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Selection: with tag hydrology [33 articles] 

 

Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10572-10577, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1712381114

Abstract

[Significance] Knowledge of plant rooting depth is critical to understanding plant-mediated global change. Earth system models are highly sensitive to this particular parameter with large consequences for modeled plant productivity, water–energy–carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and silicate weathering regulating multimillion-year-timescale carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Accidental discoveries of >70-m-deep roots in wells and >20-m-deep roots in caves offer glimpses of the enormous plasticity of root response to its environment, but the ...

 

Downscaling future climate scenarios to fine scales for hydrologic and ecological modeling and analysis

  
Ecological Processes In Ecological Processes, Vol. 1, No. 1. (2012), pp. 2-15, https://doi.org/10.1186/2192-1709-1-2

Abstract

[Introduction] Evaluating the environmental impacts of climate change on water resources and biological components of the landscape is an integral part of hydrologic and ecological investigations, and the resultant land and resource management in the twenty-first century. Impacts of both climate and simulated hydrologic parameters on ecological processes are relevant at scales that reflect the heterogeneity and complexity of landscapes. At present, simulations of climate change available from global climate models [GCMs] require downscaling for hydrologic or ecological applications. [Methods] Using statistically ...

 

Hydrological impact of forest fires and climate change in a Mediterranean basin

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 66, No. 2. (2013), pp. 609-628, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0503-z

Abstract

Forest fire can modify and accelerate the hydrological response of Mediterranean basins submitted to intense rainfall: during the years following a fire, the effects on the hydrological response may be similar to those produced by the growth of impervious areas. Moreover, climate change and global warming in Mediterranean areas can imply consequences on both flash flood and fire hazards, by amplifying these phenomena. Based on historical events and post-fire experience, a methodology to interpret the impacts of forest fire in terms ...

 

Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: will area burned increase in a warming western U.S.?

  
Ecological Applications (August 2016), https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1420

Abstract

Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across ...

 

Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...

References

  1. ARPA Lombardia. Servizio Idrografico. http://idro.arpalombardia.it/pmapper-4.0/map.phtml .
  2. ASR Lombardia (2014). Valori medi dei terreni agricoli in Provincia di Cremona - Regione agraria. http://www.asr-lombardia.it/ASR/lombardia-e-province/agricoltura/produzione-agricola-zootecnia-e-risultati-economici/tavole/890/2014/ .
  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). http://www.adbpo.it/on-multi/ADBPO/Home/Pianificazione/Pianistralcioapprovati/PianostralcioperlAssettoIdrogeologicoPAI.html .
  5. Autorità di bacino del
 

Wildfire-related debris flow from a hazards perspective

  
In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 363-385, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27129-5_15

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Wildland fire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Consumption of the rainfall-intercepting canopy and of the soil-mantling litter and duff, intensive drying of the soil, combustion of soil-binding organic matter, and the enhancement or formation of water-repellent soils can change the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, leading to decreased rainfall infiltration, subsequent significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil (e.g., Swanson, 1981; Spittler, 1995; Doerr et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; ...

 

Investigating the effects of large wood and forest management on flood risk and flood hydrology

  

Abstract

The changes to catchment scale flood risk following river restoration works, including the addition of large wood logjams to the channel, are poorly quantified in the literature. Key concerns following river restoration for river managers and other stakeholders are changes to flood hydrology at the reach and catchment scale and changes in the mobility of large wood pieces. The effects of accumulations of large wood (logjams) on local flood hydrology have been documented in the literature, showing logjams slow flood wave ...

 

Collapse of the world's largest herbivores

  
Science Advances, Vol. 1, No. 4. (01 May 2015), pp. e1400103-e1400103, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400103

Abstract

Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 17

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: humidity   humus   hungary   hura-crepitans   hybrid-poplars   hybridisation   hydraulic-conductivity   hydraulic-properties   hydrogeology   hydrology   hydropower-energy   hylastes-cunicularius   hylobius-abietis   hylurgops-palliatus   hymenaea-courbaril   hymenoscyphus-pseudoalbidus   hyper-heuristics   hyphantria-cunea   hypoglycin-a   hypoxylon-mediterraneum   hypsipyla-robusta   iatrogenic-problem   iberian-peninsula   iberian-region   ica   ice-cover   ice-sheet   iceland   idl   ieee   iland   ilarvirus   ilex-aquifolium   ilex-spp   illyrian   ilwis   image-processing-analysis   impact   impact-factor   impacts   impatiens-spp   importance   in-situ-conservation   in-vitro-culture   inaction   inbreeding   incompatibility   incomplete-knowledge   incongruity   india   indian-ocean   indicator-species   indicators   indices   individual-emissions   indonedia   industry   inequality   infiltration   information   information-systems   information-technology-benefits   infrastructure   initial-conditions   innovation   inrmm   inrmm-list-of-tags   inrmm-relationship-schemata   insect-outbreak   insect-outbreaks   insect-resistance   insects   inspire   instability   insurance   integral-modelling   integral-quality-index   integrated-biodiversity-observation-system   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integrated-water-resources-management   integration-constraints   integration-techniques   intelligence   inter-specific-crossing   interactions   interception-capacity   interdisciplinary-research   interglacial   international-trade   interoperability   interval-analysis   interview   intra-specific-crossing   intractable-problem   intraspecific-differentiation   intraspecific-variation   introduction   introgression  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Multiaged forest stands for protection forests: Concepts and applications

