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Selection: with tag indicators [46 articles] 

 

Malaria prevalence metrics in low- and middle-income countries: an assessment of precision in nationally-representative surveys

  
Malaria Journal, Vol. 16 (21 November 2017), 475, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-2127-y

Abstract

[Background] One pillar to monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals is the investment in high quality data to strengthen the scientific basis for decision-making. At present, nationally-representative surveys are the main source of data for establishing a scientific evidence base, monitoring, and evaluation of health metrics. However, little is known about the optimal precisions of various population-level health and development indicators that remains unquantified in nationally-representative household surveys. Here, a retrospective analysis of the precision of prevalence from these surveys was ...

 

Mapping indicators of female welfare at high spatial resolution

  
(2017)

Abstract

Improved understanding of geographic variation and inequity in health status, wealth, and access to resources within countries is increasingly being recognized as central to meeting development goals. Development and health indicators assessed at national scales conceal important inequities, with the rural poor often least well represented. High-resolution data on key social and health indicators are fundamental for targeting limited resources, especially where development funding has recently come under increased pressure. Globally, around 80% of countries regularly produce sex-disaggregated statistics at a ...

References

  1. Alegana, V.A., Atkinson, P.M., Pezzulo, C., Sorichetta, A., Weiss, D., Bird, T., ErbachSchoenberg, E., Tatem, A.J., 2015. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 (105), 20150073+. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073 .
  2. Banerjee, S., Gelfand, A.E., Polasek, W., 2000. Geostatistical modelling for spatial interaction data with application to postal service performance. Journal of statistical planning and inference 90(1), 87-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3758(00)00111-7 .
 

Exploring the high-resolution mapping of gender-disaggregated development indicators

  
Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 14, No. 129. (05 April 2017), 20160825, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2016.0825

Abstract

Improved understanding of geographical variation and inequity in health status, wealth and access to resources within countries is increasingly being recognized as central to meeting development goals. Development and health indicators assessed at national or subnational scale can often conceal important inequities, with the rural poor often least well represented. The ability to target limited resources is fundamental, especially in an international context where funding for health and development comes under pressure. This has recently prompted the exploration of the potential ...

 

Supplementary Information from Exploring the high-resolution mapping of gender disaggregated development indicators

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Datasets] The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) is a program of national household surveys implemented across a large number of LMICs. The DHS Program collects and analyses data on population demographic and health characteristics through more than 300 surveys in over 90 countries. The gender-disaggregated data we investigated in this report come from DHS datasets. [\n] [...] [Models specification] [::Bayesian model specification] The Gaussian Function (GF) in INLA is represented as a Gaussian Markov Random Function (GMRF). Computations in INLA are carried out using the GMRF by approximating a ...

References

  1. Alegana, V.A., Atkinson, P.M., Pezzulo, C., Sorichetta, A., Weiss, D., Bird, T., ErbachSchoenberg, E., Tatem, A.J., 2015. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 (105), 20150073+. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073 .
  2. Bosco, C., de Rigo, D., Dijkstra, T.A., Sander, G., Wasowski, J., 2013. Multi-scale robust modelling of landslide susceptibility: regional rapid assessment and catchment robust fuzzy ensemble. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology
 

Climate twins - An attempt to quantify climatological similarities

  
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology In Environmental Software Systems. Frameworks of eEnvironment, Vol. 359 (2011), pp. 428-436, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22285-6_46

Abstract

As climate change appears, strategies and actions will be necessary to cope with its effects on environment and society in the coming decades. Current climate conditions can be observed everywhere in the world but future climate conditions can only be estimated through climate simulations which produce huge amounts of quantitative data. This data leads to statements like “temperature increase is expected to exceed 2.6°C” or similar and remain fuzzy to non-experts in climate research. The Climate Twins application is designed to ...

 

Meteorological droughts in Europe: events and impacts - Past trends and future projections

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive Summary] Observational records from 1950 onwards and climate projections for the 21st century provide evidence that droughts are a recurrent climate feature in large parts of Europe, especially in the Mediterranean, but also in western, south-eastern and central Europe. Trends over the past 60 years show an increasing frequency, duration and intensity of droughts in these regions, while a negative trend has been observed in north-eastern Europe. With a changing climate, this tendency is likely to be reinforced during the 21st century, affecting a wide range of ...

