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 23, No. 5. (2014), 606, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf12052

Abstract

Fire risk assessment should take into account the most relevant components associated to fire occurrence. To estimate when and where the fire will produce undesired effects, we need to model both (a) fire ignition and propagation potential and (b) fire vulnerability. Following these ideas, a comprehensive fire risk assessment system is proposed in this paper, which makes extensive use of geographic information technologies to offer a spatially explicit evaluation of fire risk conditions. The paper first describes the conceptual model, then ...

 

MSWEP: 3-hourly 0.25° global gridded precipitation (1979–2015) by merging gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions (30 May 2016), pp. 1-38, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2016-236

Abstract

Current global precipitation (P) datasets do not take full advantage of the complementary nature of satellite and reanalysis data. Here, we present Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), a global P dataset for the period 1979–2015 with a 3-hourly temporal and 0.25° spatial resolution, specifically designed for hydrological modeling. The design philosophy of MSWEP was to optimally merge the highest quality P data sources available as a function of time scale and location. The long-term mean of MSWEP was based on the CHPclim ...

 

Investigating the effects of large wood and forest management on flood risk and flood hydrology

  

Abstract

The changes to catchment scale flood risk following river restoration works, including the addition of large wood logjams to the channel, are poorly quantified in the literature. Key concerns following river restoration for river managers and other stakeholders are changes to flood hydrology at the reach and catchment scale and changes in the mobility of large wood pieces. The effects of accumulations of large wood (logjams) on local flood hydrology have been documented in the literature, showing logjams slow flood wave ...

 

The future of the Brazilian Amazon

  
Science, Vol. 291, No. 5503. (19 January 2001), pp. 438-439, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.291.5503.438

Abstract

The Brazilian Amazon is currently experiencing the world's highest absolute rate of forest destruction and is likely to suffer even greater degradation in the future because of government plans to invest $40 billion from 2000 to 2007 in dozens of major new highways and infrastructure projects. We developed two computer models that integrate spatial data on deforestation, logging, mining, highways and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wildfires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the ...

 

The effect of species geographical distribution estimation methods on richness and phylogenetic diversity estimates

  
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 26, No. 11. (1 November 2012), pp. 2097-2109, https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2012.717627

Abstract

Diversity assessments are widely used in various fields of knowledge and rely on good estimates of species distribution. There are several methods available to estimate species distribution and the effect of using them is not clearly understood. In this research, we assess the effect of species distributions derived from four geographical distribution estimation methods on derived species richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We used the following four most common approaches to determine species geographical distributions: (1) range-wide occurrences are records of ...

 

Improving the assessment and reporting on rare and endangered species through species distribution models

  
Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 2 (December 2014), pp. 226-237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2014.09.011

Abstract

Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to understand rare and endangered species distributions, as well as the environmental pressures affecting them. Detailed knowledge of their distribution is critical for reporting its conservation status, and SDMs are potential tools to provide the relevant information to conservation practitioners. In this study, we modeled the distribution of Veronica micrantha, a vulnerable plant whose conservation status has to be periodically assessed under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. [\n] The objective was to highlight the ...

 

Forest-landscape structure mediates effects of a spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak on subsequent likelihood of burning in Alaskan boreal forest

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 369 (June 2016), pp. 38-46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.03.036

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We measured forest-landscape structure effects on disturbance patterns in Alaska. [::] Disturbance patterns and interactions were related to tree-species composition. [::] Bark beetles lead to increased probability of fire in mixed-spruce stands. [::] Results can inform management of disturbance in Alaska with climate change. [Abstract] Characterizing how variation in forest landscape structure shapes patterns of natural disturbances and mediates interactions between multiple disturbances is critical for anticipating ecological consequences of climate change in high-latitude forest ecosystems. During the 1990s, a massive spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus ...

 

Uncertainty in soil data can outweigh climate impact signals in global crop yield simulations

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (21 June 2016), 11872, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11872

Abstract

Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are increasingly used for agro-environmental assessments and estimates of climate change impacts on food production. Recently, the influence of climate data and weather variability on GGCM outcomes has come under detailed scrutiny, unlike the influence of soil data. Here we compare yield variability caused by the soil type selected for GGCM simulations to weather-induced yield variability. Without fertilizer application, soil-type-related yield variability generally outweighs the simulated inter-annual variability in yield due to weather. Increasing applications of ...