  
Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 45-55

Abstract

Multiaged stands have two or more age classes that are the result of partial natural and anthropogenic disturbances that do not destroy all trees in a stand. Multiaged stands represent a more static structure than comparable even-aged stands because they fluctuate in a narrower range of variability in stand structure over time. For protection forests, potential benefits of multiaged stands are their resistance and resilience to disturbances. Resistance comes from the capacity to withstand or avoid disturbance effects. A variety of ...

 

The role of forests in reducing hydrogeomorphic hazards

  
Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 11-22

Abstract

Increasingly, forests are being valued for goods and services beyond wood fibre; one of these is protection forests. Functions provided by natural and managed forests have been associated with reduced hazards from floods, debris floods, debris flows, snow avalanches and rockfalls. Maintaining a high level of protection may require active management, as forests are dynamic and the protection capabilities are strongly determined by forest condition. The nature of protection provided varies depending upon the hazard processes and pathways, and the relative ...

 

Planted forests and water in perspective

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 251, No. 1-2. (October 2007), pp. 1-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.06.010

Abstract

Afforestation is increasingly considered as a land use activity that threatens water resources security. At the same time, it is advocated for a wide range of other water-related benefits. We review the contributions to this special issue and the wider literature, intended as a contribution towards a framework for predicting the impact on water resources and other water-related issues of afforestation in agricultural landscapes. Current evidence suggests that afforestation will typically reduce local average water yield as well as low flows. ...

 

GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository

  
Geophysical Research Abstracts In European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2013, Vol. 17 (2015), 8314

Abstract

Geographical Information System (GIS) is known for its capacity to spatially enhance the management of natural resources. While being often used as an analytical tool, it also represents a collaborative scientific platform to develop new algorithms. Thus, it is critical that GIS software as well as the algorithms are open and accessible to anybody [18]. We present how GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists to implement and perform geoprocessing tasks. We will show how integrating scientific algorithms into ...

References

  1. Baker, W.L., Cai, Y., 1992. The r.le programs for multiscale analysis of landscape structure using the GRASS geographical information system. Landscape Ecology 7(4), 291-302.
  2. Cannata M., Marzocchi R., 2012. Two-dimensional dam break flooding simulation: a GIS embedded approach. Natural Hazards 61(3), 1143-1159.
  3. Chemin, Y.H., 2012. A Distributed Benchmarking Framework for Actual ET Models. In Evapotranspiration - Remote Sensing and Modeling, Intech (Eds).
  4. Chemin, Y.H., 2014.
 

GRASS GIS manual: r.watershed

  
In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2014)

Abstract

r.watershed - Calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors. ...

 

Linking climate change modelling to impacts studies: recent advances in downscaling techniques for hydrological modelling

  
International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 27, No. 12. (October 2007), pp. 1547-1578, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1556

Abstract

There is now a large published literature on the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling methods for different climatic variables, in different regions and seasons. However, little attention is given to the choice of downscaling method when examining the impacts of climate change on hydrological systems. This review paper assesses the current downscaling literature, examining new developments in the downscaling field specifically for hydrological impacts. Sections focus on the downscaling concept; new methods; comparative methodological studies; the modelling of extremes; and the ...

 

Runoff simulation with eight different flow accumulation algorithms: Recommendations using a spatially distributed and open-source model

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 62 (December 2014), pp. 11-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.08.025

Abstract

Flow accumulation algorithms (FAAs) predict the cumulative upstream drainage but each FAA generates a different map and this uncertainty still remains unsolved. This study makes advances in flow path research by testing 8 FAAs and analyzing the uncertainties of 15 simulations. The DR2-2013© SAGAv1.0 hydrological software is presented in a study carried out for two catchment lakes (NE Spain) over a 69-month test period. The best simulations were obtained with two single flow (Rho8 and Deterministic Infinity) and two multiple flow ...