 

Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620503114

Abstract

[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...

 

Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...

References

  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0161-1 .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,
 

Executive summary

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...

References

  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,
 

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

  
Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...

 

A multi-criteria optimisation of scenarios for the protection of water resources in Europe: support to the EU blueprint to safeguard Europe's waters

  

Abstract

A modelling environment has been developed to assess optimum combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. This modelling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the LUMP land use model, the LISFLOOD water quantity model, the EPIC water quality model, the LISQUAL combined water quantity, quality and hydro-economic model, and a multi-criteria optimisation routine. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient ...

 

Novel quantitative indicators to characterize the protective effect of mountain forests against rockfall

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 67 (August 2016), pp. 98-107, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.02.023

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We modelled rockfall events on 3886 different forests located in all the French Alps. [::] We proposed two indicators to assess reductions of rockfall frequency and intensity. [::] We defined one indicator to evaluate the overall rockfall protection of each forest. [::] The indicators are easily and accurately predicted with three forest characteristics. [::] This approach has direct applications in forest management and rockfall assessment. [Abstract] Natural hazards are frequent in mountain areas where they regularly cause casualties and damages to human infrastructures. Mountain forests contribute ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 17

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: humidity   humus   hungary   hura-crepitans   hybrid-poplars   hybridisation   hydraulic-conductivity   hydraulic-properties   hydrogeology   hydrology   hydropower-energy   hylastes-cunicularius   hylobius-abietis   hylurgops-palliatus   hymenaea-courbaril   hymenoscyphus-pseudoalbidus   hyper-heuristics   hyphantria-cunea   hypoglycin-a   hypoxylon-mediterraneum   hypsipyla-robusta   iatrogenic-problem   iberian-peninsula   iberian-region   ica   ice-cover   ice-sheet   iceland   idl   ieee   iland   ilarvirus   ilex-aquifolium   ilex-spp   illyrian   ilwis   image-processing-analysis   impact   impact-factor   impacts   impatiens-spp   importance   in-situ-conservation   in-vitro-culture   inaction   inbreeding   incompatibility   incomplete-knowledge   incongruity   india   indian-ocean   indicator-species   indicators   indices   individual-emissions   indonedia   industry   inequality   infiltration   information   information-systems   information-technology-benefits   infrastructure   initial-conditions   innovation   inrmm   inrmm-list-of-tags   inrmm-relationship-schemata   insect-outbreak   insect-outbreaks   insect-resistance   insects   inspire   instability   insurance   integral-modelling   integral-quality-index   integrated-biodiversity-observation-system   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integrated-water-resources-management   integration-constraints   integration-techniques   intelligence   inter-specific-crossing   interactions   interception-capacity   interdisciplinary-research   interglacial   international-trade   interoperability   interval-analysis   interview   intra-specific-crossing   intractable-problem   intraspecific-differentiation   intraspecific-variation   introduction   introgression  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Travel time to major cities: a global map of accessibility

  
(2008)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Background] The world is shrinking. Cheap flights, large scale commercial shipping and expanding road networks all mean that we are better connected to everywhere else than ever before. But global travel and international trade and just two of the forces that have reshaped our world. A new map of Travel Time to Major Cities - developed by the European Commission and the World Bank - captures this connectivity and the concentration of economic activity and also highlights that there is little ...

 

Mapping and assessing the condition of Europe's ecosystems: progress and challenges - EEA contribution to the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

  
No. 3/2016. (2016), https://doi.org/10.2800/417530

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] We depend on healthy and resilient ecosystems to continue to deliver a range of essential services, such as food, water, clean air and recreation, into the future. However, our natural capital is being lost to or degraded by pressures such as pollution, climate change, overexploitation and urban development. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 therefore sets a target to maintain and enhance ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructures and restoring at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems by 2020. Mapping ecosystems and their condition is essential for measuring ...