 

Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 14, No. 1. (1 January 2005), pp. 17-30, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822x.2004.00128.x

Abstract

[Aim] One of the limitations to using species’ distribution atlases in conservation planning is their coarse resolution relative to the needs of local planners. In this study, a simple approach to downscale original species atlas distributions to a finer resolution is outlined. If such a procedure yielded accurate downscaled predictions, then it could be an aid to using available distribution atlases in real-world local conservation decisions. [Location]  Europe. [Methods]  An iterative procedure based on generalized additive modelling is used to downscale original ...

 

A unified cropland layer at 250 m for global agriculture monitoring

  
Data, Vol. 1, No. 1. (19 March 2016), 3, https://doi.org/10.3390/data1010003

Abstract

Accurate and timely information on the global cropland extent is critical for food security monitoring, water management and earth system modeling. Principally, it allows for analyzing satellite image time-series to assess the crop conditions and permits isolation of the agricultural component to focus on food security and impacts of various climatic scenarios. However, despite its critical importance, accurate information on the spatial extent, cropland mapping with remote sensing imagery remains a major challenge. Following an exhaustive identification and collection of existing ...

 

Integrating biogeographical processes and local community assembly

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 39, No. 4. (April 2012), pp. 627-628, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02684.x

Abstract

[Excerpt] The nature of ecological communities has been a longstanding question in ecology since the debate between F.E. Clements and H.A. Gleason (Ricklefs, 2008). While Clements (1936) viewed communities as closed structures that tend to persist through time, Gleason (1926) perceived them as dynamic entities resulting from the mere coincidence of species’ distributions in space and time. [...] The absence of large-scale processes from Clements’ ideas – which focus exclusively on local interactions – may create the false impression that community ...

 

SESAM - a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 38, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 1433-1444, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02550.x

Abstract

Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts with constituent species to approximate the properties of assemblages. Here, we propose to unify the two approaches in a single ‘spatially explicit species assemblage modelling’ (SESAM) framework. This framework uses relevant designations of initial species source pools for modelling, macroecological variables, and ecological assembly rules to constrain predictions of the richness and composition ...

 

Stacking species distribution models and adjusting bias by linking them to macroecological models

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 1. (1 January 2014), pp. 99-112, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12102

Abstract

[Aim] Species distribution models (SDMs) are common tools in biogeography and conservation ecology. It has been repeatedly claimed that aggregated (stacked) SDMs (S-SDMs) will overestimate species richness. One recently suggested solution to this problem is to use macroecological models of species richness to constrain S-SDMs. Here, we examine current practice in the development of S-SDMs to identify methodological problems, provide tools to overcome these issues, and quantify the performance of correctly stacked S-SDMs alongside macroecological models. [Locations] Barents Sea, Europe and Dutch Wadden Sea. [Methods] We present formal mathematical arguments demonstrating how S-SDMs should ...

 

A global 1-km consensus land-cover product for biodiversity and ecosystem modelling

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 9. (1 September 2014), pp. 1031-1045, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12182

Abstract

[Aim] For many applications in biodiversity and ecology, existing remote sensing-derived land-cover products have limitations due to among-product inconsistency and their typically non-continuous nature. Here we aim to help address these shortcomings by generating a 1-km resolution global product that provides scale-integrated and accuracy-weighted consensus land-cover information on an approximately continuous scale. [Location] Global. [Methods] Using a generalized classification scheme and an accuracy-based integration approach, we integrated four global land-cover products. We evaluated the performance of this product compared with inputs for estimating subpixel 30-m resolution ...

 

An assessment of methods and remote-sensing derived covariates for regional predictions of 1 km daily maximum air temperature

  
Remote Sensing, Vol. 6, No. 9. (16 September 2014), pp. 8639-8670, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs6098639

Abstract

The monitoring and prediction of biodiversity and environmental changes is constrained by the availability of accurate and spatially contiguous climatic variables at fine temporal and spatial grains. In this study, we evaluate best practices for generating gridded, one-kilometer resolution, daily maximum air temperature surfaces in a regional context, the state of Oregon, USA. Covariates used in the interpolation include remote sensing derived elevation, aspect, canopy height, percent forest cover and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST). Because of missing values, ...

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