 

Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control

  
Ecological Applications, Vol. 10, No. 3. (June 2000), pp. 689-710, https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:bicegc]2.0.co;2

Abstract

Biotic invaders are species that establish a new range in which they proliferate, spread, and persist to the detriment of the environment. They are the most important ecological outcomes from the unprecedented alterations in the distribution of the earth's biota brought about largely through human transport and commerce. In a world without borders, few if any areas remain sheltered from these immigrations. The fate of immigrants is decidedly mixed. Few survive the hazards of chronic and stochastic forces, and only a small ...

 

Climate change and oak growth decline: Dendroecology and stand productivity of a Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) old stored coppice in Central Italy

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 67, No. 7. (2010), pp. 706-706, https://doi.org/10.1051/forest%2f2010031

Abstract

[::] We combined stem volume increment analysis with dendroecological tools to address two unresolved issues concerning oak dieback in Mediterranean areas: early detection of changes in stand growth, and identification of mechanisms for observed growth declines. [::] We reconstructed productivity of a stored coppice formed by Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) to test if its growth decline was linked to climatic variability, while also accounting for age-related and sociological factors. [::] Drought in May–June and in prior-year late summer-autumn was negatively ...

 

Can we model the hydrological impacts of environmental change?

  
Hydrological Processes, Vol. 21, No. 23. (1 November 2007), pp. 3233-3236, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6873

Abstract

Natural and anthropogenic changes constantly impact the environment surrounding us. Available moisture and energy change due to variability and shifts in climate, and the separation of precipitation into different pathways on the land surface are altered due to wildfires, beetle infestations, urbanization, deforestation, invasive plant species, etc. Many of these changes can have a significant impact on the hydrological regime of the watershed in which they occur (e.g. DeWalle et al., 2000; Porporato et al., 2004; Milly et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2005; Poff et al., 2006; Oki ...

 

Comparing and combining physically-based and empirically-based approaches for estimating the hydrology of ungauged catchments

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 508 (January 2014), pp. 227-239, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.11.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Methods for estimating various hydrological indices at ungauged sites were compared. [::] Methods included a TopNet rainfall-runoff model and a Random Forest empirical model. [::] TopNet estimates were improved through correction using Random Forest estimates. [::] Random Forests provided the best estimates of all indices except mean flow. [::] Mean flow was best estimated using an already published empirical method. [Summary] Predictions of hydrological regimes at ungauged sites are required for various purposes such as setting environmental flows, assessing availability of water resources or ...

 

Interactive comment on “Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science?” by C. Harman and P.A. Troch

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussion, Vol. 10 (2013), pp. C3324-C3325
Keywords: epistemology   hydrology  

Abstract

This paper (Harman and Troch, 2013) is a well-­‐structured and generally clear presentation that is also well referenced in regard to what I take to be the current paradigm for hydrological science. Because the paper is largely philosophical in nature, the usual criteria for the review original scientific research results are not applicable, so instead emphasis will be placed on philosophical commentary. Philosophy can be defined as the raising of questions about concepts that are generally presumed without question when going ...

 

A proposed method for modelling the hydrologic response of catchments to burning with the use of remote sensing and GIS

  
CATENA, Vol. 70, No. 3. (August 2007), pp. 396-409, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2006.11.008

Abstract

Forest fires can have significant effects on the hydrological response of catchments, resulting in many cases in severe land degradation, flooding and soil erosion. These post-fire hazards often cause extensive damage to public and private property and urban infrastructure, thus carefully planned and designed mitigation activities are required for reducing their magnitude. This study presents a method for the quantitative estimation and mapping of post-fire erosion and runoff, which can provide the basis for the planning of these mitigation activities. Within ...

 

Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

  
Hydrological Processes, Vol. 28, No. 13. (30 June 2014), pp. 4067-4077, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9947

Abstract

Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing ...

 

A compilation of data on European flash floods

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 367, No. 1-2. (March 2009), pp. 70-78, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.12.028

Abstract

Flash floods are one of the most significant natural hazards in Europe, causing serious risk to life and destruction of buildings and infrastructure. This type of flood, often affecting ungauged watersheds, remains nevertheless a poorly documented phenomenon. To address the gap in available information, and particularly to assess the possible ranges for peak discharges on watersheds with area smaller than 500 km2 and to describe the geography of the hazard across Europe, an intensive data compilation has been carried out for ...