References

  1. Adi Associates, 2014. Setting up of an Underwater Trail in the Marine Protected Area from Rdum Majjiesa to Rasir-Raheb. http://www.adi-associates.com/projects/settingupof-an-underwater-trail-in-themarine-protected-areafromrdum-majjiesa-to-ras-irraheb .
  2. Airoldi, L., Beck, M. W., 2007. Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanography and Marine Biology, (45) 345–405.
  3. Armson, D., Stringer, P., Ennos, A. R., 2012. The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area. Urban
 

Indicators for ecosystem services

  
In OpenNESS Ecosystem Service Reference Book (2015)
edited by M. Potschin, K. Jax

Abstract

[Excerpt: Indicators in a policy context] The main purpose of using indicators in a policy context is to provide messages to stakeholders and policy actors to achieve better (more informed) governance. This involves indicators being used for normative goals in addition to descriptive purposes (Heink and Kowarik, 2010). Hence, not all indicators used are solely science-based. Several major factors that determine the “usefulness” and “success” of an indicator are outside of the scope of science. [\n] The use of scientific information for policy ...

Visual summary

 

Biodiversity evaluation tools for European forests

  
Vol. 50 (2001)

Abstract

The Biodiversity Evaluation Tools BETs for European forest presented in this report are the outcome of a pan-European project BEAR, bringing together expertise from 27 European research organisations. The main achievements are a common scheme of key factors of biodiversity applicable to European forests, European-level Forest Types for Biodiversity Assessment and a list of potential biodiversity indicators to assess forest biodiversity. Furthermore the report gives general advice for European and national level assessment and monitoriing of forest biodiversity. [\n] The BETs for ...

 

Multispecies indicators 2015

  
In Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (PECBMS) (2015), 592

Abstract

Supranational species indices are combined in multispecies indicators. These are produced for groups of species according to their main habitat types. To produce precise indicators with small standard errors, it is important to include as many bird species as possible. The rationale behind the construction of composite indicators is that each species is seen as a replicate that may respond in the same way to environmental drivers as the other species and repeats the same signal. [\n] After the supranational species indices ...

 

Wild bird indicators: using composite population trends of birds as measures of environmental health

  
Ornithological Science, Vol. 9, No. 1. (1 June 2010), pp. 3-22, https://doi.org/10.2326/osj.9.3

Abstract

World leaders have set global and regional targets to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, and their relative success, or failure, in meeting these aims will be measured against a set of indicators. For such indicators to be effective, they need to meet a range of practical and scientific criteria. Their development is often driven pragmatically by the information available, One such biodiversity indicator that has proven highly effective and influential in Europe is the wild bird indicator. This ...

 

Towards more predictable and consistent landscape metrics across spatial scales

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 57 (October 2015), pp. 11-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.03.042

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Landscape metrics are used to quantify landscape composition and configuration. [::] These metrics are sensitive to spatial pattern and the scale of the spatial data. [::] Metrics that are less sensitive to scale and are less correlated are highlighted. [::] Complex interactions between scale and the spatial pattern of the landscape were found. [::]Investigation of these interactions is needed to accurately quantify spatial patterns. [Abstract] Habitat change and fragmentation are considered key drivers of environmental change and biodiversity loss. To understand and mitigate the effects of ...

 

Development of indicators reflecting criteria of spatial differentiation - 1.6. Natural assets environmental indicators

  
(1999)

Abstract

[Excerpt] In the task sharing established at the Preparatory Meeting of the Study Programme on European Spatial Planning (SPESP), Brussels, 7 December 1998, it was agreed that the Work Group in charge of the development of theme 1.6, Indicators on Natural Assets, would be made up of the National Focal Points (NFP’s) of Spain and Denmark. Furthermore, it was planned that the work would be carried out in close collaboration with the European Environment Agency (EEA), given the obvious relationship of this organisation with the theme under study. Apart ...

 

Linking pattern and process in cultural landscapes. An empirical study based on spatially explicit indicators

  
Land Use Policy, Vol. 21, No. 3. (July 2004), pp. 289-306, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2003.10.012

Abstract

Landscapes can be seen as the contingent and historically variable outcome of an interplay between socio-economic and biophysical forces. Landscape ecologists use a wealth of indicators based on landscape patterns to evaluate landscape diversity (LD), landscape structure, the naturalness of landscapes, and land-use intensity. Indicators such as the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) are increasingly used to evaluate the changes in ecosystem processes induced by land use. Based on a study region in the central part of Lower Austria ...

 

Critical slowing down as early warning for the onset of collapse in mutualistic communities

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (09 December 2014), pp. 17546-17551, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1406326111

Abstract

[Significance] Little is known on whether structurally diverse ecological networks may respond abruptly to anthropogenic stress and even less on our ability to detect such responses in advance. By simulating mutualistic communities en route to a tipping point, we show how critical slowing-down indicators may be used as early warnings for the collapse of ecological networks. Our findings not only confirm the existence of the generic dynamical signatures of tipping points in ecological networks but also suggest a promising way for identifying ...

 

Mapping ecosystem service supply, demand and budgets

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 21 (October 2012), pp. 17-29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.06.019

Abstract

[Abstract] Among the main effects of human activities on the environment are land use and resulting land cover changes. Such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to the human society. This supply of multiple goods and services by nature should match the demands of the society, if self-sustaining human–environmental systems and a sustainable utilization of natural capital are to be achieved. To describe respective states and dynamics, appropriate indicators and data for their quantification, including quantitative ...

 

Identifying and modelling environmental indicators for assessing population vulnerability to conflict using ground and satellite data

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 10, No. 2. (23 March 2010), pp. 493-503, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.09.002

Abstract

Conflicts may be directly responsible for the modification of features in the landscape by causing damage to built-up areas or to the environment. Landscape features may also be indirectly affected by conflict as the result of changes in the way of life of inhabitants and their use of natural resource. Conflict-induced changes in landuse features may thus be associated with changes in population vulnerability. This study focuses on the environmental indicators for population vulnerability, an important parameter contributing to risk assessment ...

 

A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability

  
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 28, No. 4-5. (May 2008), pp. 286-311, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2007.09.002

Abstract

The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. However sustainability assessment is still not a mature framework ...

 

Developing a forest naturalness indicator for Europe - Concept and methodology for a high nature value forest indicator

  
(2014)

Abstract

[Excerpt] European forests represent around 25% of world’s forests and are the result of complex interactions between man and environment over the last thousands of years. Over more than 200 years, the forest cover has steadily increased in Europe. Intensive afforestation and reforestation projects were started in many countries since the beginning of the 1800’ies as a response to the lack of timber resources. In more recent times, urban areas have increased determining a stronger pressure on natural and semi-natural environments. ...

References

  1. Anderson, J.E., 1991. A conceptual framework for evaluating and quantifying naturalness. Conservation Biology, 5 (1991), pp. 347–352.
  2. Andersen, E., Baldock, D., Bennett, H., Beaufoy, G., Bignal, E., Brouwer, F., Elbersen, B., Eiden, G., Godeschalk, F., Jones, G., McCracken, D.I., Nieuwenhuizen, W., van Eupen, M., Hennekens, S. & Zervas, G., 2003. Developing a high nature value indicator. Report for the European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.
  3. Angermeier, P.L. 2000. The natural imperative for
 

A Preliminary Assessment of Montréal Process Indicators of Forest Fragmentation for the United States

  
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment In Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 91, No. 1-3. (2004), pp. 257-276, https://doi.org/10.1023/b:emas.0000009240.65355.92

Abstract

As part of the U.S. 2003 National Report on Sustainable Forests, four metrics of forest fragmentation – patch size, edge amount, inter-patch distance, and patch contrast – were measured within 137 744 non-overlapping 5625 ha analysis units on land-cover maps derived from satellite imagery for the 48 conterminous States. The perimeter of a typical forest patch is about 100 m from the perimeter of its nearest neighbor, except when there is not much forest, in which case that distance is 200 ...

 

Establishing Environmental Sustainability Thresholds and Indicators

  
(November 2010)

Abstract

[Introduction] The study and monitoring of environmental thresholds is of increasing relevance for policy makers as human production and consumption activities put rising transformative pressure on the world’s natural resources and ecosystems. Many of these natural systems can withstand disruption only up to a certain threshold (or “tipping point”) beyond which ecological discontinuities with socially, economically and environmentally unacceptable and possibly irreversible consequences are likely to occur.1 To avoid such consequences, it is important to identify where such thresholds might exist ...