 

Characterisation of selected extreme flash floods in Europe and implications for flood risk management

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 394, No. 1-2. (17 November 2010), pp. 118-133, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.07.017

Abstract

High-resolution data enabling identification and analysis of the hydrometeorological causative processes of flash floods have been collected and analysed for 25 extreme flash floods (60 drainage basins, ranging in area from 9.5 to 1856 km2) across Europe. Most of the selected floods are located in a geographical belt crossing Europe from western Mediterranean (Catalunia and southwestern France) to Black Sea, covering northern Italy, Slovenia, Austria, Slovakia and Romania. Criteria for flood selection were high intensity of triggering rainfall and flood response and ...

 

GRASS GIS manual: r.watershed

  
In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.0.0svn Reference Manual (2014)

Abstract

r.watershed - Calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors. ...

 

Evolution and selection of river networks: Statics, dynamics, and complexity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 7. (18 February 2014), pp. 2417-2424, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322700111

Abstract

[Significance] Our focus is on a rich interdisciplinary problem touching on earth science, hydrology, and statistical mechanics—an understanding of the statics and dynamics of the network structures that we observe in the fluvial landscape, and their relation to evolution and selection of recurrent patterns of self-organization. It is an exemplar of how diverse ideas, numerical simulation, and elementary mathematics can come together to help solve the mystery of understanding a ubiquitous pattern of nature. [Abstract] Moving from the exact result that ...

 

Investing in irrigation: Reviewing the past and looking to the future

  
Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 97, No. 4. (22 April 2010), pp. 551-560, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.07.012

Abstract

This article gives a brief review of the development and current situation in global irrigation, and looks at the drivers affecting irrigation performance, development and modernization. The article concludes that the options for new developments are limited, and that future investment will need to be more precisely targeted to specific niches in different agroecological and economic contexts. The paper notes the powerful implications of global climatic change on irrigation through changes in hydrology and water supply that, in conjunction with (1) ...

 

Flood management in a complex river basin with a real-time decision support system based on hydrological forecasts

  
Vol. 48, No. EPFL-BOOK-172964. (2011)

Abstract

In alpine valleys with strong urban development, river training works for flood safety become more and more difficult to implement because of economic and environmental constraints. Thus flood management has a great importance especially in river basins equipped with storage power plants having a large retention potential. To reduce the flood risk in the Upper Rhone River basin in the Cantons of Vaud and Valais, the MINERVE flood forecast system was developed. It aims an optimized flood management by taking advantage ...

 

Impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns in northern Italy

  
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No. D12. (19 June 2008), https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd009157

Abstract

Using spectral and statistical analyses of discharges and basin average precipitation rates acquired over the Po River since the early 1800s, we investigate the impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns over northern Italy. Wet and dry periods appear to alternate in accordance with polarized sunspot cycles. Intriguingly, a solar signature on Po River discharges is detected to be highly significant since the late 1800s, before the onset of sunspots hyperactivity established by the middle 1900s. In particular, ...

 

Effects of fire severity and burn patchiness on hillslope-scale surface runoff, erosion and hydrologic connectivity in a prescribed burn

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 310 (December 2013), pp. 219-233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.016

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Sediment loads were ∼1000 times higher on burnt compared with unburnt hillslopes. [::] Runoff and erosion rates were relatively similar on low and high fire severity hillslopes. [::] Unburnt patches reduced sediment loads from upslope burnt areas by 1.3–99.9%. [::] Wider unburnt patches (5–10 m wide) limited hydrologic connectivity most effectively. [::] Unburnt patches (>10 m wide) should be retained in prescribed burns to limit erosion. [Abstract] Fire severity and burn patchiness are frequently cited as important to post-fire surface runoff and erosion, yet few studies ...

 

Water forecasts

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (28 August 2013), pp. 765-765, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2005

Abstract

The effect of climate change on precipitation and flooding is of global concern. The strength of water movement through the hydrological cycle is influenced by climate change. Warming of the atmosphere increases its water-holding capacity — by approximately 7% per degree — which can increase the intensity of precipitation. This impact is expected to be seen predominantly in the tropics and high-latitude regions. Overall precipitation is also expected to increase in the tropics, and it is assumed that wet regions will ...

 

Innovative grassland management systems for environmental and livelihood benefits

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 21. (21 May 2013), pp. 8369-8374, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1208063110

Abstract

Grasslands occupy 40% of the world’s land surface (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) and support diverse groups, from traditional extensive nomadic to intense livestock-production systems. Population pressures mean that many of these grasslands are in a degraded state, particularly in less-productive areas of developing countries, affecting not only productivity but also vital environmental services such as hydrology, biodiversity, and carbon cycles; livestock condition is often poor and household incomes are at or below poverty levels. The challenge is to optimize management practices ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/hydrology

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.