 

IEEE statement on correct use of bibliometrics

  
IEEE PSPB Quarterly Newsletter, Vol. 6, No. 3. (October 2013), 1

Abstract

[excerpt] An increasing number of voices in the scientific community have recently expressed concerns on the inappropriate use of journal bibliometric indicators — mainly the well-known Impact Factor (IF). More specifically, they are being used as a proxy: (a) to judge the impact of a single paper published in a journal; (b) to evaluate the scientific impact of a scientist for hiring, tenure, promotion, salary increase and even project evaluations. As is well documented in the bibliometric literature, journal bibliometric indicators are simply not ...

 

Classification of Natural and Semi-natural Vegetation

  
In Vegetation Ecology (07 January 2013), pp. 28-70, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118452592.ch2

Abstract

This chapter covers classification of natural and semi-natural vegetation, including classification frameworks, components of classification, project planning and data acquisition, data preparation and integration, community entitation, cluster assessment, community characterization and determination, classification integration, documentation, and future directions and challenges. ...

 

A free and open source programming library for landscape metrics calculations

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 31 (May 2012), pp. 131-140, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.10.009

Abstract

Landscape metrics are used in a wide range of environmental studies such as land use change and land degradation studies, soil erosion and run-off predictions, management of hunting communities, and strategic planning for environmental management, to name just a few. Due to their utility for a variety of applications, there are many indices and software packages that have been designed to provide calculations and analysis of landscape structure patterns in categorical maps. With the purpose of making a comparison between the ...

 

Interactions between landcover pattern and geospatial processing methods: Effects on landscape metrics and classification accuracy

  
Ecological Complexity, Vol. 15 (September 2013), pp. 71-82, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecocom.2013.03.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Landscape spatial pattern and geospatial processing methods interact. [::] They affect landscape metrics and classification accuracy. [::] The geospatial processing methods tested were aggregation method and pixel size. [::] Absolute values of landscape metrics should be interpreted with caution. [::] Rankings of landscapes differences were consistent for the same processing methods. [Abstract] Landscape spatial pattern and geospatial processing methods interact. They affect landscape metrics and classification accuracy. The geospatial processing methods tested were aggregation method and pixel size. Absolute values of landscape metrics should be interpreted ...

 

Assessing Viability and Sustainability: a Systems-based Approach for Deriving Comprehensive Indicator Sets

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), 12+

Abstract

Performance assessment in holistic approaches such as integrated natural resource management has to deal with a complex set of interacting and self-organizing natural and human systems and agents, all pursuing their own "interests" while also contributing to the development of the total system. Performance indicators must therefore reflect the viability of essential component systems as well as their contributions to the viability and performance of other component systems and the total system under study. A systems-based derivation of a comprehensive set ...

 

Research to Integrate Productivity Enhancement, Environmental Protection, and Human Development

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), 32+

Abstract

To meet the challenges of poverty and environmental sustainability, a different kind of research will be needed. This research will need to embrace the complexity of these systems by redirecting the objectives of research toward enhancing adaptive capacity, by incorporating more participatory approaches, by embracing key principles such as multi-scale analysis and intervention, and by the use of a variety of tools (e.g., systems analysis, information management tools, and impact assessment tools). Integration will be the key concept in the new ...

 

Conservation Ecology: Assessing the performance of natural resource systems

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), 22+

Abstract

Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets ...

 

An a posteriori measure of network modularity

  

Abstract

Measuring modularity is important to understand the structure of networks, and has an important number of real-world implications. However, several measures exists to assess the modularity, and give both different modularity values and different modules composition. In this article, I propose an a posteriori measure of modularity, which represents the ratio of interactions between members of the same modules vs. members of different modules. I apply this measure to a large dataset of 290 ecological networks, to show that it gives ...

 

Biodiversity Evaluation Tools for European Forests

  
In Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management at the Forest Management Unit Level, No. 38. (2001)

Abstract

The EU project ’Indicators for monitoring and evaluation of forest biodiversity in Europe BEAR’, initiated in 1998, is a pan-European concerted action, bringing together expertise from 27 European research organisations to build a framework for the development of forest biodiversity indicators at various spatial scales. A report from the project ’Biodiversity Evaluation Tools for European Forests’ is in preparation. In this paper the main achievements of BEAR are summarised: (1) agreement on a common scheme of key factors of biodiversity applicable to European forests; (2) identifying European-level ...

 

The geographical relationships of British and Irish vascular plants

  
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 124, No. 1. (May 1997), pp. 1-120, https://doi.org/10.1006/bojl.1996.0084

Abstract

Classifications of British and Irish vascular plants into floristic elements are reviewed. Only H.C. Watson and J.R. Matthews have attempted to devise a more or less comprehensive classification, based on the British range of the species (Watson) or the European distribution (Matthews). A new classification of 1481 native species is presented, based on their range in the Northern Hemisphere. Species are classified by their occurrence in one or more major biomes (Arctic, Boreal, Temperate, Southern) and their longitudinal distribution (Oceanic, Suboceanic, ...

 

Sustainability Indicators: Measuring the Immeasurable?

  
(25 April 2008)

Abstract

The groundbreaking first edition of Sustainability Indicators reviewed the development and value of sustainability indicators and discussed the advantage of taking a holistic and qualitative approach rather than focusing on strictly quantitative measures. In the new edition the authors bring the literature up to date and show that the basic requirement for a systemic approach is now well grounded in the evidence. They examine the origins and development of Systemic Sustainability Analysis (SSA) as a theoretical approach to sustainability which has been ...

 

Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 1, No. 1. (August 2001), pp. 3-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-160x(01)00003-6

Abstract

Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the environment, or to diagnose the cause of an environmental problem. Ideally the suite of indicators should represent key information about structure, function, and composition of the ecological system. Three concerns hamper the use of ecological indicators as a resource management tool. (1) Monitoring programs often depend on a small number of indicators and fail to consider the full complexity ...

 

Indicators for mapping ecosystem services: a review

  
No. EUR 25456. (2012), https://doi.org/10.2788/41823

Abstract

Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems, such as food provisioning, water regulating and provisioning, soil productivity, and use of natural areas for recreation. The current challenge is to mainstream ecosystem services into policies and practices in order to ensure the continuous provision of these benefits to humans. The European Union has adopted an EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2020 in which the target of safeguarding ecosystem services is explicitly included. One crucial step to account for ecosystem services ...

 

Indicators of ecosystem service potential at European scales: Mapping marginal changes and trade-offs

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 21 (October 2012), pp. 39-53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.09.004

Abstract

This study develops an approach to mapping indicators of the potential of ecosystems to supply ecosystem services, and the impact of changes in land cover and use upon them. The study focuses on the EU-25 plus Switzerland and Norway, and develops the methodology proposed by Kienast et al. (2009), which uses expert-and literature-driven modelling methods. The methods are explored in relation to mapping and assessing four of the ecosystem services: “Crop-based production”; “Wildlife products”; “Habitat diversity”; and “Recreation”. The potential to ...

 

Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines

  
Science, Vol. 328, No. 5982. (28 May 2010), pp. 1164-1168, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1187512

Abstract

In 2002, world leaders committed, through the Convention on Biological Diversity, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species’ population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent and condition, and community composition) showed declines, with no significant recent reductions in rate, whereas indicators of pressures on biodiversity (including resource consumption, invasive alien species, nitrogen pollution, overexploitation, and climate ...

 

Development of agri-environmental indicators for monitoring the integration of environmental concerns into the common agricultural policy SEC(2006) 1136

  
No. COM(2006) 508 final. (September 2006)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Guiding principles - Sustainable forest management and the multifunctional role of forests, delivering multiple goods and services in a balanced way and ensuring forest protection; - Resource efficiency, optimising the contribution of forests and the forest sector to rural development, growth and job creation. - Global forest responsibility, promoting sustainable production and consumption of forest products. Europe has a long tradition of sustainable forest management, which is reflected in the FOREST EUROPE principles applied by Member States’ policies and supported ...

 

Indicators for the integration of environmental concerns into the common agricultural policy

  
No. COM(2000) 20 final. (January 2000)
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